Limbu-English Dictionary of the Mewa Khola dialect

Boyd Michailovsky

a
bound element
[interrogative].
occurs in: abhe, akkhe, asaːt, atti
a
pron prefix
my.
· iŋga a-dzumm-ɛn yo yaːktɛ — my friend stayed down below
a
sentence particle
[expresses reassurance, encourages an answer].
· nurik coguŋ piniŋ a — I'll do a good job for you [P], don't worry (so115)
· mɛːn! atti-n kɛ-buru a? — no! which one did you give it to? (so213)
· kɛn-gisin a khɛni ɛmbhɛllɛ — you [P] were not afraid then, you see (dan233)
abhe
interr/indef adv
how.
· abhe poksɛ-aŋ s'yɛ? — how did it happen that he died? (so26)
· abhe kɛ-lɔˀ? — how are you?
· abhe kɛ-lɔˀ! — what a phenomenon you are!
· abhe-ba — what kind of
occurs in: abhebhɛ, abhedaŋba, abh'yarik, abhɛllɛ etymology: a
abhebha
see: abhebhɛ
abhebhɛ
also: abhebha.
interr/indef adv
how.
· abhe abhebh'-ɛllɛ yaˀ=gɛ-raːkti? — how did you [P] paddy-dance? (dan53)
· abhebha kɛ-sɔŋsu kɔ? — On what terms ["how"] did you sell it?
etymology: abhe, phɛ, pha
abhedaŋba
interr/indef adj
what kind of.
· abhedaŋ-abhedaŋba mɛnch'ya-haˀ mɛ-wayɛ? — what kinds of women were there? (dan52)
etymology: abhe, taŋ
abhɛllɛ
interr/indef adv
when, since when.
· abhɛllɛ s'yɛ-ba? — when did it die? (so37)
· abhɛllɛsaŋ — always
etymology: abhe, ɛllɛ
abh'yarik
interr/indef adv
how much.
etymology: abhe, yarik
adziba
n
a tree, "camel's foot", whose flowers are prepared and eaten as a condiment
Bauhinia variegata
nepali:koirālo.
etymology: cinɔːk
aillamba
adv
this year.
cf.: ɛnniŋ etymology: ain
ain
adv
today.
occurs in: aillamba
aːk
adv onom.
burp.
· aːk lɔˀma — to burp
· aːk mɛtma — to burp
akkhe
also: akkhɛn.
interr/indef adv
how, how much.
· khɛni akkhe poksɛ-aŋ kɛ-nuːksi? — why ["how having happened"] did you [P] come back?
· akkhe muktɛ? — what time is it?
· ku-mɛn akkhɛn kɔ? — what is its price?
· akkhɛndɔŋ? — how many years?
occurs in: akkh'yarik
about, approximately [before a number].
· akkhɛn bāhra tehra barṣa yoraŋ — I was about 12 or 13. (naro1)
akkho
also: akkhok.
adv
later.
· akkho nurik mɛ-dzogun agɛ-mɛtti — later you'll [P] say about us [P] "they didn't do a good job" (so118)
akkh'yarik
also: akkhɛn-yarik.
interr/indef adv
how much.
· akkh'yarikk-ɛtyo kɛ-iŋu? — how much did you buy it for?
etymology: akkhe, yarik
akma

root:
akt
present stem:
ak
past stem:
akt.
vt
to put in, esp. to serve beer (by putting fermented Eleusine grains in a vessel ( tongbā)).
· aktɛ abɛrɛ! — serve us!
aːkma

root:
aːk
present stem:
aːk
past stem:
aːg.
vi
to be uprooted, to come up by the roots.
· a-hebu-n aːgɛ khɛrɛ — my tooth fell out
postfinal-related: aːk-/aːks-
aːkwa
n
crow.
aːkwa tiŋ'rekse
n
a berry ["crow raspberry"]
nepali:kāg aisyalu.
alla
also: allɔ.
adv
now.
· alla khɛpsammɛ! — now you [P] all listen! (so117)
allo
adv
soon, shortly.
aˀma

root:
aˀr
present stem:

past stem:
aˀr.
vd
to go sour (of beer), to spoil (of an orange), to turn (of milk).
ambɛ
n
mango.
aːmbhu
n
verandah, front porch.
amini
pn
Taplejung.
amma

root:
am
present stem:
am
past stem:
am.
vi
to be warmed (of a person before a fire).
postfinal-related: am-/ams-
amma

root:
ams
present stem:
am
past stem:
ams.
vt
to heat, to bake (esp. bread at the edge of the fire).
· mi-pmu amsu — he baked it in the fire
vr
to warm oneself (at a fire, in the sun).
postfinal-related: am-/ams-
aːmma

root:
aːps
present stem:
aːm
past stem:
aːps.
vt
to winnow (in a tray, up and sharply down).
anchi
pers pron
we [DI], our [DI].
· anchi cum a-boksɛsi mɛːnn-i? — we [DI] have become friends, no? (dan162)
anchigɛ
pers pron
we [DE], our [DE].
· anchigɛ sɛtma suksigɛ — we [DE] [a shaman couple] can kill it (so38)
andɛn
see: indɛn
ani
pers pron
we [PI], our [PI].
· ani him — our [PI] house
· the the cokma poŋ ani yakthumb'-ɛllɛ — what all do we [PI] Limbus have to do? (so10)
(Plural inclusive agreement is often used in an impersonal sense where English uses "one" or "you".)
anigɛ
pers pron
we [PE], our [PE].
· anigɛ him — our [PE] house
· anigɛ thikyaːl-lɛ toksumbɛ-b'-ɛn khɛni niyaːl-lɛ kɛ-doksum — what we [PE] plow in one day, you [P] plow in two days (dan266)
· tara khɛni kusiŋ aŋgɛn-niːttɛn anigɛ — but you [P] didn't even recognize us [PE]
also: yaŋ. (after a vowel)
part
also, with, even, at all (negative contexts).
than, from.
· khɔnn-aŋ yo khɔnn-aŋ tho mɛːn — neither more nor less than that (jari87)
· allɔ-aŋ tho — from now on
· tɔŋbe nɛtchi-aŋ paːkma — junior by two years
[adverbial].
· nurikk-aŋ — well
occurs in: egaŋ, tɔgaŋ
v suffix (suffixed to finite forms)
[conjoining subordinator; the sense is sequential "having V" or simultaneous "while Ving"].
· kɛŋɛ-aŋ s'yɛ — he fell and died (so8)
· mɛdhoktu-aŋ mɛsɛru — they killed it by cooking it; they cooked it and killed it (sob15)
· thi-lɛ yoru-aŋ wayɛ — he had had his fill of beer (so27)
· haːbɛ-aŋ (yuŋ)ɛ — he sat weeping (so207)
· atti kɛyuksum-aŋ (yuŋ)? — Where have you put it? (so154)
(forms perfect or progressive tenses with copular or position verbs)
aːŋ
also: aːŋsiŋ.
n
pine.
aŋga
see: iŋga
aːŋma

root:
aːks
present stem:
aːŋ
past stem:
aːks.
vt
to uproot, to pull out.
postfinal-related: aːk-/aːks-
ap
preverb
cf.: lap occurs in: ap=tema, ap=phuma
apma

root:
ap
present stem:
ap
past stem:
ab.
vt
to shoot.
· tɔŋŋ-ɛllɛ abu kɔrɔ — when he shot the arrow (kana28)
aːpma

root:
aːpt
present stem:
aːp
past stem:
aːpt.
vi
to be rough (of a surface).
ap=phuma
also: lap=phuma
root:
phus
present stem:
phu
past stem:
phus.
vt
to throw, to throw away.
ap=tema
also: lap=tema
root:
tes
present stem:
te
past stem:
tes.
vt
to throw, to throw away.
etymology: tema
asaːt
interr/indef pron
who.
· asaːt-chi mɛ-waˀ? — who all is there?
· asaːtt-aŋ — no one
cf.: haːt
asen
adv
a few days ago, long ago.
· asen asen ni laba ŋasi tuksi kɛ-yo-ba — (if it is) from way back, if it is four or five months old... (so39)
asɛn
adv
yesterday.
· asɛn siŋyaːn — yesterday or the day before
etymology: sɛndik (The Panchthar form mepma is not used in the Maiwa-Mewa area -- but cf. metliŋ 'last year'.)
aːt=lɔkma
also: aːʔ=lɔkma
root:
lɔkt
present stem:
lɔk
past stem:
lɔkt.
vt
to cut in sections
nepali:geḍnu.
· aːt=lɔktumbɛ khɔmbhɛ aːttumbɛ-llɛ kɔ — we [PE] cut them into sections, when we had felled them (nup24)
aːt
also: aːʔ.
preverb
occurs in: aːt=lɔkma
aːtma
also: aːpma
root:
aːtt
present stem:
aːt
past stem:
aːtt.
vt
to cut (sth. vertical) (e.g. a tree, so.'s throat).
· siŋ aːttumbɛ-aŋ kɔ kɛŋsumbɛ — we [PE] cut down trees and rolled them down (nup6)
atti
interr/indef pron
which, whichever.
· ɛn cāroṭā-lɛ atti-n ta? — which of the four is it?
· atti luŋŋ-ɛn thaktuŋ? — which rock should I bring up?
· atti-llɛ ku- sor-ɛn nu, khann-ɛl-lɔt … o=mɛ-mɛttusi — whichever ones have nice voices, those are the only ones they look at (dan83)
interr/indef adv
where, somewhere.
· kha kɛ-si-b'-ɛllɛ ku-ŋg'wa-rɛ ku-him atti kɔ? — where is the house of the victim's uncle? (so106)
· atti puruŋŋ-aŋ waˀ — I've given it away somewhere (so214)
attɛtti
also: atti-atti.
see: atti
ca
n
food, grain.
· a-mumu-ba ca-haˀ — poisons ["foods that poison us [PI]"]
preverb
occurs in: ca=ramma, ca=ramma
caboŋ
n
popped rice, puffed rice.
cairɛk
n
various sumac trees
Rhus wallichii
Rhus parviflora
nepali:kāgbhalāyo.
cakma

root:
cak
present stem:
cak
past stem:
cag.
vt
to strike, to knock away.
· laŋŋ-ɛllɛ cakma — to kick away
cakma

root:
cakt
present stem:
cak
past stem:
cakt.
vt
to dress (so.), to put clothing on (so.).
postfinal-related: cakt-/caks-
caːkma

root:
caːk
present stem:
caːk
past stem:
caːg.
vt
to cross, to swim across (e.g. a river).
· ɔrɔkk-ɛn caːgu-aŋ pe — he swam across the river
occurs in: wa=dzaːkma
caknam
see: caŋnam
caːkwa
also: caːʔwa.
n
a ford.
etymology: caːkma
cama

root:
ca
present stem:
ca
past stem:
c'
past stem:
c'y
past stem:
co.
vt (contr)
to eat.
· caŋ — I ate
· co — he eats, he ate
· cɛ! — eat!
· iŋga c'yaŋŋɛ, khɛnɛ! — eat me up! (kana22)
to consume, to take, to suffer.
· kɛ-dhe-aŋ mɛn-dza-ɛ wayigɛ — we [PE] haven't taken anything of yours (so250)
· kubhɛrɛk khunɛ co — he took half [as a fee]
· khɛnɛ dukkha kɛn-dzanɛn — you won't suffer misery (mari35)
occurs in: kudza postfinal-related: ca-/caːtt-
cama

root:
ca
present stem:
ca
past stem:
c'y.
vi
to play.
· caˀa — I will play
· c'yaŋ — I played
· kh'yoʔwa cama — to whistle
postfinal-related: ca-/caːtt-
caˀma

root:
caˀr
present stem:
caˀ
past stem:
caˀr.
vd
to be stained, to be soiled.
postfinal-related: caˀr-/caːnt-
caˀma

root:
caˀr
present stem:
caˀ
past stem:
caˀr.
vt
to warm oneself (at a source of heat).
· mi caˀrigɛ-aŋ yuŋigɛ — we [PE] stayed warming ouselves at the fire
· nam caˀma — to warm oneself in the sun
caˀma

root:
caˀr
present stem:
caˀ
past stem:
caˀr.
vi
to last, to be strong, to yield well (of crops), to be fertile (of a breeding animal).
cama-siŋse
n
vegetables.
etymology: cama, siŋse
caːmma

root:
caːnt
present stem:
caːn
past stem:
caːnd.
vt
to dye.
postfinal-related: caˀr-/caːnt-
caŋ
n
clothing.
occurs in: caŋ-waːn etymology: caŋma
caŋdhansiŋcaŋdhansiŋma
n
a plant
Mahonia napaulensis
nepali:cuthro.
caŋdzaŋba
adj
tall, long.
etymology: caŋma
caŋma

root:
caks
present stem:
caŋ
past stem:
caks.
vt
to wear, to put on.
· tet caksumbɛ — we [PE] put on clothes
· caŋwaːn nu-ba kɛ-dzaŋ-ba — who dress up nicely (dan78)
postfinal-related: cakt-/caks-
caŋma

root:
caŋs
present stem:
caŋ
past stem:
caŋs.
vt
to erect, to straighten sth. vertically; to cause an erection.
etymology: caŋdzaŋba
caːŋma

root:
caːks
present stem:
caːŋ
past stem:
caːks.
vt
to stir by scooping up and pouring back (esp. beer; also a method of separating ghee).
caŋnam
n
blouse-tie
nepali:tuno.
dialect: caknam etymology: caŋ, nam
caːŋwa pima

root:
pi
present stem:
pi
past stem:
piy.
vt
to patch a mud wall, to replaster, to smear ashes on the bottom of a pot to keep soot off.
caŋ-waːn
n
clothes and ornaments.
· caŋ-waːn nu-ba kɛ-dzaŋ-ba — who dress up nicely (dan78)
caːppa
adj
clever.
ca=ramma

root:
ram
present stem:
ram
past stem:
ram.
vi
to graze (of animals).
postfinal-related: ca=ram-/ca=rams-
ca=ramma

root:
rams
present stem:
ram
past stem:
rams.
vt
to graze (animals).
postfinal-related: ca=ram-/ca=rams-
carɔːppa
n
a bread; the dough is rolled in a sausage-shape and cooked in the ashes of the fire.
etymology: lɔːppɛppa
car'pphɛmba
also: carapphɛmba.
n
butterfly.
maple.
catcat
adj
quick.
etymology: catma
catma
also: capma
root:
catt
present stem:
cat
past stem:
catt.
vi
to be quick, to hurry.
· kɛ-dzap-pa — fleet-footed
· cattigɛ-aŋ khann-ɛtyo lɔːndigɛ-aŋ kɔ — we [PE] hurried and came out down there, and ...
caːtma
also: caːpma
root:
caːtt
present stem:
caːt
past stem:
caːtt.
vt
to feed.
· niŋbɔːt caːttu-aŋ sɛru — he fed it poison and killed it (so331)
postfinal-related: ca-/caːtt-
caːtma
also: caːpma
root:
caːtt
present stem:
caːt
past stem:
caːtt.
vt
to shoot, to throw (in games).
postfinal-related: ca-/caːtt-
cawa
n
rice-water.
etymology: cama, wa
ce
n
corpse, bier.
cedhaːp
n
bier.
ceŋya
adv
manner of lying down, on the side.
· ceŋya nɛssɛ — he lay on his side
cɛkma

root:
cɛk
present stem:
cɛk
past stem:
cɛg.
vi
to break (in two, of sth. long).
cf.: ɛkma postfinal-related: cɛk-/sɛks- initial-related: cɛk-/sɛks-
cɛkma

root:
cɛkt
present stem:
cɛk
past stem:
cɛkt.
vt
to tell (so.), to say to.
occurs in: taˀ=dzɛkma, kudzɛk postfinal-related: cɛkt-/cɛks-
cɛmbi
n
soybean.
cɛmbigik
n
fermented and dried soybean condiment.
etymology: cɛmbi, kik
cɛːndziba
n
shin.
cɛŋma

root:
cɛks
present stem:
cɛŋ
past stem:
cɛks.
vt
to talk about, to gossip about.
· asen-ba khɔdakmi-rɛ kɔ abhe mɛ-dzɛksu? — what do the old-timers say about it? (dan125)
occurs in: taˀ=dzɛŋma postfinal-related: cɛkt-/cɛks-
cɛŋ'ribɔt
n
a plant
Eurya acuminata
nepali:jhiŋgane.
cɛːp
n
a purse-shaped bamboo basket for carrying chickens or piglets
nepali:pereŋgo.
cɛpma

root:
cɛpt
present stem:
cɛp
past stem:
cɛpt.
vt
to cut (esp. with a khukurī).
· pha cɛptumbɛ — we [PE] cut bamboo (nama10)
occurs in: cɛpsa, lab'-ɛllɛ cɛpma
cɛpsa
n
knife
nepali:khukurī.
etymology: cɛpma, sa
cɛsok
n
offering of first fruits.
cɛtcɛt
q
a little, rather.
· cɛtcɛt nu-ba — OK
cɛtcik
also: cɛtci.
q
a little, a bit.
· mɔna cɛtcik — a few people
· cɛtci yɔllik — a bit more (dan177)
etymology: ci
cɛtthiya
n
plate, dish.
cɛtya
also: cɛʔya.
n
house-fire.
ci
also: .
suffix, q
a few, a little.
· mɔna-dzi — a few people
· thi-dzi thuŋu — he had a little beer (so27)
prefix, q
a little, [comparative].
· ci-dhaːndak c'waːtt-ɛn thaŋɛ, ci-nanak lasigɛ — the water rose a little higher, we [PE] went in a little farther
· am-bi-b'-ɛn-nu lɛ ci-yɔm-ba pimasi poŋŋ-i? — we have to give them a little more than what they gave us, right? (dan159)
· ci-nuˀa — I'm a bit better
prefix, adv
[ suggests rapidity].
occurs in: cidɛp, cigɔk, cihuʔ, cillɛk, cinɛ, cirap
cidɛp
adv
manner of putting on a lid or cover.
· cidɛp tɛptu — he covered it tightly (so307)
etymology: ci, tɛpma
cigek
n
powder, dust, flour, semolina.
· maːkki cigek — fine semolina of maize
· yaˀ cigek — broken rice (in milling)
pimple, acne.
· mik cigek — eye mucus
cigɔk
adv
manner of saluting (by touching the forehead to so.'s feet).
· cigɔk sewā mɛttu — he bowed to him
etymology: ci, pɛgɔk
cihuʔ
adv
manner of delivering.
etymology: ci, huˀma
cik
adv
manner of blinking.
· cik im-mɛttu — he blinked
cikma

root:
cikt
present stem:
cik
past stem:
cikt.
vd
to shrink.
ciːkma

root:
ciːkt
present stem:
ciːk
past stem:
ciːkt.
vi
to become cool, cold.
· cuŋ ciːktɛ — he felt cold
vd
to get cold.
postfinal-related: ciːkt-/ciːks-
cikyakna
n
a variety of Eleusine
nepali:naŋgoṭe.
cillɛk
adv
manner of turning over.
nepali:ghopto.
etymology: ci, lɛŋma
cimbhin
n
a medicinal plant
Heracleum nepalense.
cimma

root:
cim
present stem:
cim
past stem:
cim.
see: sik=cimma
ciːn
n
a stomach illness attributed to witchcraft or poison.
cinɛ
adv
manner of pressing down, hard.
· tɛmsusi-aŋ kɔ cinɛ-aŋ cinɛ nɛːptusi — they [D] caught it and held it down firmly (so314)
etymology: ci, nɛːpma
cinɔːk
n
edible leaf-bud of a "camel's foot" tree
Bauhinia purpurea
nepali:ṭām̐kī.
etymology: adziba, nɔːk
ciŋciŋma
n
a tree; the white core of the wood is used by the phɛdaŋma
nepali:culetro.
ciŋghap
n
a near-chestnut
Castanopsis sp..
see: sighap
ciŋma

root:
ciks
present stem:
ciŋ
past stem:
ciks.
vt, vr
to hide (sth.).
· jati kɔttumbɛ-b'-ɛn tho ciksum-rɔ thambɛ jaṅgal-ɛttho — however much we [PE] had, we kept it hidden away up in the jungle
· nurik ciŋŋasinnɛ! — hide yourselves well!
ciːŋma

root:
ciːks
present stem:
ciːŋ
past stem:
ciːks.
vt
to spread to cool.
postfinal-related: ciːkt-/ciːks-
cipma

root:
cip
present stem:
cip
past stem:
cib.
vi
to be quiet, to stop (of rain).
· wahit cibɛ — The rain has stopped.
postfinal-related: cip-/cipt- initial-related: cip-/sips-
cipma

root:
cipt
present stem:
cip
past stem:
cipt.
vd
to stop (of rain).
postfinal-related: cip-/cipt- initial-related: cip-/sips-
ciːpma

root:
ciːpt
present stem:
ciːp
past stem:
ciːpt.
see: wa=dziːpma
ciragopma
see: siragopma
cira-goˀna
n
a plant
nepali:bukki-phul.
cirap
n
blink (of the eye).
· mik cirap mɛttu — he blinked his eyes
occurs in: mik cirappa
cirik
n
cloth.
cir'saŋna yaːn
n
a medicinal plant.
cita
interj
no!, stop!, don't!.
citliŋge
n
sieve.
ciːtma
also: ciːpma, cɛːtma
root:
ciːt
present stem:
ciːt
past stem:
ciːr.
vt
to slice, to cut into strips (esp. for drying).
· phaksa-n ciːrɛ! — cut the pork into strips
ciːtma
also: ciːpma
root:
ciːtt
present stem:
ciːt
past stem:
ciːtt.
vt
to hate, to despise, to be disgusted by.
· kɛ-dziːt-pa — severe
co
n
long tail-feathers of a cock (worn by shamans).
strips of bamboo.
· co phɔma — to weave strips of bamboo together
cok
also: cugok.
n
digit (finger or toe).
occurs in: laŋdzok, hukcok
cokma

root:
cok
present stem:
cok
past stem:
cog.
vi, vt
to do, to make, to act like, to be about to.
· the the cokma poŋ? — what all needs to be done? (so55)
· nu-ba cok — it is pretty
· keŋma kɛ-dzok-lo! — you'll fall!
· tɔːk cama dzogu — he's just about to eat
· khunchi cumluŋ mɛ-dzogɛ — they held [P] a meeting (so50)
cokhikpa
n
a bird, forktail
nepali:cibe.
etymology: co
coma

root:
cos
present stem:
co
past stem:
cos.
see: lɛn coma
comma

root:
cont
present stem:
con
past stem:
cond.
vi
to fall over (e.g. of a tree).
· siŋŋ-ɛn condɛ-aŋ nɛssɛ — there was a fallen tree lying there
initial-related: cont-/sont-
cowat
also: c'waːt.
n
water.
cɔbɛt
q
a little.
· cɔbɛt-ci — a little
cf.: cɔwɛːtchi
cɔkcɔk
adv
manner of forming droplets.
· hɔmb'rikwa cɔkcɔk lɔˀ-ro! — sweat will come out! (i.e. "it will be difficult")
· ku-mikwa cɔkcɔk lɔˀrik — his tears dripping down
cɔkma

root:
cɔkt
present stem:
cɔk
past stem:
cɔkt.
vt
to join, to tie together, to baste (e.g. leaves to make a plate).
cɔkmɛncha
n
great-grandchild.
cɔmma

root:
cɔm
present stem:
cɔm
past stem:
cɔm.
vt
to praise, to overpraise.
cɔmma

root:
cɔnt
present stem:
cɔn
past stem:
cɔnd.
vt
to push.
postfinal-related: cɔnt-/cɔtt-
cɔmma

root:
cɔps
present stem:
cɔm
past stem:
cɔps.
vt
to dry, to drain (the water in sth., e.g. by letting it run off, by boiling it, by drinking it).
postfinal-related: cɔp-/cɔpt-/cɔps-
cɔŋ
n
tip, new shoot (of a plant), ear (of grain).
cɔŋdzippa
n
a plant
Callicarpa macrophylla.
cɔŋdzippa iwat
n
a creeper
Clematis sp..
cɔːŋga
n
large spool.
cɔŋ'rɔŋ
also: cɔːŋg'rɔŋ, cɔːŋg'ro.
n
small basket (in Libang, a purse for a woman's valuables)
nepali:phurluŋ.
cɔːp
n
a cylindrical basket used in rituals.
cɔpcɔp
adv
manner of being dried up.
etymology: cɔpma
cɔpma

root:
cɔp
present stem:
cɔp
past stem:
cɔb.
vi
to dry up (of water in puddles, fields, rice after cooking); to die; to run out of money.
postfinal-related: cɔp-/cɔpt-/cɔps-
cɔpma

root:
cɔpt
present stem:
cɔp
past stem:
cɔpt.
vd
to dry out (e.g. of a field, of rice or curry in cooking).
· yummɛtt-ɛtmu c'waːtt-ɛn cɔptu — the dal got too dry
postfinal-related: cɔp-/cɔpt-/cɔps-
cɔppɛppa
adj
pointy-nosed.
cɔtma
also: cɔpma
root:
cɔtt
present stem:
cɔt
past stem:
cɔtt.
vt
to move (sth.).
· laŋ cɔttu — (the child) took his first steps
vr
to move, to make way.
· bākas-ɛtmu cɔtchiŋŋ-aŋ kɔ — moving over onto the box (so207)
postfinal-related: cɔnt-/cɔtt-
cɔwɛːtchi
q
a little.
etymology: cɔbɛt
cugok
also: cok.
n
finger, toe.
occurs in: laŋdzugok, hukcugok
cukma

root:
cukt
present stem:
cuk
past stem:
cukt.
vi
to land, to alight.
cukma

root:
cukt
present stem:
cuk
past stem:
cukt.
see: yaŋghek cukma
cuːkma

root:
cuːkt
present stem:
cuːk
past stem:
cuːkt.
vs
to be small.
· iŋga cuːktaŋŋ-ɛllɛ — when I was small
· cuːk-pa yakthum-ba paŋbhe thik nɛ — there is a small Limbu village
cukwa
n
right (side).
cum
n
friend.
· cum-dzum tɔŋmasi poŋ — all the friends have to agree among themselves (dan236)
etymology: cumma
cuˀma

root:
cuˀr
present stem:
cuˀ
past stem:
cuˀr.
vt
to make the pleats in a sari.
cumluŋ
n
meeting, council.
· khunchi cumluŋ mɛ-dzogɛ — they held [P] a meeting (so50)
· kappoba-nu kapmu khunchi cumluŋ cogɛsi — the old man and the old woman took counsel together
etymology: cumma
stone stele marking a meeting-place between villages.
(Possibly a folk etymology to explain both the sense 'meeting' and the existence of stone steles.)
cumma

root:
cups
present stem:
cum
past stem:
cups.
vi
to assemble (intr.), to gather.
· anigɛ kak cupsigɛ-aŋ cum-dzum cumluŋ cogigɛ — we [PE] all gathered and had a council among friends
occurs in: cum, cumluŋ initial-related: cups-/sups-
cundzumba
adj
soft.
cuŋ
n
cold.
· cuŋŋ-ɛllɛ puttu — he suffers from the cold
· cuŋŋ-ɛllɛ yɔksu — he shivered with cold
· iŋga cuŋ=siːktɛ — I'm cold
cf.: ciːkma occurs in: cuŋmurik
preverb
occurs in: cuŋ=siːkma
cuŋma

root:
cuŋ
present stem:
cuŋ
past stem:
cuŋ.
vi
to fight, to wrestle.
cuŋmurik
n
gooseflesh ["cold-hair"].
· ku-dzuŋmurik pogɛ — he got gooseflesh
cuŋ=siːkma

root:
cuŋ siːkt
present stem:
siːk
past stem:
siːkt.
vi (imps)
to feel cold.
· iŋga cuŋ=siːktɛ — I'm cold
cup
n
kiss.
· cup mɛtma — to kiss
cupma

root:
cup
present stem:
cup
past stem:
cub.
vi
to become filled in (e.g. of a pierced ear-lobe).
initial-related: cup-/sup-
cutcuba
n
child's sex organ.
cuːtma
also: cuːpma
root:
cuːt
present stem:
cuːt
past stem:
cuːr.
vi
to be finished, to be completed.
· paːnn-ɛn tɔŋɛ cuːrɛ — the affair was completely settled (mari119)
initial-related: cuːt-/suːt-
cuːtma
also: cuːpma
root:
cuːtt
present stem:
cuːt
past stem:
cuːtt.
vt
to scatter (seed, soil, dust), to sprinkle, to sow, to sprinkle (sth. on so.).
c'waːt
see: cowat
c'yak
suffix, n
young (of animals).
occurs in: mɛːndz'yak, phakc'yak, wadz'yak
e
suffix
[vocative].
· a-dzumm-e! — o my friend!
· k'wa-e! n'ya-e! — [maternal] uncle! aunt! (so210)
egaŋ
pp
behind.
· himm-egaŋ — behind the house
· himm-ɛllɛ ku-egaŋ — behind the house
· a-egaŋ a-dɔgaŋ — behind me and ahead of me (mari54)
· anigɛ ku-egaŋ ku-egaŋ pɔtchigɛ — we [PE] were (following) behind him
adv
behind.
cf.: tɔgaŋ etymology: ek,
ek
n
back.
· a-ekk-ɛn lɛm lɔˀ hiptu — it hit my back, hard (naro142)
· ekk-ɛtthaŋ — on his back
occurs in: egaŋ, eksi
eksi
n
backbone.
etymology: ek
ek sɔkwa
n
a kind of bee
nepali:bacciũ.
ema

root:
es
present stem:
e
past stem:
es.
vt
to defecate.
· hi esu — he defecated
postfinal-related: es-/ett-
eŋma

root:
eks
present stem:

past stem:
eks.
vt
to collect contributions, to assemble bringing contributions (to a feast)
nepali:sagāunu.
· caˀeŋ mɛ-eksu — they came to the feast with contributions
epma

root:
ept
present stem:
ep
past stem:
ept.
vt
to press flat, to flatten.
· iŋga mundhumm-ɛllɛ eptuŋ — I'll pin it down by the ritual (so70)
etma
also: epma
root:
et
present stem:
et
past stem:
er.
vi
to laugh.
· nurik a-baːt a-et phɔgɔrɔ — if one ["we [PI]"] talks and laughs nicely (dan44)
· mɛ-erɛ-aŋ khunchi hukk-ɛn mɛ-hiptu-aŋ mɛ-yɛbɛ na-haŋ — they stood over there laughing and clapping their hands
postfinal-related: et-/ett-
etma
also: epma
root:
ett
present stem:
et
past stem:
ett.
vt
to laugh at.
postfinal-related: et-/ett-
etma
also: epma
root:
ett
present stem:
et
past stem:
ett.
vt
to defecate on.
· pu-lle hi ettaŋ — a bird defecated on me
postfinal-related: es-/ett-
vr
to have diarrhea ["soil oneself"].
· hi etnasiŋŋa — I have diarrhea
ɛ
adv
here.
· ɛ waˀ ro — it's here! (so176)
· ɛ kɛ-nɛ-b'-ɛn the kɔ? — what's this thing here?
cf.: occurs in: ɛtlam, ɛtmu, ɛtna, ɛtthaŋ, ɛttho, ɛtyo
ɛkkhɛmdan
adv
in three days.
etymology: khɛm, ɛt, taːn
ɛkma

root:
ɛk
present stem:
ɛk
past stem:
ɛg.
vi
to break in two (of long objects).
postfinal-related: ɛk-/ɛks-
ɛkma

root:
ɛkt
present stem:
ɛk
past stem:
ɛkt.
vt
to clean, to sort, to pick over (grain in a winnowing tray).
ɛkma

root:
ɛkt
present stem:
ɛk
past stem:
ɛkt.
vt
to administer (an oath to so.).
vr
to swear (an oath).
· kiriyā ɛkŋasiŋ — I'll take an oath
ɛllɛ
n suffix
by [ergative/instrumental].
etymology: ɛn,
subordinating pp
when, as, because.
· peːkk-ɛllɛ kɔ — when he goes
· wahit thasu-rɔ pɔtchɛ-llɛ — as it was raining (so28)
ɛˀma

root:
ɛˀr
present stem:
ɛˀ
past stem:
ɛˀr.
vd
to lack appetite.
ɛmbha
also: ɛmbhɛ, ɛmbhɔ.
adv
thus, like this, by itself.
· ɛmbh'-rɔt — only this much
· ɛmbha aːgɛ pe — it [the tooth] just came out by itself
· anigɛ ɛmbha mɛ-naːttigɛ — they chased after us [PE] like this
· anigɛ kɔ ṭopī ɛmbhɔ phɛrɛkkɛkpa kɛ-ghuːŋ-ba — as for us, wearing our topis rakishly like this ... (dan85)
etymology: ɛn, pha
ɛmbhɛll#603;
then, and so, thus.
ɛmbhɛdaŋba
also: ɛmdaŋba.
adj
like this.
· ɛmdaŋba a-him nɛssɛ — I had a house like this one (so129)
· tara ɛmbhɛdaŋba mɔna a-waˀ — but we're [PI] this kind of people (dan43)
etymology: ɛmbhɛ, taŋ
ɛn
n suffix
[topic, definite].
· kɛ-si-b'-ɛn kɔ — the dead man, as for the dead man (so45)
· atti luŋŋ-ɛn thaktuŋ? — which rock should I bring up?
occurs in: ɛllɛ
ɛn
dem pron
this, this one.
· ɛn mɛn-sɛt-m'-ɛllɛ — if one doesn't kill it (so57)
· ɛn-haˀ kɔ nepālī-si rahecha — why, these are Nepalis
· inga a-himdaŋma ɛllɛ khuːttu-aŋ taˀru — he stole my wife and brought her here (jari66)
occurs in: ɛmbha, ɛmbhɛdaŋba etymology: ɛ, ɛn
ɛnniŋ
adv
this year.
etymology: ain, liŋ
ɛŋma

root:
ɛks
present stem:
ɛŋ
past stem:
ɛks.
vt
to break (a long object) in two; to harvest (maize).
postfinal-related: ɛk-/ɛks-
ɛpma

root:
ɛpt
present stem:
ɛp
past stem:
ɛpt.
vt
to fan.
· mi ɛptɛ! — fan the fire!
occurs in: miɛppha
ɛpmu
see: ɛtmu
ɛt
bound element
(in certain temporal adverbs with future reference)
occurs in: ɛkkhɛmdan, ɛtchimma, ɛtnimma, ɛˀudan
(in locative postpositions)
occurs in: ɛtlam, ɛtmu, ɛtna, ɛtthaŋ, ɛttho, ɛtyo
ɛtchimma
adv
the year after next.
ɛtchindan
adv
the day after tomorrow.
etymology: taːn
ɛtlam
pp
from.
· att'-ɛtlam — from where
· mudɛmb'-ɛtlam — from a Tibetan
ɛtma
also: ɛpma
root:
ɛtt
present stem:
ɛt
past stem:
ɛtt.
vt
to pry up, to pry up and turn over.
to lock, to bar, to close off.
ɛtmu
also: ɛpmu.
adv
down here, under here, in here.
· ɛtmu kɛ-dɔːk kɛ-dhi yuŋ — your food, your beer is here (so304)
pp
in.
· kha bākas-ɛtmu o=mɛttammɛ! — look [P] in that box! (so210)
· anigɛ mura-'pmu nebo-'pmu c'waːtt-ɛn lasɛ — water got into our [PE] mouths and noses
ɛtna
adv
across, over here.
· taːndi a-duk ɛtna kɔ — eventually we'll get ill, over here [in the Assamese plains]
· ɛtna-haŋ lasigɛ-aŋ — we [PE] emerged on this side and ...
· ɛtna-nas'mu — over here
pp
across.
· c'waːtt-ɛtna nuːksigɛ — we [PE] came back across the water
ɛtnimma
adv
next year.
etymology: ɛt, liŋ
ɛtthaŋ
adv
up, up here (esp. vertically).
pp
above, over, up.
· siŋŋ-ɛtthaŋ — up in a tree
etymology: ɛt
ɛtthaŋda
adv
a little higher up.
ɛttho
adv
up, up here (esp. up a slope).
· ɛttho mitluŋ kɛrɛ — he arrived up in Mitlung (so99)
pp
above, higher up.
· jaṅgal-ɛttho — up in the jungle
ɛtyo
adv
down here.
pp
down at.
· yammu yo kɛŋɛ-ba tɛnn-ɛtyo pe-aŋ — going back down to the place where he had fallen (so96)
ɛˀudan
also: eˀodan.
adv
in four days from now.
etymology: ɛt, taːn
ha
dem
that.
see: kha
ha
preverb
occurs in: ha=kupma
haˀ
also: yaˀ. (occasionally, after a vowel)
n suffix
[plural, collective; often definite].
· thi-haˀ sa-haˀ — beer, meat, etc.; drinks and snacks (mari113)
· yɛba-haˀ-rɛ — the shaman and his party (so47)
· pu-llɛ ku-dh'gek-haˀ — birds' heads (so66)
haba
n
a semi-edible tuber
nepali:giṭho.
hadon
see: khadon
hadzɔk
see: hedzɔk
hadzɔkcɔkpa
adj
talkative.
hakma

root:
hak
present stem:
hak
past stem:
hag.
vt
to mill (rice), to pound, to drive in, to set (a post).
postfinal-related: hak-/hakt-
hakma

root:
hakt
present stem:
hak
past stem:
hakt.
vt
to send (sth.) to.
· ciṭṭhī yapmi mɛ-haktɛ — they sent us letters (dan15)
postfinal-related: haŋ-/hakt-
hakma

root:
hakt
present stem:
hak
past stem:
hakt.
vt
to strike, to kick, to stamp.
· laŋ hakma — to stamp one's foot
· laŋŋ-ɛllɛ haktu — he kicked it
postfinal-related: hak-/hakt-
ha=kupma

root:
kupt
present stem:
kup
past stem:
kupt.
vt, vi
to brood, to incubate (eggs).
etymology: kupma
hakwa
also: haʔwa.
n
soup (grain or flour cooked with a lot of water)
nepali:khole.
hama

root:
has
present stem:
ha
past stem:
has.
vt
to divide up, to share out.
postfinal-related: has-/haːtt-
haˀma

root:
haˀr
present stem:
haˀ
past stem:
haˀr.
vd
to burn, to be alight
nepali:salkinu.
postfinal-related: haˀr-/haːnt-
haˀma

root:
haˀr
present stem:
haˀ
past stem:
haˀr.
vt
to bite.
· macchar-lɛ am-haˀ — mosquitos bite ["us [PI]"]
haːmba
n
a fish-eating mammal, otter
nepali:ot.
haːmbek
see: haːmbet
haːmbet
n
ginger.
dialect: haːmbek
hamma

root:
haps
present stem:
ham
past stem:
haps.
vt
to hang sth. up.
postfinal-related: hapt-/haps-
haːmma

root:
haːnt
present stem:
haːn
past stem:
haːnd.
vt
to light (e.g. a lamp, a cigarette).
postfinal-related: haˀr-/haːnt-
haːmma

root:
haːps
present stem:
haːm
past stem:
haːps.
vt
to cause to weep.
postfinal-related: haːp-/haːpt-/haːps-
haŋ
n
king.
haŋ
suffix, adv
side (location).
· tho-haŋ-nu-aŋ mɛ-ghɔktigɛ yo-haŋ-nu-aŋ mɛ-ghɔktigɛ na-haŋ-nu-aŋ mɛ-ghɔktigɛ anigɛ kɔ — they cut us [PE] off from above, they cut us off from below, they cut us off from the other side
· c'waːtt-ɛllɛ na-haŋ — on the other side of the water
(with directional adverbs)
haŋbha
n
a bamboo ["king bamboo"].
haŋgaŋse
n
a plant
Viburnum cylindricum
nepali:gharaghorī.
haːŋguba
n
steam, vapor.
etymology: haŋ'rikwa
haŋma
n
queen, doll, pupil (of eye).
etymology: haŋ
pupil (of the eye).
haŋma

root:
haŋ
present stem:
haŋ
past stem:
haŋ.
vt
to send (sth.).
· khunchi iŋghɔŋ mɛ-haŋu mɛ-yusu — they sent down word
postfinal-related: haŋ-/hakt-
haŋma

root:
haŋs
present stem:
haŋ
past stem:
haŋs.
vt
to wait for.
vr
to be pregnant.
haŋma

root:
haŋt
present stem:
haŋ
past stem:
haŋd.
vi
to be spicy or pungent (esp. of chili).
vt
to be (too) spicy for.
· iŋga haŋdaŋ — it's too spicy for me
haŋ'rikwa
also: haŋg'rikwa.
n
steam.
etymology: haːŋguba
haŋse
n
a tree with medicinal fruit ["king fruit"]
Terminalia chebula.
haŋwa
n
heat, hot weather.
· haŋwa sɛːktɛ — It is hot
hap
n
nest.
hapma

root:
hapt
present stem:
hap
past stem:
hapt.
vd
to get caught or tangled (in the throat, in a net).
· siŋ thik kɔ mu haptu-aŋ pɔtchɛ — one tree-trunk was stuck down below (nup9)
postfinal-related: hapt-/haps-
haːpma

root:
haːp
present stem:
haːp
past stem:
haːb.
vi
to weep.
· haːbɛ-aŋ yuŋɛ — he sat weeping (so207)
postfinal-related: haːp-/haːpt-/haːps-
haːpma

root:
haːpt
present stem:
haːp
past stem:
haːpt.
vt
to mourn for, to miss, to weep for.
postfinal-related: haːp-/haːpt-/haːps-
hapsigek
n
the peg in a plow-pole that hooks onto the yoke.
etymology: hapma
hara
adv
quickly.
· lɛkca-tmu lokm'-ɛllɛ hara am-dɛm — if we run in open country they'll catch us [PI] right away
hasɔmsɔmba
adj
sharp pointed.
etymology: ha=sukma, sɔm
ha=sukma

root:
sukt
present stem:
suk
past stem:
sukt.
vi
to be sharp (of a blade).
etymology: hasɔmsɔmba, sukma
haːt
interr/indef pron
who.
· khɔn haːt kɔ? — who is that?
· haːtt-aŋ hoptɛ — there was no one
· haːt-ni t'yɛ kɔ — who the devil came? (so228)
· haːt-lɛ ku-him-mu — in whose house?
· ha-haːt-chi mɛ-be — who all went?
haːtma
also: haːpma
root:
haːtt
present stem:
haːt
past stem:
haːtt.
vt
to divide up among, to share out among.
postfinal-related: has-/haːtt-
hatmu
also: hapmu.
see: khatmu
hatthaŋ
see: khatthaŋ
hattho
see: khattho
hatyo
see: khatyo
he
n (in compounds)
tooth.
occurs in: hebu, hedzɔk, hema
hebu
n
tooth.
etymology: he
hedzɔk
n
front tooth, incisor.
etymology: he
hekma

root:
hekt
present stem:
hek
past stem:
hekt.
vi, vt (agrees in transitivity with the governed verb)
to begin, to start.
· haːp hektɛ — he began to weep (so126)
· yɛba-llɛ khɔmbhɛ-aŋ cok hektu — the yɛba then began to do it [the ritual] (so78)
see: mik hekma
hema
n
molar tooth
nepali:baŋgāro.
etymology: he
hema

root:
her
present stem:
he
past stem:
her.
vi
to dry (intr.) (esp. in the sun).
postfinal-related: her-/hes-
hema

root:
hes
present stem:
he
past stem:
hes.
vt
to dry (tr.).
postfinal-related: her-/hes-
hema

root:
hes
present stem:
he
past stem:
hes.
vt
to gird on (e.g. a weapon or drum).
heˀma

root:
heˀr
present stem:
heˀ
past stem:
heˀr.
vt
to sow.
heˀma

root:
heˀr
present stem:
heˀ
past stem:
heˀr.
vt
to be able (to carry, to afford).
· ɛllɛ heˀru-ba samm'-ɛl-lɔt — only as much [of a fine] as he can bear (jari72)
hesiŋba
n
a near-chestnut
Castanopsis sp..
hɛkkɔŋgɔŋba
adj
red.
etymology: hɛt
hɛkma

root:
hɛk
present stem:
hɛk
past stem:
hɛg.
vt
to cut; to rip, to saw lengthwise.
· yaˀ hɛgu — he harvested the paddy
hɛkma

root:
hɛkt
present stem:
hɛk
past stem:
hɛkt.
vd
to hiccup.
hɛkyaŋ
n
edge of a blade.
hɛma

root:
hɛːr
present stem:
hɛː
past stem:
hɛːr.
vi
to break (e.g. of a glass).
vt
to break (e.g. a glass, a stone).
t
vi
to menstruate.
hɛmma

root:
hɛnt
present stem:
hɛn
past stem:
hɛnd.
vt
to bid, to name a price.
vr
to be over-proud, to be conceited.
see: na=hɛmma
hɛna
preverb
discussion, counsel.
occurs in: hɛna=muma
hɛna=muma

root:
mu
present stem:
mu
past stem:
muy.
vi
to talk, to discuss.
hɛpma

root:
hɛpt
present stem:
hɛp
past stem:
hɛpt.
vt
to embrace.
hɛt
adj, color-type
red.
occurs in: kuhɛtla, hɛkkɔŋgɔŋba
hɛtla-k'yakma
n
a plant
Polygonum capitatum.
etymology: hɛt
hɛtlukwa
n
hiccup.
· hɛtlukwa thɔktɛ — he has the hiccups
hɛtma
also: hɛpma
root:
hɛt
present stem:
hɛt
past stem:
hɛr.
vr
to be careful, to think twice (often used in warnings).
· hɛtchiŋŋɛ! — look out!
· niŋwa hɛtma — to be careful
hɛtma
also: hɛpma
root:
hɛt.
see: na=hɛtma
hɛtma
also: hɛpma
root:
hɛtt.
see: na=hɛtma
hɛːtma
also: hɛːpma
root:
hɛːt
present stem:
hɛːt
past stem:
hɛːr.
vi
to chap, to split (of skin).
hɛttaŋba
adj (color deriv.)
red.
· kɛdet hɛttaŋb'-ɛn caksɛ — put on your red dress
etymology: hɛt, taŋ
hi
n
feces.
· yaŋlɛ ku-hi — interest on capital
· nɛbhak hi — earwax
· hi yusɛ kɔrɔ lɔːn-muna-ba — [only] going out if one needs to defecate (dan99)
· iŋga a-hi yu — I need to defecate
hidut
n
intestine.
· sa hidut — tripes
etymology: hi
higiŋ
n
bile.
hiːk
n
chaff, dust, flour, powder.
· khamhiːk — dust (powdered earth)
· yaˀhiːk — rice flour
· maːk-hiːk — maize flour
· sihiːk — barley flour
hiːk
adj, color-type
yellow.
occurs in: kuhiːkla, hiːkkɔŋgɔŋba, hiːktaŋba
hiːkkɔŋgɔŋba
adj
yellow.
etymology: hiːk, kɔŋgɔŋba
hiːkma

root:
hiːkt
present stem:
hiːk
past stem:
hiːkt.
vi
to sneeze.
vd
to choke (from liquid or smoke), to drown.
hiːktaŋba
also: hiːttaŋba.
adj
yellow.
· harāndi mɛdhɛktu-aŋ kɔ, hiːktaŋba mɛdzogu-aŋ kɔ — they put in turmeric and made it yellow and ... (dan142)
etymology: hiːk, taŋ
hiːkwa
n
dew.
hiːkwa kɔk kɛguma
a plant ["dew load carrier"].
him
n
house.
· him sɔkwa — domestic honeybee
domestic.
· him khe — large, cultivated yam
hima

root:
his
present stem:
hi
past stem:
his.
vt
to turn sth., to cause to turn.
· lam hisu — he diverted the road
vr
to lean.
postfinal-related: iːr-/is- initial-related: iːr-/is-/his-
himdaŋba

fem:
himdaŋma.
n
husband, head of household
.
etymology: taŋ
himdaŋma
n
wife, female head of household
.
himdhɔkma
n
housewife, married woman.
himdhɔkpa

fem:
himdhɔkma.
n
householder, head of household.
him kam-kam
n
housewarming, part of the ceremony to "get used to" a new house.
etymology: kamma
him khe
n
a cultivated yam ["house yam"]
nepali:ghar tarul.
him li-li
n
ceremonial entry into a new house.
etymology: lima
himma

root:
hint
present stem:
hin
past stem:
hind.
vi
to be inhibited, to be restrained.
him sɔkwa
n
domestic honeybee.
hindza
n
child, boy.
hiŋma

root:
hiks
present stem:
hiŋ
past stem:
hiks.
vt
to shake, to brandish (a weapon), to wag (the tail).
hiŋma

root:
hiŋ
present stem:
hiŋ
past stem:
hiŋ.
vi
to be alive.
postfinal-related: hiŋ-/hiŋs-
hiŋma

root:
hiŋs
present stem:
hiŋ
past stem:
hiŋs.
vt
to raise (family, animals).
· abhe cokma hiŋmasiŋ — how to support ourselves?
postfinal-related: hiŋ-/hiŋs-
hipma

root:
hipt
present stem:
hip
past stem:
hipt.
vt
to strike, to beat, to play (an instrument).
· mɛ-erɛ-aŋ khunchi hukk-ɛn mɛ-hiptu-aŋ mɛ-yɛbɛ na-haŋ — they stood over there laughing and clapping their hands
hiːpma

root:
hiːp
present stem:
hiːp
past stem:
hiːb.
vt
to trim (bark), to strip, to pare.
hiːpma

root:
hiːpt
present stem:
hiːp
past stem:
hiːpt.
vt
to dedicate a sacrifice to a divinity (on condition of a wish being fulfilled).
hira
n
vagina.
etymology: hi
hirɔːŋga
n
anus.
etymology: hi
hir'wa
n
vaginal secretion.
etymology: wa
hoˀ
n
abcess, sore.
hoˀdoksiŋma
n
a plant used by the shaman ( yɛba).
hoit
adv
quickly, immediately,.
· hoit lɔˀ loktaŋ — I immediately ran away (naro98)
homa

root:
hor
present stem:
ho
past stem:
hor.
vi
to leak out.
occurs in: wa=homa
homb'rikwa
n
sweat.
homma

root:
hops
present stem:
hom
past stem:
hops.
vt
to bury (e.g. in the ashes of a fire, in grain), to submerge.
· mi-n hopsu — he buried the fire (under ash)
postfinal-related: hopt-/hops-
hopma

root:
hopt
present stem:
hop
past stem:
hopt.
vi
to be lacking, to be absent, not to exist.
· the-aŋ hop — there is nothing
· khan-haˀ mɛ-waˀ-i mɛ-hopp-i? — are they there or not?
· asen khɔmdaŋba calan hop — previously there was no such custom (dan251)
· hāttī kɛ-dɛm-ba mɛ-hoptɛ — there were no elephant-catchers
· mɔna a-ho-hop-pa ɔsek mɛ-yak — [a jungle where] there are none of us [PI] humans -- snakes live there
· nɛtchi-rɛ uːksusigɛ-saŋ hop — even when both of us pulled on it, it had no effect (nup10)
postfinal-related: hopt-/hops-
hopma

root:
hopt
present stem:
hop
past stem:
hopt.
vt
to inhale noisily, to smoke.
horik
n
skin, bark.
cf.: hɔk
hotma

root:
hott
present stem:
hot
past stem:
hott.
vt
to rub, to squeeze.
· le hotma — to masturbate
hɔk
n
skin (of a nut, inside the shell), sheath, shell.
cf.: horik occurs in: phahɔk, tɛtlahɔk
hɔksi
also: hɔksima.
n
barley.
etymology: si
hɔksippa
n
a small, poisonous caterpillar.
hɔktɔk
n
barren ground, wasteland
nepali:ḍhām̐ḍ.
hɔktɔk phuŋma
n
a plant whose flowers are used for decoration
Didymocarpus spp..
hɔma

root:
hɔːr
present stem:
hɔː
past stem:
hɔːr.
vi
to burst open, releasing water, pus, etc. (e.g. of a dike, an abcess).
postfinal-related: hɔːr-/hɔs-
hɔma

root:
hɔs
present stem:

past stem:
hɔs.
vi
to bark.
hɔma

root:
hɔs
present stem:

past stem:
hɔs.
vt
to burst (a dike, an abcess).
postfinal-related: hɔːr-/hɔs-
hɔmma

root:
hɔmt
present stem:
hɔm
past stem:
hɔmd.
vd
to swell up, to become edemic.
hɔmma

root:
hɔms
present stem:
hɔm
past stem:
hɔms.
vt
to delay so., to distract.
hɔmma

root:
hɔnt
present stem:
hɔn
past stem:
hɔnd.
vt
to open.
· anigɛ lamdhett-ɛn phɔŋ-lɔˀrik kɛ-hɔndu — you threw our [PE] door wide open (so227)
hɔːmma

root:
hɔːps
present stem:
hɔːm
past stem:
hɔːps.
vd
to suffer digestive gas or discomfort.
hɔːnd'gek
n
a red-headed lizard
nepali:cepāro.
hɔnɛ
adv
just like that, for no reason.
· kudzɛkk-i hɔnɛ-i — is it for real or just empty talk?
hɔŋ
n
hole, opening.
etymology: hɔŋma
preverb
occurs in: hɔŋ=mɛtma
hɔŋma

root:
hɔks
present stem:
hɔŋ
past stem:
hɔks.
vt
to look for, to search.
· mɛ-hɔksu-saŋ mɛŋ-ghosun — they looked for him but didn't find him (so31)
· mɛ-d'yɛ-aŋ kɔ mɛ-hɔksigɛ — they came and looked for us [PE]
hɔŋma

root:
hɔŋ
present stem:
hɔŋ
past stem:
hɔŋ.
vi
to be pierced.
postfinal-related: hɔŋ-/hɔŋs-
hɔŋma

root:
hɔŋs
present stem:
hɔŋ
past stem:
hɔŋs.
vt
to pierce.
· kha tambū-n paḍyāṅ hɔŋsu — it pierced the tent (naro142)
postfinal-related: hɔŋ-/hɔŋs-
hɔŋ=mɛtma

root:
mɛtt
present stem:
mɛt
past stem:
mɛtt.
vt
to open.
· kɛ-m'ra hɔŋ=mɛttɛ-aŋ yuŋɛ — open your mouth and hold still! (kana25)
etymology: hɔŋ
hɔpma

root:
hɔpt
present stem:
hɔp
past stem:
hɔpt.
vt
to wash.
hɔːpma

root:
hɔːp
present stem:
hɔːp
past stem:
hɔːb.
vi
to be hungry.
hɔpmɛllɛ
see: khɔpmɛːn
hɔtma
also: hɔpma
root:
hɔtt
present stem:
hɔt
past stem:
hɔtt.
vt
to hold, to contain.
· ɛn suʔwa-llɛ pāṭhī thik ca hɔttu — this bag holds a gallon of grain
hɔyɔŋ
n
swarm, commotion.
· sidza hɔyɔŋ — a swarm of flies
huk
n
hand, arm.
hukcok
n
finger.
etymology: huk, cok
hukcugok
n
finger.
etymology: huk, cugok
hukma
n
thumb.
etymology: huk
huːkma

root:
huːkt
present stem:
huːk
past stem:
huːkt.
vi
to thunder, to roar.
· taŋsaŋb'-ɛn huːktɛ — it thundered
huktappe
n
palm.
etymology: huk, tappe
huma

root:
hus
present stem:
hu
past stem:
hus.
vt
to tell on so., to accuse, to gossip about so..
postfinal-related: hus-/huˀr-
huma

root:
hus
present stem:
hu
past stem:
hus.
vt
to steam, to parboil (paddy, in making beer or beaten rice).
· yaˀ huma — to parboil paddy
huˀma

root:
huˀr
present stem:
huˀ
past stem:
huˀr.
vt
to deliver to, to give to.
· tɛtla-tmu suŋumbɛ-aŋ tho huˀrumsimbɛ — we [PE] bundled it in leaves and delivered it up there
cf.: khuˀma
huˀma

root:
huˀr
present stem:
huˀ
past stem:
huˀr.
vt
to teach.
· huˀraŋŋɛ! — teach me!
vr
to learn.
· huˀasiŋŋa — I will learn
postfinal-related: hus-/huˀr-
huˀma

root:
huˀr
present stem:
huˀ
past stem:
huˀr.
vt
to cover tightly, to plug.
· cihuˀ huˀru-aŋ kɔ khɔmbhɛ-aŋ thoktu — he covered it tightly and then cooked it (so298)
· a piːtchiŋŋ-ɛtmu huˀru-aŋ yuŋ — it has plugged up my straw
huˀma
n
a plug.
etymology: huˀma
humma

root:
hum
present stem:
hum
past stem:
hum.
vi
to sink, to sink in.
postfinal-related: hum-/hums-
humma

root:
hums
present stem:
hum
past stem:
hums.
vt
to insert, to plant (a seedling), to plunge (e.g. a burning log into water).
postfinal-related: hum-/hums-
huŋma

root:
huks
present stem:
huŋ
past stem:
huks.
vt
to pour, to dump.
huŋma

root:
huŋ
present stem:
huŋ
past stem:
huŋ.
vt
to repay.
hupma

root:
hupt
present stem:
hup
past stem:
hupt.
vt
to tie a knot, to button, to fold together (the hands), to make an alliance.
hutluŋ
also: mi hutluŋ.
n
hearthstone.
etymology: luŋ
huːtma
also: huːpma
root:
huːtt
present stem:
huːt
past stem:
huːtt.
vt
to smear, to rub in (e.g. medicine or oil on the skin).
i
sentence particle
[interrogative], or...?.
· kha nɛse-n thaktu-i mɛ-dhaktunn-i? — did she bring that earring up here or didn't she? (so209)
· mɛːnn-i — no? (dan62)
occurs in: igɔrɔ
i
n
string, snare, web (of spider).
preverb
occurs in: i=kɛma, i=kheŋma, i=phutma, i=suˀma, i=yukma
iduŋ
n
a snare for birds.
etymology: i
igɔrɔ
conj
or else, otherwise.
· tɛrɔŋŋ-ɛtmu uːksuŋ thɛktuŋsiŋ — igɔrɔ yakekk-ɛtmu uːksuŋ thɛktuŋsiŋ — when you're on a bridge, I'll pull you off and throw you [P] down; or else when you're on a cliff I'll pull you off and throw you [P] down (so180)
cf.: mɛːŋgɔrɔ etymology: i, ,
ik
n
garden, field, land.
occurs in: iːkkhe
i=kɛma

root:
kɛs
present stem:

past stem:
kɛs.
vt
to set a trap.
etymology: i, kɛma
iːkk'wa
n
door, door panel.
iːkkhe
also: tambhuŋ iːkkhe.
n
a small bitter white aerial yam [ "garden yam"].
etymology: ik, khe
ikma

root:
ik
present stem:
ik
past stem:
ig.
vt
occurs in: kha=ikma, sam ikma
ikma

root:
ik
present stem:
ik
past stem:
ig.
vt
to wring, to twist, to pick (nettles, with tongs).
ikma

root:
ikt
present stem:
ik
past stem:
ikt.
vi
occurs in: la=ikma
i=kheŋma

root:
kheks
present stem:
kheŋ
past stem:
kheks.
vt
to tie (so. up).
· mɛ-dɛmsu-aŋ kɔ i=mɛ-gheksu — they caught him and tied him up (jari55)
etymology: i, kheŋma
ima

root:
iːr
present stem:

past stem:
iːr.
vi
to turn, to go around.
· ku-niŋwa iːrɛ — he is dizzy
· ɛn-yaːppa luŋŋ-ɛn kɔ iːrɛ phɛrɛ-aŋ kɔ — a rock this big came whirling through the air and ... (naro141)
· laːksɛ iːrɛ — he danced, he turned (so96)
· kugɔp lisi ŋasi iːrɛ — he made 4 or 5 turns around (so102)
postfinal-related: iːr-/is- initial-related: iːr-/is-/his-
ima

root:
is
present stem:
i
past stem:
is.
vt
to stir, to move sth. in a circle.
· maŋdɔk isu — he is cooking paste
postfinal-related: iːr-/is- initial-related: iːr-/is-/his-
iˀma

root:
iˀr
present stem:

past stem:
iˀr.
vt
to rub, to scrub.
im
preverb
occurs in: im=mɛtma
imma

root:
ips
present stem:
im
past stem:
ips.
vi
to sleep, to go to bed.
· kohī mɛ-ipsɛ, kohī mɛnn-imm-ɛ ni yuŋma kɛ-boŋ-ba — some slept, some were obliged to stay up [as guards] without sleeping
postfinal-related: ips-/ipt-
iːmma

root:
iːnt
present stem:
iːn
past stem:
iːnd.
vt
to push.
to mimic, to imitate.
(perhaps related to iːtma)
iːmma

root:
iːps
present stem:
iːm
past stem:
iːps.
vt
to press (oil), to churn (butter).
im=mɛtma
also: im=mɛpma
root:
mɛtt
present stem:
mɛt
past stem:
mɛtt.
vt
to blink, to squint.
etymology: imma
inanaba
adj
soft (of food, clay).
indɛn
adv
before, previously.
· celī sɔmma indɛn tɔŋmasiŋ poŋ — the girls and the boys (of the clan) have to agree beforehand (dan236)
n
news.
occurs in: iŋghɔŋ, iŋma, iŋma, iŋmiba, iŋwa, iŋyaŋ, muˀiŋ teˀma
preverb
occurs in: iŋ=bhomma, iŋ=dhama, iŋ=lapma, iŋ=lɛkma
suffix, n
relative through a bond-friend.
· k'waiŋŋ-e! — o [bond friend's] uncle!
occurs in: phuˀiŋ
iŋ=bhomma

root:
phont
present stem:
phon
past stem:
phond.
vt
to call (so.), to proclaim.
· im=bhondɛ! — summon him!
iŋ=dhama

root:
thas
present stem:
tha
past stem:
thas.
vt
to inform, to tell, to bless.
iŋga
pers pron
I.
· lau! iŋga coguŋ ɛn — OK! I'll do it (so54)
· iŋga a- paisā phɛt mɛ-laːndu-aŋ pɔt — they have wasted my money (so177)
iŋghɔŋ
n
news, notice.
· iŋghɔŋ yuːru-llɛ kɔ — when they brought down the news (so19)
iŋ=lapma

root:
lapt
present stem:
lap
past stem:
lapt.
vt
to flatter, to tempt, to coax.
iŋ=lɛkma

root:
lɛkt
present stem:
lɛk
past stem:
lɛkt.
vt
to tell a lie.
· "anigɛ kɔ khetī kɛ-dzok-pa-adigɛ" pha iŋ=lɛktumsimbɛ — "We're field-workers," we lied to them.
occurs in: iŋlɛk etymology: lɛŋma
iŋlɛk
n
lie, falsehood.
· iŋlɛk mɛn-dzokkɛ o! — don't lie!
etymology: iŋ=lɛkma
iŋma

root:
iks
present stem:

past stem:
iks.
see: la=iŋma
iŋma

root:

present stem:

past stem:
.
vi
to become known.
occurs in: la=iŋma etymology:
vt
to buy.
· baṅgālī-llɛ mɛ-iŋu — Bengalis buy it
postfinal-related: iŋ-/iŋs-/la=ikt-/la=iks-
iŋma

root:
iŋs
present stem:

past stem:
iŋs.
vt
to spread news.
to call (a divinity), to invoke;.
· maŋ-haˀ-rɛ khunchi miŋ iŋsu thaktu — he invoked the names of the spirits (so92)
postfinal-related: iŋ-/iŋs-/la=ikt-/la=iks-
iːŋma

root:
iːks
present stem:
iːŋ
past stem:
iːks.
vt
to scrub, to clean, to scour (pots); to churn (butter); to clear away.
· tam iːŋma — to sweep away dust
· sumsi-rɛ luŋ iːksumbɛ — we three cleared away stones (nup47)
vr
to move out of the way.
iŋmiba
n
spokesman for the groom in marriage negotiation
nepali:sardār.
iŋwa
also: iŋwaba.
n
cock.
· iŋwa mɛŋ-ga-ɛ — before cock-crow (so298)
etymology: , wa
iŋyaŋ
n
rumor.
· iŋyaŋ nɛssɛ — it is rumored
ipma

root:
ipt
present stem:
ip
past stem:
ipt.
vt
to put to sleep.
postfinal-related: ips-/ipt-
iːpma

root:
iːpt
present stem:
iːp
past stem:
iːpt.
vt
to screen, to block from view.
· kohī na siŋŋ-ɛllɛ ku-buŋŋ-ɛtna iːpmasigɛ — some of us [PE] hid over behind the trunk of a tree
i=phutma
also: i=phupma
root:
phutt
present stem:
phut
past stem:
phutt.
vt
to tie a knot.
irɛmlɛm
adj
lazy.
· irɛmlɛm lɔˀ-ro — he is fatigued
etymology: lɛmma
irik
adv
for a long time.
iseba
n
a sumac tree with edible fruit
Rhus sp.
nepali:bhakkiam'lo.
dialect: iseˀba
iseˀba
see: iseba
isɔruppa
n
slipknot, noose.
etymology: i, sɔma
i=suˀma

root:
suˀr
present stem:
suˀ
past stem:
suˀr.
vd
to be wrinkled, to wither
nepali:oilinu.
it
n
monument, memorial resting-platform erected in the name of a deceased person.
etymology: itma
itchaba
n
father-in-law of one's child.
itchama
n
mother-in-law of one's child.
itma
also: ipma
root:
itt
present stem:
it
past stem:
itt.
vt
to think, to remember.
· kɛ-ittu-b'-ɛn jamma kɛt-lo! — may your wishes come true!
vr
to be careful, to watch out, to reflect.
· itchiŋŋɛ! — be careful!
iːtma
also: iːpma
root:
iːtt
present stem:
iːt
past stem:
iːtt.
vi
to be excessive, to be too much.
· ku-m'ra iːttɛ — he talks too much ["his mouth is excessive"]
iwat
n
creeper, vine.
iwat lɛppɛtna
n
a creeper (?with round peltate leaves)
Cissampelos pareira.
i=yukma

root:
yukt
present stem:
yuk
past stem:
yukt.
vt
to set a trap.
kaˀi
n
kinship relation.
cf.: phɛŋma
kak
q
all.
· kak mɛ-waˀ — they're all here
· anigɛ kak cupsigɛ — we [PE] all assembled (mari22)
kakkhorikpa
n
a fodder plant, said to be poisonous when immature.
kakma
n
ball.
· khamm-ɛllɛ ku-gakma thik — a ball of earth
etymology: kaŋma
kakma

root:
kak
present stem:
kak
past stem:
kag.
vi
to crack.
postfinal-related: kak-/kaks-
kaːkma

root:
kaːkt
present stem:
kaːk
past stem:
kaːkt.
vt
to jump over, to step over.
postfinal-related: kaːkt-/kaːks-
kakpɛppa
adj
spherical.
etymology: kaŋma, kakma
kaːkk'rakma
n
a kind of lemon
nepali:nāiṭe jyāmir.
kakk'rikna
n
a variety of Eleusine.
kama

root:
kas
present stem:
ka
past stem:
kas.
vi
to crow (of a cock).
· iŋwa mɛŋ-ga-ɛ — before cock-crow (so298)
kaˀma

root:
kaˀr
present stem:
kaˀ
past stem:
kaˀr.
vi
to break, to crack, to chip (intr.).
kamma

root:
kam
present stem:
kam
past stem:
kam.
vi
to fit, to fit together (intr.).
to become habituated, to become dependent on sth..
· thi thuŋm'-ɛtyo kamaŋ — I got into the habit of drinking beer
postfinal-related: kam-/kams-
kamma

root:
kams
present stem:
kam
past stem:
kams.
vt
to fit together, to assemble (tr.).
to habituate so. to sth., to make so. dependent.
postfinal-related: kam-/kams-
kaːmma

root:
kaːnt
present stem:
kaːn
past stem:
kaːnd.
vi
to be wounded.
· hiptu-aŋ kɔ ɛtmu kaːndɛ — he was struck and got a wound here (naro103)
initial-related: kaːnt-/khaːnt-
kanadhanima
n
amaranth, a wild herb whose shoots are eaten as a vegetable
Amaranthus spinosus.
kanayɔŋba
pn
a man-eating ogre killed by the Pangbopma clan-ancestor.
kandɛn
n
a tree
nepali:cām̐p.
kaːnd'ya
n
a bamboo vessel for liquids
nepali:duŋro.
kaːŋ
n
hoe; short-handled large-bladed digging tool
nepali:kodālī.
kaːŋbha
n
bamboo ridge-pole of a house.
etymology: pha
kaːŋdhuŋma
n
a creeper
nepali:bāhunī kāṭh.
kaŋma

root:
kaks
present stem:
kaŋ
past stem:
kaks.
vt
to crack sth..
postfinal-related: kak-/kaks-
kaŋma

root:
kaŋ
present stem:
kaŋ
past stem:
kaŋ.
vi
to be dried, to be heated (at the edge of the fire).
postfinal-related: kaŋ-/kaŋs-
kaŋma

root:
kaŋs
present stem:
kaŋ
past stem:
kaŋs.
vt
to heat, to dry, to bake (bread, yams, etc., at the edge of the fire).
postfinal-related: kaŋ-/kaŋs-
kaŋma

root:
kaŋs
present stem:
kaŋ
past stem:
kaŋs.
vt
to form into a ball, to take over in totality (e.g. of a parcel of land).
etymology: kakma
kaːŋma

root:
kaːks
present stem:
kaːŋ
past stem:
kaːks.
vt
to cause to go over (e.g. the net, in volleyball).
postfinal-related: kaːkt-/kaːks-
kaŋsɔrumba

fem:
kaŋsɔrumma.
n
fourth of a sib.
kapmu
also: kapmuma.
n
old woman.
kappo
also: kappoba
fem:
kapmu.
n
old man; the god Bhimsen.
kappo-dumsiŋ
n
a fodder plant used in the cult of Bhimsen
Buddleia asiatica
nepali:bhimsen pātī.
kapsa
n
twins.
· kapsa kɔttu — she gave birth to twins
kapsaba
also: kapsiba
fem:
kapsama.
n
a twin.
kaːtma
also: kaːpma
root:
kaːt
present stem:
kaːt
past stem:
kaːr.
vt
to move, to shift (goods, furniture, earth, manure to fields).
kattɛkwa
n
fern.
ke
n
a large cylindrical drum hung horizontally from the shoulders and struck on the ends with the hands; used in ceremonies (marriage, housewarming, etc.); made of hɔŋgesiŋ (Nep. khamārī) wood
nepali:cyābruŋ.
· ke laːŋma — to dance accompanied by a drum
keba
n
tiger.
kekma

root:
kekt
present stem:
kek
past stem:
kekt.
vt
to save, to hold back, to leave a little behind (e.g. when serving food).
vd
to have a little left over, to be not quite finished, to be not entirely paid off.
· kektu-aŋ pɔt — it is hanging by a thread
kellik
adv
far, long.
· kellik-nu o=mɛttumsimbɛ — we [PE] watched from afar
etymology: kemma
keˀma

root:
keˀr
present stem:
keˀ
past stem:
keˀr.
vi
to play, to move about (esp. of children).
kemma

root:
kent
present stem:
ken
past stem:
kend.
vs
to be long, to be tall, to be deep.
· sor uːksumbɛ kem-ba khɔmbhɛ kɔ — we [PE] draw out the sound, long, like this (dan119)
· ku-murik mu liŋ mu kem-ba mu — its hair grows out, long (so40)
keŋ
n
canine tooth, tusk.
keŋma

root:
keks
present stem:
keŋ
past stem:
keks.
vi
to be caught (on sth.), to be hooked (of a fish), to be tangled up in sth..
initial-related: keks-/kheks-
ketma
also: kepma
root:
kett
present stem:
ket
past stem:
kett.
vt
to insert, to put away, to store.
pron prefix
your.
kɛba
n
mute, cretin
nepali:lāṭo.
kɛkphɛk
n
a plant
nepali:ghaṇṭe phul.
kɛma

root:
kɛs
present stem:

past stem:
kɛs.
vt
to stretch (a loom or snare).
occurs in: thak kɛma, i=kɛma
kɛmma

root:
kɛmt
present stem:
kɛm
past stem:
kɛmd.
vt
to hold down, to crush (from above)
nepali:kicnu.
kɛ-nuˀba
adj
generous, good.
etymology: numa
kɛŋ
n
hip-bone, pelvis, side.
· ku-gɛŋŋ-ɛtyo — beside, on the hip of
kɛŋma

root:
kɛŋ
present stem:
kɛŋ
past stem:
kɛŋ.
vi
to fall, to fall down, to roll down.
· thumma tɛrɔŋŋ-ɛtmu kɛŋɛ-aŋ kɔ s'yɛ — he fell from Thumma bridge and died (so8)
postfinal-related: kɛŋ-/kɛŋs-
kɛŋma

root:
kɛŋs
present stem:
kɛŋ
past stem:
kɛŋs.
vt
to cause to fall.
· siŋ-haˀ lap=tesuŋ, luŋ-haˀ kɛŋsuŋ — I threw trees, I rolled down rocks (so224)
postfinal-related: kɛŋ-/kɛŋs-
kɛrɛk
q
all.
kɛsemba
n
money ["cold stuff"] (?jocular).
· kɛsemb'-ɛn mɛ-hɔksu — they tried to find the money (jari84)
etymology: semma
kɛtma
also: kɛpma
root:
kɛt
present stem:
kɛt
past stem:
kɛr.
vi
to arrive, to reach (a destination), to occur.
· ɛttho mitluŋ kɛrɛ — he arrived up in Mitlung (so99)
· lupli kɛ-gɛt-pa kusik lɔˀrɛ — it was like an earthquake (kana30)
postfinal-related: kɛt-/kɛtt- initial-related: kɛt-/khɛt-
kɛtma
also: kɛpma
root:
kɛtt
present stem:
kɛt
past stem:
kɛtt.
vt
to convey, to deliver (to a place).
· kɔkk-ɛn kɛttumbɛ — we [PE] delivered the loads
to equal (so.).
· luŋ lap=tema khunɛ-'tmu aŋ-gɛttummɛn — we [PI] can't match him in rock-throwing
postfinal-related: kɛt-/kɛtt-
kidhi
n
marten
nepali:malsām̐pro.
kidzikwa thɔkma

root:
thɔkt
present stem:
thɔk
past stem:
thɔkt.
vt
to tickle.
kik
suffix, n
fermented and dried condiment.
occurs in: cɛmbigik, sagik
kikk'rɔkna
n
a bird
nepali:jurelī.
kikma

root:
kikt
present stem:
kik
past stem:
kikt.
vd
to shrink, to wither.
kikpɛt
adv
manner of lying down, curled up.
etymology: pɛt
kima

root:
kiːr
present stem:
kiː
past stem:
kiːr.
vi
to rot (e.g. of meat).
postfinal-related: kiːr-/kiːnt-
kima

root:
kis
present stem:
ki
past stem:
kis.
vi
to be afraid.
· mɛŋ-giɛ — don't be afraid! (kana10)
· am-dɛmm-i phɛaŋ a-gi-ba — fearing they might catch us [PI]
· him- bhitri-aŋ kɛ-nɛ-ba pɔgi kɛ-gisi-aŋ kɛ-wayi — and inside the house, you [P] were scared to death (so146)
· kɛn-gisin a khɛni ɛmbhɛllɛ — you [P] were not afraid then, you see (dan233)
· kisɛ-rɔ yaːnduŋ — I made him afraid
postfinal-related: kis-/kit-
kiˀma

root:
kiˀr
present stem:
kiˀ
past stem:
kiˀr.
vi
to become tired (esp. of limbs).
· a-hukk-ɛn kiˀrɛ — my arms are tired (from carrying)
kimma

root:
kim
present stem:
kim
past stem:
kim.
vi
to be cooked and cooled off ready to eat (i.e. with excess moisture evaporated, of boiled rice).
kimma

root:
kint
present stem:
kin
past stem:
kind.
vt
to dig out (e.g. a yam), using a pointed tool.
kiːmma

root:
kiːnt
present stem:
kiːn
past stem:
kiːnd.
vt
to cause to rot (in the preparation of certain foods).
postfinal-related: kiːr-/kiːnt-
kiːnduwaba
n
horsefly.
kitma
also: kipma
root:
kit
present stem:
kit
past stem:
kir.
lt
vt
to fear.
· khɔmbhɔ sa-rɛ-aŋ am-git — so our sons fear us (dan262)
· kipma kɛ-ghu-ba — fearful
· kiruŋ-lo! — I am afraid
· kipma yaːmma — to frighten, to inspire fear in
· kiraŋ-lɔ yaːnduŋ — I made him fear me
· kɛ-gir'-rɔ yaːnduŋ — I made him fear you
t
vt
to frighten.
occurs in: kitma khuma postfinal-related: kis-/kit-
kitma
also: kipma
root:
kitt
present stem:
kit
past stem:
kitt.
vt
to roll up, to wrap, to roll sth. up (in sth.), to wind (e.g. string on a spool).
· ɔsek abhedaŋba kisim mɛ-yak, thaŋ siŋŋ-ɛtthaŋ kitchiŋŋ-aŋ — a certain kind of snake lives there, coiled up up in the trees
· iŋga lo-llɛ kitnasiŋŋa yuŋŋa — I'll stay rolled up in the mat (kana13)
kitma khuma
also: kipma khuma
root:
kipma khus
present stem:
khu
past stem:
khus.
vi
to fear.
· kipma kɛ-ghu-ba — fearsome
etymology: kitma
kokma

root:
kokt
present stem:
kok
past stem:
kokt.
vt
to prop up, to support, to add to, to increase (a bid, etc.).
· thi-nn-aŋ khɔmbhɔ kokma poksɛ — it was necessary to increase the amount of beer too [in returning hospitality] (dan170)
postfinal-related: koks-/kokt-
kom
n
jew's harp (esp. of bamboo)
nepali:macuŋga.
koma

root:
kos
present stem:
ko
past stem:
kos.
vi
to be warm, to be hot (of the environment, water, clothes, etc.).
postfinal-related: mi=go-/kos-
koma

root:
kos
present stem:
ko
past stem:
kos.
vt
to guard, to watch.
· ik koma — to guard crops (in the field)
· lisi-rɛ tho kosumbɛ kɔkk-ɛn — four of us [PE] guarded the loads up there
koŋma

root:
koks
present stem:
koŋ
past stem:
koks.
vt
to use as a prop or pillow (?only for the head).
postfinal-related: koks-/kokt-
kotco
n
dog.
adv
here.
· kɔ waˀ ro, kɛ- paisa-n — here it is, your money! (so167)
occurs in: kɔtmu, kɔtna, kɔtthaŋ, kɔttho, kɔtyo
part
[topic].
· iŋga kɔ — as for me
· kɛ-him atti kɔ? — where is your home?
kɔb'riŋ
pp
around [with the genitive].
· mi-'llɛ kɔb'riŋ — around the fire
kɔk
n
load.
kɔːk
n
a magnolia
Michelia champaca
nepali:cām̐p.
kɔmma

root:
kɔn
present stem:
kɔn
past stem:
kɔr.
vi
[stative aspectual].
· kappoba thikk-aŋ khapmu yuŋɛ kɔrɛ — an old man was sitting around there too (kana44)
· phɛdza phiːksumbɛ yɛbi kɔrigɛ — we stood around, brandishing our khukris
(generally refers to persons present around a place)
postfinal-related: kɔn-/kɔnt-/tak=kɔnt-
kɔmma

root:
kɔnt
present stem:
kɔn
past stem:
kɔnd.
vt
to tour, to go around (an area).
occurs in: tak=kɔmma postfinal-related: kɔn-/kɔnt-/tak=kɔnt-
kɔn
dem pron
this here, this one here.
etymology:
kɔŋge
n
labia (of the vulva).
kɔŋgɔŋba
also: kɔkkɔkpa.
suffix adj (esp. with color terms)
occurs in: hɛkkɔŋgɔŋba, hiːkkɔŋgɔŋba, lekkɔŋgɔŋba, makkɔŋgɔŋba, pɛgɔkkɔkpa, phiŋgɔkkɔkpa
kɔːŋya
n
the back of a blade.
kɔpma

root:
kɔp
present stem:
kɔp
past stem:
kɔb.
vt
to surround, to reach around sth..
kɔrɔ
conj
when, if.
· mɛːn kɔrɔ — if not ... (so179)
· kɛm-bian kɔrɔ iŋga a-niŋwa mɛn-da-ɛ kɔ mɛ-bekŋan — if you don't give it to me, I won't be satisfied and I won't go away (so192)
· o=mɛ-mɛttu kɔrɔ nɛse-n kudzɛk mɛ-yagɛn — when they looked, the earring really wasn't there (so212)
etymology: ,
kɔrɔkpa
n
a plant.
kɔrɔŋge
adj
sloping uphill.
kɔsɛksɛkma
n
a plant.
kɔsiːkpa
n
swagger stick
nepali:sirkanu.
kɔtma
also: kɔpma
root:
kɔtt
present stem:
kɔt
past stem:
kɔtt.
vt
to have, to own, to get, to have with one.
· kɛ-gɔp-pa — rich
· ani the-aŋ aŋ-gɔttummɛn — we have nothing (kana55)
vi, vt
to look after (livestock).
· tho saːŋwa kɔttɛ pit kɔttɛ — up there he looked after the buffaloes and the cows (so6)
· ɛ-yarik mɔre pit saːŋwa kɛ-gɔttu kɛ-bɛraŋ kɛ-wayɛ — you [S] took care of the cattle for me for so long (so185)
· saːŋwa kɔttaŋ pit kɔttaŋŋ-aŋ wayaŋ — I guarded your cattle (so131)
kɔtmu
also: kɔpmu.
adv
down here.
etymology:
kɔtna
adv
here, over here.
etymology:
kɔtthaŋ
adv
up here.
etymology:
kɔttho
adv
up here.
etymology:
kɔtyo
also: kɔpmu.
adv
down here.
etymology:
ku
pron prefix
his.
bound prefix (Where ku, although of pronominal origin, is an inseparable and invariable element of the word, it is not marked off by a hyphen in the dictionary.)
[relational element in derived nouns, adjectives and adverbs].
· kudza — taste ["its eating"]
· kumakla — black
· kuhiŋwɛt — alive
kube
n
edge (e.g. the beginning or end of a woven piece; where the two leaves of a double door meet).
occurs in: pes'yo
kubhɛrɛk
also: kubh'rɛk.
n
half.
· nāṅgā-llɛ khɔktu-aŋ kubhɛrɛk khunɛ co — the Naga cut it and took ["ate"] half
kubhimba
n
a measure of weight, about five pounds
nepali:dhārnī.
kubhiŋla
adj (color deriv.)
blue.
etymology: phiŋ
kubhɔra
adj (color deriv.)
white.
occurs in: phɔ
kubhumba
n
the whole (e.g. of a lump of sth., undivided).
kubhuːtla
adj (color deriv.)
gray; pale-skinned person.
etymology: phuːt
kudaːndiks'ma
see: taːndik
kudeŋ
n
half, a part.
· kudeŋ poksɛ — it became reduced to half
kudɛmma
n
handle.
etymology: tɛmma
kudɛpma
n
cover, lid.
etymology: tɛpma
kudopma
adv
straight, straightforwardly.
· kudopma kɛ-baːttu a — you told it straight (dan217)
pp
in line with.
etymology: tomma
kudɔŋba
adj
equal.
etymology: tɔŋma
kudza
n
taste.
· kudza nu — it is tasty
· kudza phɛn — it is bad-tasting
etymology: cama
kudzɛk
adv
truly.
· o=mɛ-mɛttu kɔrɔ nɛse-n kudzɛk mɛ-yagɛn — when they looked, the earring really wasn't in there (so212)
· kudzɛkk-i hɔnɛ-i? — is it for real or just empty talk?
etymology: cɛkma
kugɔp
n
a turn, a round.
· kugɔp thik — one circumference
· kugɔp lisi ŋasi iːrɛ — he made 4 or 5 turns around (so102)
pp
around.
etymology: kɔpma, kɔb'riŋ
kug'wa
n
juice, sap.
dialect: kuwa
kughɛːk
n
one of a pair, complement.
· ɛ waˀ ro khɛnɛ kɛ-bɛraŋ-ba nɛse kughɛːk thikk-ɛn — here it is, the odd earring you gave me (so220)
kughɔŋwɛt
adj
unripe (of fruits).
etymology: wɛt
kuhɛtla
also: hɛlla, hɛtla.
adj (color deriv.)
red.
· thɛgek hɛtla — police (probably the Assam Rifles) ["red head" after their red berets]
etymology: hɛt
kuhiːkla
adj (color deriv.)
yellow.
etymology: hiːk
kuhiŋwɛt
adj
alive.
· kha kɛ-si-ba mɔna-n kuhiŋwɛt wayɛ-llɛ belā — that dead man, when he was alive ... (so270)
etymology: hiŋma
kukpɛt
adv
cramped, crippled, crouching.
etymology: pɛt
kulɛːm
adv
full to the brim, level (of a measure).
· kulɛːm siːktɛ — measure it with a level measure
cf.: phururu heaping
kuliŋma
n
an earthen jar.
kuma

root:
ku
present stem:
ku
past stem:
kuy.
vt
to carry (on the back).
· yammu toplā nɛnɛtchi kuyumbɛ-aŋ pegigɛ — again we [PE] set off carrying two bundles each
postfinal-related: ku-/kuːtt-
kumakla
adj (color deriv.)
black, dark.
etymology: mak
kumaŋwɛt
also: [T] kumaŋwa.
adj
raw, uncooked.
· sa kumaŋwɛt — raw meat
kumbikwa
n
"male" (of plants, animals).
kumma

root:
kum
present stem:
kum
past stem:
kum.
vi
to be steeped (of tɔŋba).
kummikwa
n
"female" (of plants, animals).
kunam
n
smell.
· kunam phɛn — it is bad-smelling
etymology: namma
kuŋba

poss:
ŋguŋba.
n
brother-in-law (wife's brother)
.
kuŋma

root:
kuks
present stem:
kuŋ
past stem:
kuks.
vi
to swell, to increase, to rise (of water).
· c'waːtt-ɛn yɔm-ba kuksɛ — the stream is swollen
kupma

root:
kupt
present stem:
kup
past stem:
kupt.
vt
to sleep with (so.).
vr
to sleep together.
see: ha=kupma
kuretla
adj (color deriv.)
unripe, green (of grain, fruit), raw (of meat).
· maːkki letla — green maize
· maːkki-retla — green maize
· sa-retla — fresh meat
etymology: ret
kurɛm
q
a lot, plenty.
· iŋga a-mɛnch'ya kɔ khai kurɛm mɛ-wayɛ — my girlfriends, oh, they were many! (dan2)
cf.: kulɛːm
kurum
n
middle.
· kurum sitlaŋ — main pillar of a house
etymology: lum
kusap
n
ornamentation (embroidery, carving, tatoo).
etymology: sapma
kusen nima

root:
nis
present stem:
ni
past stem:
nis.
vt
to recognize, to distinguish.
· khɛnɛ kusen ninɛ — I recognize you
· khɛnɛ kusen kɛnisaŋŋ-i? — do you recognize me?
· sumsi him kɔ kusen nisumsimbɛ, aru kɔ kusen mɛn-ni-ba-asi — three houses we [PE] knew, the others we didn't know
· nurik o=mɛ-mɛttigɛ-llɛ kɔ kusen mɛ-nisigɛ — when they looked at us [PE] carefully they recognized us [PE]
(Note personal object agreement -- cf. kusiŋ niːtma. But the element ku- is invariable.)
etymology: sen=doma
kusik
also: kusiŋ.
pp
like, as, as if, so as, in such a manner as.
· thakpa kusik — like a rope
· an-ninɛm-ba kusik — in such a way as not to be seen ["one does not see us [PI]"]
· lupli kɛ-gɛp-pa kusik mu lɔˀrɛ — sounded like an earthquake (kana15)
occurs in: kusiktaŋ
kusikk-ɛtmu
also: kusikk-ɛtyo.
pp
under, below.
· ṭebul-ɛllɛ kusik-'tmu — under the table
kusiktaŋ
pp
like, as.
· thi-n c'waːt kusiktaŋ-ba cogu — he made the beer [thin] like water
etymology: kusik
kusiŋ niːtma
also: kusiŋ niːpma
root:
niːtt
present stem:
niːt
past stem:
niːtt.
vt
to understand, to recognize.
· paːnn-ɛn kusiŋ kɔ mɛn-niːttun — but they didn't understand the language
· iŋga khɛnɛ kusiŋ mɛ-niːtnɛn — I didn't recognize you [S]
· tara khɛni kusiŋ aŋgɛn-niːttɛn anigɛ — but you [P] didn't even recognize us [PE]
postfinal-related: nis-/niːt-/kusiŋ niːtt-
kusiwɛt
adj
dead.
cf.: kuhiŋwɛt alive etymology: sima
kusɔŋ
adj
new.
kusum
n
utility.
(apparently only in negative contexts.)
· kusum hop — it is useless
· kusum mɛ-danɛn — it is useless
· khɛnɛ kusum mɛn-dɔrun — you are no use
kuːtma
also: kuːpma
root:
kuːtt
present stem:
kuːt
past stem:
kuːtt.
vt
to have so. (obj.) carry (on the back).
postfinal-related: ku-/kuːtt-
kuyaŋ
also: kuyaŋma.
n
storage place, container, place to stay.
etymology: yakma
kuwa
see: kug'wa
kuyuŋ
n
handle (of a khukurī).
etymology: yuŋma
k'wa

poss:
ŋg'wa.
n
uncle (mother's brother; father's sister's husband)
.
· ku-ŋg'wa-rɛ mɛttu "lamsa-e! …" — his uncle said "nephew! ..." (so184)
(The wife of one's k'wa is one's n'ya; their children are one's luŋwa.)
k'wadɔre
n
uncle (a woman's father's sister's husband)
.
etymology: tɔre
k'yabo
n
buckwheat
Fagopyrum esculentum.
· kɛghiːkpa k'yabo — ["bitter buckwheat"]
Fagopyrum tataricum.
k'yaŋ
n
pestle.
kha
also: khɔ, ha%1.
dem
that.
· kha nɛse-n thaktu-i mɛ-dhaktunn-i? — did they bring that earring or didn't they? (so209)
occurs in: khambha, khan, khadon, khatmu, khatna, khattho, khatyo
kha
preverb
sky.
occurs in: kha=ikma, kha=dhamma, kha=lomma, kha=makma, kha=otma, kha=uma
khadon
dem
the one up there.
kha=dhamma

root:
tham
present stem:
tham
past stem:
tham.
vi
to become night, to become dark.
etymology: kha
kha=ikma

root:
ik
present stem:
ik
past stem:
ig.
v
to divine.
khakma

root:
khakt
present stem:
khak
past stem:
khakt.
vd
to harden, to freeze, to congeal, to solidify (of fats).
khaːkma

root:
khaːkt
present stem:
khaːk
past stem:
khaːkt.
vi
to have a gap, to have a hole.
· ku-hebu khaːktɛ — he is gap-toothed
· ku-m'ra khaːktɛ — he has a harelip
cf.: khɛːkma
khaːkwa
n
spit, phlegm.
kha=lomma

root:
lont
present stem:
lon
past stem:
lond.
vi, vt
to divine.
kham
n
earth.
· mu khamm-ɛn tɔyumbɛ-aŋ kɔ siŋ let-ma phɛaŋ tɔyumbɛ — we [PE] had dug down in the earth to plant a post (nup61)
khama

root:
khas
present stem:
kha
past stem:
khas.
vi
to be sated, to be full (after eating).
· ku-ghagha puruŋ — I gave him his fill
postfinal-related: khas-/khaːtt-
khaˀma

root:
khaˀr
present stem:
khaˀ
past stem:
khaˀr.
vt
to chew sth. and feed it to an infant.
khaˀma

root:
khaˀr
present stem:
khaˀ
past stem:
khaˀr.
vd
to be matted (of hair)
nepali:laṭṭā parnu.
· ku-dhɛgekk-ɛn khaˀru — his hair was matted
kha=makma

root:
makt
present stem:
mak
past stem:
makt.
vi
to become night, to become dark.
etymology: kha, mak
khambek
n
land.
· iŋga kɔ a-ghambek nɛssɛ — I had land (so128)
etymology: kham
khaːmb'rɛk
n
peach, plum.
khambha
also: khɔmbha.
adv
in that manner.
etymology: khan, pha
khambhɛdaŋba
also: khamdaŋba.
adj
like that.
etymology: khan, pha, taŋ
khamdakpa
also: khamdakma.
n
palate.
khamdakpa
n
a spider.
cf.: taːkk'riba
khamdaŋba
see: khambha
khaˀmit
n
cloud.
khamma

root:
khaps
present stem:
kham
past stem:
khaps.
vt
to put on (a cover or blanket).
postfinal-related: khaps-/khapt
khamma

root:
khamt
present stem:
kham
past stem:
khamd.
vt
to bite down on, to chew.
khaːmma

root:
khaːnt
present stem:
khaːn
past stem:
khaːnd.
vt
to wound.
initial-related: kaːnt-/khaːnt-
khaːmma

root:
khaːps
present stem:
khaːm
past stem:
khaːps.
vi
to yawn.
khan
also: khɔn, khannɛn.
dem pron
that one, that.
· khann-aŋ mɛ-nɛssu mɛ-buru — they gave him that too (so156)
etymology: kha, ɛn
khanakpa
n
a tree with medicinal properties
nepali:ām̐khā taruwa.
dialect: khaˀnakpa
khaˀnakpa
see: khanakpa
khaˀnam
n
tump-line.
etymology: nam
kha=niːtma
also: kha=niːpma
root:
niːt
present stem:
niːt
past stem:
niːr.
vt
to count.
etymology: niːtma
khaŋya
n
a fodder plant.
kha=otma
also: kha=opma
root:
ott
present stem:
ot
past stem:
ott.
vi
to dawn, to become day, to become light.
· kha=ottɛ belā — at daybreak
etymology: kha, otma
khapma

root:
khapt
present stem:
khap
past stem:
khapt.
vt
to cover (e.g. with a blanket), to roof.
postfinal-related: khaps-/khapt
khappek
adv
manner of covering completely.
etymology: khapma
khappu
n
ash.
cf.: thappu
kharabhet
n
a plant used in yeast preparation.
khaːtma
also: khaːpma
root:
khaːtt
present stem:
khaːt
past stem:
khaːtt.
vt
to feed full, to satisfy, to satiate.
postfinal-related: khas-/khaːtt-
khatmu
also: khapmu, khɔtmu, khɔpmu.
adv
down there.
khatna
also: khɔtna.
adv
over there.
khatthaŋ
also: khɔtthaŋ.
adv
up there.
etymology: kha
khattho
also: khɔttho.
adv
up there.
etymology: kha
khatyo
also: khɔtyo.
adv
down there.
· khɛnɛ kɛmm-uːttɛ-llɛ khɔtyo pegɛ! — when they call you, go down there! (so326)
etymology: kha
kha=uma

root:
us
present stem:
u
past stem:
us.
vt
to perform the end-of-mourning ritual.
etymology: kha, uːtma postfinal-related: kha=us-/uːtt-
khaːʔwa
n
a tree
nepali:dudhilo.
khaʔyuba
n
mulberry
Morus sp.
nepali:kimbu.
khe
n
yam, potato.
occurs in: iːkkhe, him khe, lawa khe, paŋ khe, phuŋ khe, simbɔl khe, sughe, tambhuŋ khe
khekma

root:
khek
present stem:
khek
past stem:
kheg.
see: laŋ=ghekma
khema

root:
khe
present stem:
khe
past stem:
khey
past stem:
khe. (The past often has khe where kheyɛ is expected. No singular forms have been noted.)
vi
to quarrel.
· bahidār-ɛn-nu kɔ khesigɛ anchigɛ — we [DE] quarreled with the clerk (naro59)
postfinal-related: khe-/khett-
khemsikpa
n
star.
· khemsikpa yammu mɛ-liŋɛ thaŋ mɛ-dhaːbɛ — the stars rose and were visible up above
kheŋ
n
fish-hook.
· kheŋ tesu — he is fishing
kheŋd'ra
n
fish-pole.
etymology: kheŋ
kheŋma

root:
kheks
present stem:
kheŋ
past stem:
kheks.
vt
to tie, to attach, to be tight (of clothing).
· khan tɛmsumm-aŋ kheksum — let's catch him and tie him up! (jari43)
occurs in: i=kheŋma initial-related: keks-/kheks-
kheŋma

root:
kheks
present stem:
kheŋ
past stem:
kheks.
vt
to bite through (e.g. a grain to test its dryness).
kheŋnam
n
fish-line.
etymology: kheŋ, nam
khesik
n
walnut
Juglans regia.
khetma
also: khepma
root:
khett
present stem:
khet
past stem:
khett.
vt
to quarrel over.
postfinal-related: khe-/khett-
khɛbɛŋ
pn
name of a village.
khɛbɔk
n
crab.
khɛbɔk laŋma
n
a flower offered to Bhimsen ["crab's-foot"]
Pothos sp. <Araceae> .
khɛːklɛma
n
the marking-nut tree
Semecarpus anacardium
nepali:bhalāyo.
khɛkma

root:
khɛkt
present stem:
khɛk
past stem:
khɛkt.
vi, vd
to be dry (of maize ready to harvest, of fruit).
khɛkma

root:
khɛkt
present stem:
khɛk
past stem:
khɛkt.
vi, vd
to spark, to pop, to burst (e.g. of a squashed louse).
postfinal-related: khɛkt-/khɛks-
khɛːkma

root:
khɛːkt
present stem:
khɛːk
past stem:
khɛːkt.
vi
to have a nick, to be dented (of a blade).
· a-dɔːndi khɛːktɛ khɛrɛ — my axe-blade got nicked (nup26)
cf.: khaːkma postfinal-related: khɛːkt-/khɛːks-
khɛkya
also: kughɛkya.
n
dried food.
occurs in: ŋaghɛkya, saghɛkya etymology: khɛkma
khɛm
num (in compounds)
three [days, years] ago/from now.
occurs in: ɛkkhɛmdan, khɛmyaːn, khɛmliŋ
khɛma
n
soul, ancestor.
khɛmbɔk
n
calf (of the leg).
dialect: laŋdhɛmbɔk
khɛmliŋ
adv
three years ago.
etymology: khɛm, liŋ
khɛmma

root:
khɛmt
present stem:
khɛm
past stem:
khɛmd.
vt
to suit (so.).
khɛmma

root:
khɛps
present stem:
khɛm
past stem:
khɛps.
vt
to hear, to listen, to perceive (a sound, an odor).
· khɛpsammɛ! — listen [P]! (so117)
· ku-nam khɛpsu — he smelled it
khɛːmma

root:
khɛːnt
present stem:
khɛːn
past stem:
khɛːnd.
vt
to make a scratch (in sth.), to wound (by scratching), to shave.
khɛmyaːn
adv
three days ago.
etymology: khɛm, yaːn
khɛna
n
wild sheep.
khɛnchi
pers pron
you [D].
· khɛnchi-n — yours [D]
khɛnɛ
pers pron
you [S].
· ɛttho cāhīm̐ khɛnɛ kɛ-dhe-aŋ mɛ-nɛnɛn — there's nothing of yours up here (so327)
· khɛnɛ-n — yours [S]
khɛni
pers pron
you [P], your [P].
· khɛni nakpa thik — a nephew of yours [P] (so16)
· khɛni-n — yours [P]
khɛŋma

root:
khɛks
present stem:
khɛŋ
past stem:
khɛks.
vt
to strike fire, to cause to explode, to burst, to pop.
postfinal-related: khɛkt-/khɛks-
khɛŋma

root:
khɛŋ
present stem:
khɛŋ
past stem:
khɛŋ.
vi
to be dried (over a fire), to be smoked.
see: sik=khɛŋma
postfinal-related: khɛŋ-/khɛŋs-
khɛŋma

root:
khɛŋs
present stem:
khɛŋ
past stem:
khɛŋs.
vt
to dry (over a fire), to smoke (over a fire).
postfinal-related: khɛŋ-/khɛŋs-
khɛːŋma

root:
khɛːks
present stem:
khɛːŋ
past stem:
khɛːks.
vt
to nick, to damage (a blade), to break off (a piece of sth.).
· tɔːndi kɔ mɛ-ghɛːksu mɛ-desu — they put a nick in the axe (nup34)
postfinal-related: khɛːkt-/khɛːks-
khɛseppa
n
winter bean, a large, flat edible legume.
khɛsuŋ
n
yeast.
khɛsuŋ toʔyi
n
a plant used in yeast preparation.
khɛtchiŋse
n
a near-chestnut
Castanopsis sp.
nepali:musure kaṭus.
etymology: siŋ, se
khɛtma
also: khɛpma
root:
khɛt
present stem:
khɛt
past stem:
khɛr.
vi
[incohative aspectual] already.
· mɛ-ipsɛ mɛ-ghɛrɛ-aŋ mɛ-nɛssɛ — they had gone to sleep
· a-hebu-n hop, aːgɛ khɛrɛ — my tooth is missing, it fell out
(follows conjugated intransitive verb)
initial-related: kɛt-/khɛt-
khɛtma
also: khɛpma
root:
khɛtt
present stem:
khɛt
past stem:
khɛtt.
vt
to clear (a space).
· teˀru khɛttu — he took it away
(possibly an aspectual, transitive of khɛtma%1 in this example)
vr
to flee.
· khɛtchiŋŋɛ! — flee!
khɛːtma
also: khɛːpma
root:
khɛːt
present stem:
khɛːt
past stem:
khɛːr.
vi
to be split (e.g. of firewood).
vt
to split.
· siŋ khɛːt-chɛ pegi — let's [P] go get firewood (nup4)
khɛwa
n
jungle fowl
nepali:luĩce.
etymology: wa
boatman.
a clan (found near Dhankuta) whose members do not eat chicken.
khi
n
thread, cotton.
khiboma
also: khiboma sɔkwa.
n
hornet
nepali:ariṅgal.
khibuppa
also: khiribuppa.
n
"mimosa"
Albizzia sp.
nepali:siris.
khikma

root:
khikt
present stem:
khik
past stem:
khikt.
vt
to cover (by stretching sth. over).
postfinal-related: khiŋ-/khikt-/khiŋs-/khiks-
khiːkma

root:
khiːkt
present stem:
khiːk
past stem:
khiːkt.
vi
to be bitter, to be expensive.
· ku-mɛn kiːiktɛ — it is expensive
postfinal-related: khiːkt-/khiːks-
vd
to be bitter (for so.), to experience a bitter taste.
khiːmbo
n
a parasite entering the feet from mud; the treatment is hot brine or warm mowra-fat (Nep. cyurī) oil
nepali:hilo lāgnu.
· khiːmbo-llɛ haˀraŋ — I am suffering from khiːmbo
khiːmbosita
n
a plant, remedy for khiːmbo
nepali:phusure āmā.
khimma

root:
khips
present stem:
khim
past stem:
khips.
vt
to stick (tr.), to cause to adhere.
vd
to have a cramp, to be paralysed, to be arthritic.
postfinal-related: khipt-/khips-
khiːmma

root:
khiːps
present stem:
khiːm
past stem:
khiːps.
vi
to be miserly.
· kɛ-ghiːm-ba — a miser
vt
to hold back (sth. one is obliged to give).
khim'rikpa
n
the soap-nut tree
Sapindus mukorossi
nepali:riṭṭho.
khiŋma

root:
khiks
present stem:
khiŋ
past stem:
khiks.
vt
to stretch sth..
· tambū khiŋ-muna-ŋ pɔt — there are tents set up (naro141)
postfinal-related: khiŋ-/khikt-/khiŋs-/khiks-
khiŋma

root:
khiŋ
present stem:
khiŋ
past stem:
khiŋ.
vi
to be stretched tight.
vd
to be veiled, to be covered by something stretched over.
· namm-ɛn khaˀmitt-ɛllɛ khiŋu — clouds cover the sun/the sun is veiled by clouds
occurs in: khiŋm'ra postfinal-related: khiŋ-/khikt-/khiŋs-/khiks-
khiŋma

root:
khiŋs
present stem:
khiŋ
past stem:
khiŋs.
vt
to pull tight, to stretch sth..
postfinal-related: khiŋ-/khikt-/khiŋs-/khiks-
khiːŋma

root:
khiːks
present stem:
khiːŋ
past stem:
khiːks.
lt
vd
to be bitter (for so.).
l
vt
to make expensive.
postfinal-related: khiːkt-/khiːks-
khiŋm'ra
n
caul.
· ku-ghiŋmura-llɛ khiŋu-ba nānī-n — the child covered by a caul
etymology: khiŋma
khipma

root:
khipt
present stem:
khip
past stem:
khipt.
vi
to adhere, to stick.
vd
to be stuck together, to adhere.
· sāinu khiptusi — they were related
postfinal-related: khipt-/khips-
khipseˀ
n
a tree
nepali:dudhilo.
khireba
n
stag, serow.
nepali:jarāyo
nepali:thār.
khiribuppa
also: khir'buppa, khibuppa.
n
a "mimosa"
Albizzia sp.
nepali:siris (?rāto).
kho
n
shield.
khoma

root:
khos
present stem:
kho
past stem:
khos.
vt
to find, to get, to get a chance to.
· khɛni sāṭhī yaŋ-lɔt kɛ-ghosum-ba — you're [P] only getting Rs. 60 (jari86)
· mɛ-hɔksu-saŋ mɛŋ-ghosun — they looked for him but didn't find him (so31)
· imma mɛŋ-gho-ba — not getting to go to sleep (naro117)
· khɛni lamdzɔŋ laːtma aŋgɛŋ-ghonɛn — you don't get to just elope with me (naro24)
khomma

root:
khont
present stem:
khon
past stem:
khond.
vt
to carve, to dig out, to incise, to excavate (a canal); to scrape up (esp. scrapings in a cooking pot).
khoŋ
occurs in: luŋghoŋ, phakkhoŋ
khoŋliba
n
a small tree with large leaves used for plates, etc..
khopma

root:
khopt
present stem:
khop
past stem:
khopt.
vt
to reach around, to be large enough (of clothing).
khotma
also: khopma
root:
khott
present stem:
khot
past stem:
khott.
vt
to comb.
see: maŋ=ghotma
khoʔyoma
n
a plant whose leaves are used in yeast preparation
Vitex negundo.
khɔ
also: kha.
dem
that.
· khɔ mɛnch'ya-llɛ a- paisa-n yuːru phɔgɔrɔ — if that woman has brought down my money (so261)
occurs in: khɔmbha (All derived words formed from kha can be realized with khɔ-.)
khɔˀbu
n
a large white monkey
nepali:ḍheḍu.
khɔdakmi
n
old man, elder.
· asen-ba khɔdakmi-rɛ kɔ abhe mɛ-dzɛksu? — what do the old-timers say about it? (dan125)
khɔkma

root:
khɔkt
present stem:
khɔk
past stem:
khɔkt.
vt
to cut into pieces, to cut off (e.g. with scissors), to chop; to catch up with.
· lam khɔktu khunɛ, mundhumm-ɛllɛ — he barred the road by the ritual (so323)
· luŋŋ-ɛn chinu-llɛ mɛ-ghɔktu — they cut stones with a chisel (naro78)
· nāgā-llɛ khɔktu-aŋ kubhɛrɛk khunɛ co — the Naga cut it and took half for himself
· tho-haŋ-nu-aŋ mɛ-ghɔktigɛ — they cut us off from above, too
khɔkse
n
a fig-tree
Ficus cunia
nepali:khanyũ.
etymology: se
khɔma

root:
khɔ
present stem:
khɔ
past stem:
khɔy.
see: maŋ=ghɔma
khɔma

root:
khɔs
present stem:
khɔ
past stem:
khɔs.
l
vt
to dislike.
lt
vt
to obstruct, to block, to be in the way of.
postfinal-related: paːn khɔˀr-/khɔs-
khɔˀma

root:
khɔˀr
present stem:
khɔˀ
past stem:
khɔˀr.
see: paːn=khɔˀma
khɔmbha
also: khɔmbhɛ, khɔmbhɔ, khambha.
adv
thus, like that.
· khɔmbha paːttu — thus he spoke (mari18)
· alla khɔmbhɔ kɔrɔ — now in that case ... (so64)
· khɔmbhasaŋ — even so (so233)
etymology: khɔn
khɔmbhɛllɛ
then, and so, thus.
khɔmbh'lɔrik
also: khɔm'lɔrik.
thus.
khɔmbh'yaŋ
thus, then.
khɔmdaŋba
adj
like that.
khɔmma

root:
khɔns
present stem:
khɔn
past stem:
khɔnch.
vt
to stir.
khɔmma

root:
khɔps
present stem:
khɔm
past stem:
khɔps. (In Tembe, the infinitive is khɔmma but the past is khɔsu, possibly influenced by khoma 'to get'; in Sikkim, the infinitive is khɔma, the past khɔssu.)
vt
to pick up.
khɔːmma

root:
khɔːts
present stem:
khɔːn
past stem:
khɔːtch.
vi, vd
to be acrid (of tobacco, Arisaema root, etc.).
· a-ghɔːm-ba — acrid
khɔn
also: khan.
dem pron
that one, he, etc..
· khɔn kɔ sɛtma suk mɛ-dɛtnɛn — that one can't be killed (so42)
etymology: khɔ, ɛn
khɔːŋbheˀ
n
boat.
khɔŋma

root:
khɔks
present stem:
khɔŋ
past stem:
khɔks.
vt
to shove, to bump.
khɔŋserɛm
n
an insect regarded as unlucky.
khɔpmɛːn
also: hɔpmɛllɛ.
adv (usually governs a negative)
almost.
· khɔpmɛːn yɛba-llɛ mɛ-naːndun — the shaman almost failed to vanquish it (the spirit) (so312)
· hɔpmɛllɛ mɛ-gɛŋɛn — he almost fell
· hɔpmɛllɛ kɛrɛ — it barely missed
(In a negative context the sense may be either 'almost' or 'barely'.)
khɔrɛŋ
n
a dry bread.
khɔro
interj
move aside!, go away!.
khɔr'tcu
n
spatula, oar.
khɔtmu
see: khatmu
khɔtna
see: khatna
khɔtyo
see: khatyo
khuːkma

root:
khuːkt
present stem:
khuːk
past stem:
khuːkt.
vt
to cover so.'s head, to put a hat on.
vr
to wear (a hat or head-covering).
postfinal-related: khuːks-/khuːkt-
khuma

root:
khus
present stem:
khu
past stem:
khus.
see: kitma khuma
khuˀma

root:
khuˀr
present stem:
khuˀ
past stem:
khuˀr.
vt
to deliver (sth. to a place).
cf.: huˀma
khumma

root:
khums
present stem:
khum
past stem:
khums.
vt
to bend down (sth. or so.), to tame, to train, to order about.
khunchi
pers pron
they [DP], their.
· khunchi hɛna mɛ-muyɛ mɛ-yuŋɛ — they went on discussing [P] (so11)
· khunchi nɛtchi — they two
· khunchi-n — theirs
khunɛ
pers pron
he, she.
· khunɛ-n — his (i.e. his possession, etc.)
khuni
pers pron
they [P], their [P].
(usually khunchi.)
khuːŋma

root:
khuːks
present stem:
khuːŋ
past stem:
khuːks.
vt
to wear (a hat or head-covering).
· ṭāṭān pɔːtthaŋ khuːksu — she wears a tartan shawl (dan109)
· ṭopī pɛrɛkkɛkkɛkpa kɛ-ghuːŋ-ba — wearing a cap at a rakish angle (dan85)
postfinal-related: khuːks-/khuːkt-
khutciba
n
marriage by kidnapping or elopement
nepali:corī bihā.
etymology: khuːtma
khuːtma
also: khuːpma
root:
khuːtt
present stem:
khuːt
past stem:
khuːtt.
vt
to steal.
· inga a-himdaŋma ɛllɛ khuːttu-aŋ taˀru — he stole my wife and brought her here (jari66)
khuʔwama
n
a tree
nepali:kutmero.
kh'yokwa
also: kh'yoʔwa.
n
whistle.
· kh'yoʔwa cama — to whistle
la
n
handle (of a tool).
la
preverb
occurs in: la=ikma, la=iŋma
laba
n
moon, month.
· laba lisi ŋasi kɛ-yo-b'-ɛn — one that is 4 or 5 months old (so46)
lab'-ɛllɛ cɛpma

root:
lab'-ɛllɛ cɛpt.
vt (imps)
to menstruate.
· lab'-ɛllɛ ceptu — she is menstruating ["the month cut her"]
etymology: cɛpma
laˀba
sentence particle
must have [inference].
· khɛni niŋwa yak laˀba, kɛ-ghɛpsum laˀba — you [P] must remember, you [P] surely heard (so226)
laˀba
n
a man's wife's lover.
· kɛ-laˀ-ba — your wife's lover
etymology: laˀma
labhɔk
n
radish.
la=ikma

root:
ikt
present stem:
ik
past stem:
ikt.
vi
to resound, to ring.
postfinal-related: iŋ-/iŋs-/la=ikt-/la=iks-
la=iŋma

root:
iks
present stem:

past stem:
iks.
vi
to resound, to ring.
vt
to sound, to play (an instrument).
postfinal-related: iŋ-/iŋs-/la=ikt-/la=iks-
lakma

root:
lak
present stem:
lak
past stem:
lag.
vt
to lick.
lakma

root:
lakt
present stem:
lak
past stem:
lakt.
also: mi=rakt.
vi
to be burned (of food).
occurs in: mi=rakma
vd
to boil (of water).
· c'waːtt-ɛn laktu — the water boiled
postfinal-related: lakt-/laks-
laːkma

root:
laːkt
present stem:
laːk
past stem:
laːkt.
vt
to trample.
occurs in: yaˀ=raːkma postfinal-related: laːkt-/laːks-
laːkma

root:
laːkt
present stem:
laːk
past stem:
laːkt.
vi
to smart, to sting.
· yum laːktɛ — the salt is too strong
· ɛllɛ kusik laːktɛ — he is hungry
laːkphɛt
n
land-leech.
lakwa
n
a kind of dove
nepali:haleso.
lam
n
road.
· makkhi lam — blood vessel
occurs in: lamba, lamdo, lamdhet, lamdzɔŋ, lamlo, lam phaːkma, lam thaːtma
preverb
occurs in: lam=loma, lam=loma
lama

root:
la
present stem:
la
past stem:
l'y
past stem:
la
past stem:
lo. (vowel contraction as cama 'to eat')
vt (contr)
to go to fetch, to go to meet (so. on the road).
· lammɛ — bring [P] it!
· lo — he fetched it
etymology: laːtma
laˀma
n
co-wife.
(Co-wives use "sister" as a term of address.)
etymology: laˀba
laˀma

root:
laˀr
present stem:
laˀ
past stem:
laˀr.
vd
to be suitable (esp. for an occasion).
· laˀru khɛmdu — it is suitable
lamba
pp
via, by, by means of.
· ṭopī lamba mɛ-nisigɛ — they recognized us [PE] by our hats
· mundhum lamba-rɔt — only by means of the ritual (so23)
· hukk-ɛllɛ lamba paːt-muna-ba — speaking with their hands [i.e. in sign language]
etymology: lam
lambo
n
a cold.
· lambo-llɛ tɔraŋ — I am suffering from a cold
lamdo
n
crossroads.
etymology: lam, to
lamdhet
also: lamdhaːt.
n
door.
· kɛ-lamdhett-ɛn hɔŋduŋŋ-aŋ wayaŋ — I had thrown open your door (so145)
lamdzɔŋ
n
halfway, on the road.
elopement.
· lamdzɔŋ laːru — he eloped with her (without asking her parents)
· lamdzɔŋ yaːktu — she eloped
lamiba
n
castrated pig.
lamlo
adv
leading the way, first.
· lamlo kɛ-bek-pa — the leader
etymology: lam=loma
lam=loma

root:
lor
present stem:
lo
past stem:
lor.
vi, vr
to go first, to lead.
· ku-dhɛgekk-ɛn lam=lorɛ — he went headfirst
postfinal-related: lam=lor-/lam=los-
lam=loma

root:
los
present stem:
lo
past stem:
los.
vt
to make so. lead the way, to send so. in front.
vr
to lead, to go first.
· lam kɛ-ni-b'-ɛn lam=losiŋ — the one who knew the way went first
postfinal-related: lam=lor-/lam=los-
laːmma

root:
laːnt
present stem:
laːn
past stem:
laːnd.
see: phɛt=laːmma
lam phaːkma

root:
lam phaːkt.
vt
to pass (so. on the road), to go ahead of.
etymology: phaːkma
lamsa

poss:
llamsa.
n
a man's sister's child
.
· ku-ŋg'wa-rɛ mɛttu "lamsa-e!" — his uncle said "nephew!" (so184)
(Maternal uncles may demand labor from a lamsa whose mother's bride-price has not been fully paid.)
lamsadɔre

poss:
llamsadɔre.
n
wife's brother's child.
(a possible choice for a man's second wife, hence a joking relationship; reciprocal: k'wadɔre.)
etymology: tɔre
lam thaːtma
also: lam thaːpma
root:
lam thaːtt
present stem:
thaːt
past stem:
thaːtt.
vt
to yield (the right-of-way) to, to give way to.
etymology: thaːtma
laŋ
n
leg, foot, stem, trunk, straw.
· yaˀ laŋ — rice straw
preverb
occurs in: laŋ=ghekma
laːŋ
n
fish poison esp. of young leaves of yakpɔpma, also of
Artemesia sp..
.
laːŋ
n
dance.
etymology: laːŋma
laŋdappe
n
sole.
etymology: laŋ, tappe
laŋdhɛmbɔk
n
calf of the leg.
dialect: khɛmbɔk etymology: laŋ
laŋdzok
n
toe.
etymology: laŋ, cok
laŋdzugok
n
toe.
etymology: laŋ, cugok
laŋgakthiːmba
n
heel.
etymology: laŋ, thiːn, kakma
laŋ=ghekma

root:
khek
present stem:
khek
past stem:
kheg.
vi
to walk.
· khemsikpa o=mɛttu-rɔ laŋ=ghek — he walks looking at the stars [for orientation]
· aru mɔna laŋ=mɛŋ-gheknɛm-ba — [a road] that others don't walk
· nam ta-da laŋ=ghegigɛ-aŋ — having walked all night
etymology: laŋ
laŋma
n
big toe.
etymology: laŋ, ma
laŋma

root:
laks
present stem:
laŋ
past stem:
laks.
vt
to boil (tr.).
occurs in: mi=raŋma postfinal-related: lakt-/laks-
laŋma

root:
laks
present stem:
laŋ
past stem:
laks.
vt
to feed (a baby).
laːŋma

root:
laːks
present stem:
laːŋ
past stem:
laːks.
vi
to dance.
· yɛba khɔmbhɛ-aŋ laːksɛ — then the yɛba danced (so110)
postfinal-related: laːkt-/laːks-
laŋmik
n
ankle.
etymology: laŋ, mik
laŋyok
n
footprint.
etymology: laŋ, yok
lap
preverb
cf.: ap occurs in: lap=tema, lap=phema, lap=phuma
lap
n
wing.
lapma

root:
lap
present stem:
lap
past stem:
lab.
vt
to burn over, to singe (hair or feathers).
lapma

root:
lapt
present stem:
lap
past stem:
lapt.
see: iŋ=lapma
lap=phema

root:
phes
present stem:
phe
past stem:
phes.
vt
to throw away.
lap=phuma

root:
phus
present stem:
phu
past stem:
phus.
vt
to throw, to throw away.
etymology: ap=phuma
laptaŋba
n
armpit.
lap=tema

root:
tes
present stem:
te
past stem:
tes.
vt
to throw, to throw away.
· siŋ-haˀ lap=tesuŋ, luŋ-haˀ kɛŋsuŋ — I threw pieces of wood, I rolled down rocks (so224)
etymology: tema, ap=tema
lasiŋba-namsiŋba
n
incense.
laːtlaːt
also: laːʔlaːʔ.
adv
at at distance, separate.
· laːtlaːppa — separated
laːtma
also: laːpma
root:
las
present stem:
la
past stem:
las. (This verb is unique in having a present stem in \_ t and a past stem in \_ s.)
vi (irr)
to enter, to infect.
· nebo-'pmu kɛ-laːt-pa — [water] getting into our noses
· c'waːtt-ɛtmu lasɛ-aŋ s'yɛ — he went under the water and died (so17)
· pinna laːtna — I'll jump in (kana25)
to start.
· cama lasɛ — he started to eat
· lam tɔm'-ɛtyo mɛ-lasɛ — they started digging a road
vt, vd
to infect.
· wasiˀ kɛ-laːt-lo! — you'll get chicken-lice!
(The instrumental wasiˀ-rɛ might be expected here.)
etymology: lama postfinal-related: las-/laːt-
laːtma
also: laːpma
root:
laːt
present stem:
laːt
past stem:
laːr.
vt
to take in for oneself, to bring home a wife.
· rājī-llɛ kɛ-laːrumm-i birājī-llɛ kɛ-laːrum? — did you take her with her consent or against her will? (naro86)
postfinal-related: las-/laːt-
lawa khe
n
sweet potato.
etymology: khe
le
n
penis.
led'wa
n
glans penis.
etymology: le
ledhiːmba

poss:
l'dhiːmba.
n
testicle.
etymology: thiːn, le
lekkɔŋgɔŋba
adj
light green or blue.
etymology: let
leghaːk
n
smegma.
etymology: le, khaːkwa
leghaŋ
n
glans penis.
etymology: le
let
also: ret.
adj, color-type
unripe, green (of grain, fruit), raw (of meat).
· maːkki let lɔˀ — the maize is green
etymology: kuretla
letma
also: lepma
root:
lett
present stem:
let
past stem:
lett.
vt
to plant.
· yaˀ lettum surumbɛ — we [PE] finished transplanting the rice (naas17)
· siŋ let-ma phɛaŋ tɔyumbɛ — we [PE] had dug to plant a post (nup61)
lettaŋ
also: lettaŋba.
adj
unripe, green (of grain, fruit), raw (of meat).
etymology: let, taŋ
lettisiŋma
n
a tree
Sarcococca pruniformis
nepali:kālīkāṭh.
lewa
n
semen.
etymology: le, wa
lɛk
also: lɛkwa.
n
honeycomb.
lɛkca
adj
bare, naked (of body, unforested hill).
· lɛkca-tmu lokm'-ɛllɛ hara am-dɛm — if we run in open country they'll catch us [PI] right away
lɛkca pɔduk
adj
naked.
lɛkca tikwa
adj
naked.
lɛkma
also: mɛk
root:
lɛk
present stem:
lɛk
past stem:
lɛg.
vi
to run out, to be finished.
lɛkma

root:
lɛkt
present stem:
lɛk
past stem:
lɛkt.
vi
to be abraded, to be skinned (of a wound).
lɛkma

root:
lɛkt
present stem:
lɛk
past stem:
lɛkt.
vt, vr
to exchange, to change.
· caŋ lɛkŋasiŋ — I changed clothes (naas58)
occurs in: iŋ=lɛkma
vt
to cross (a river).
· kholā lɛktammɛ! — cross [P] the river
· kholā-llɛ kulɛklɛk — in crossing the river
lɛkma

root:
lɛkt
present stem:
lɛk
past stem:
lɛkt.
vi
to flash (of lightning).
· saːmbhe lɛktɛ — lightning flashed
lɛːkma

root:
lɛːkt
present stem:
lɛːk
past stem:
lɛːkt.
vt
to dump or pour sth. on.
· wa lɛːktu — he poured water on him
lɛkwa
n
mud, wet place.
lɛllɛn
adv
all afternoon.
etymology: lɛn
lɛm
n
spleen.
lɛm
adv
manner of striking.
· a-ekk-ɛn lɛm lɔˀ hiptu — it hit my back, hard (naro142)
lɛma

root:
lɛs
present stem:

past stem:
lɛs.
vt
to know (a thing), to know how.
· kāchin paːn mɛl-lɛsunn-aŋ kɔ — since they didn't know Kachin
· ɛmbha-rɔt lɛsuŋ, sar — that's all I know, sir (kana61)
· ɛn-haˀ siŋ khɛːt-ma mɛl-lɛnɛn rahecha, ɛn-haˀ-rɛ kɔ — why, these guys don't know how to split firewood (nup33)
lɛma

root:
lɛs
present stem:

past stem:
lɛs.
vd
to suffer a burning or stinging sensation (from sth. in a wound, from chili).
lɛˀma

root:
lɛˀr
present stem:
lɛˀ
past stem:
lɛˀr.
vt
to pull open, to enlarge an opening; to draw a bow (to shoot).
· nɛssiŋŋ-aŋ ku-laŋŋ-ɛllɛ lɛˀru — lying down, he drew [the bow] with his feet (kana27)
see: niŋ=lɛˀma, yaːk=lɛˀma
lɛmma

root:
lɛm
present stem:
lɛm
past stem:
lɛm.
vt
to coax, to cajole.
· yɛba-llɛ uːttu-rɔ lemu-rɔ teˀru, mundhumm-ɛllɛ — the yeba led it [the soul] away, calling it and coaxing it with the ritual (so283)
lɛmma

root:
lɛm
present stem:
lɛm
past stem:
lɛm.
vi
to feel lazy.
· iŋga a-lɛmma yu — I feel lazy
occurs in: irɛmlɛm
lɛmma

root:
lɛms
present stem:
lɛm
past stem:
lɛms.
vt
to abort.
lɛmma

root:
lɛmt
present stem:
lɛm
past stem:
lɛmd.
vt
to patch (clothes, pots), to caulk.
lɛmma

root:
lɛnt
present stem:
lɛn
past stem:
lɛnd.
vt
to break off (maize), to tear off
nepali:lācnu.
lɛːmma

root:
lɛːps
present stem:
lɛːm
past stem:
lɛːps.
vi
to be slippery.
· kɛlɛːmba — (paper) money
vt
to make slippery.
vt
to peel (bamboo strips).
lɛn
n
noon, day.
occurs in: lɛllɛn
lɛn coma

root:
cos
present stem:
co
past stem:
cos.
vi
to be midday.
lɛndik
adv
by day, in daytime.
· lɛndik pek-m'-ɛllɛ am-ni — if we go by daylight they'll see us [PI] (jari26)
etymology: rik
lɛŋma

root:
lɛks
present stem:
lɛŋ
past stem:
lɛks.
vi, vr
to lie down, to turn over, on one's back.
vi
to change.
· theaŋ theaŋ lɛŋ — everything changes (dan130)
to falter, to suffer a lapse (of mind, consciousness).
· ku-n'hi lɛksɛ — he fainted
· a-niŋwa lɛksɛ — I made a mistake
· ku-dhɔna lɛksɛ — he had a lapse
vt
to turn over.
· am-ba-rɛ luŋ lɛksu-aŋ nɛssu-ba-yarik — as many rocks as my father flipped over and put down (dan273)
vr
to feign, to pretend.
· kɛ-duk-pa lɛŋsiŋ — he feigns being ill
· mɛ-hiptu-ba lɛŋsiŋ — he pretends that they beat him
cf.: iŋ=lɛkma occurs in: nɛhi lɛŋma, niŋwa lɛŋma
lɛŋma

root:
lɛŋ
present stem:
lɛŋ
past stem:
lɛŋ.
vt
to plaster.
lɛŋma

root:
lɛŋ
present stem:
lɛŋ
past stem:
lɛŋ.
vi
to wander about, to hang around.
lɛːŋma

root:
lɛːks
present stem:
lɛːŋ
past stem:
lɛːks.
vt
to clear away (weeds, brush, trees).
· kha-llɛ jammai lɛːksu tesu — he cleared everything away
lɛːŋma

root:
lɛːks
present stem:
lɛːŋ
past stem:
lɛːks.
vt
to make (bread, brick, tiles) (refers especially to forming the dough, clay, etc.).
lɛːŋma

root:
lɛːks
present stem:
lɛːŋ
past stem:
lɛːks.
vi
to slip, to lodge (of grain).
· tɛrɔŋŋ-ɛllɛ ku-lum-mu lɛːksɛ-aŋ s'yɛ — in the middle of the bridge he slipped to his death (so29)
see: sik=lɛːŋma
lɛŋ mɛtma
also: lɛŋ mɛpma
root:
mɛtt
present stem:
mɛt
past stem:
mɛtt.
vt
to slap (so.).
lɛp
adv
directly.
· kɛ-d'yɛi-aŋ kɔ lɛp lɔˀrik kām-ɛtmu kɛ-dhasi — when you [P] come back you go directly down to work (dan249)
· lɛpp-aŋ lɛp mu mɛ-nɛssu mɛ-bia kɔrɔ — if they lay it right out for me (so178)
lɛpma

root:
lɛpt
present stem:
lɛp
past stem:
lɛpt.
vt
to throw (a missle at).
vi, vt
to do.
· am-ba sintok bāga-n lɛptɛ — my father took contracts on orange groves
· saːppa lɛptu — maggots got to it
lɛːpma

root:
lɛːp
present stem:
lɛːp
past stem:
lɛːb.
vt
to slice, to saw.
· ārā lɛːbuŋ — I sawed planks (naas45)
lɛppaŋlɛp
adv
directly.
· khɔn mɛ-daːru-aŋ lɛppaŋlɛp mu mɛ-nɛssu mɛ-biya kɔrɔ — if they bring it down and lay it right out for me ... (so178)
lɛppɛppa
adj
flat.
lɛraŋ
adv
on its back, upside down, inside out
nepali:uttāno.
· lɛraŋ nɛssɛ — he lay on his back
lɛsot

poss:
l'sot.
n
tongue, barb (of a hook).
lɛsot caŋdzamba
n
a plant ["long-tongue"]
Melastoma malabathricum
nepali:kālo aŋgerī.
lɛtma
also: lɛpma
root:
lɛt
present stem:
lɛt
past stem:
lɛr.
vt
to leave, to abandon, to release.
· sot ghārī-ɛtyo lasigɛ peigɛ lamm-ɛn lɛrumbɛ-aŋ kɔ — we [PE] left the road and went into the cane fields
lɛtma
also: lɛpma
root:
lɛtt
present stem:
lɛt
past stem:
lɛtt.
vi, vd
to develop fully, to mature (of a vegetable, an illness), to be too old.
· iŋga a-huˀ lɛttu — I'm too old to be taught
· cɛt thɔkk-ɛnn-aŋ lɛt pek rahecha — the body also gets older (dan279)
li
n
bow (weapon).
· toŋ-li — bow and arrow
ligɔŋ
n
grip of a bow.
etymology: li
likma

root:
likt
present stem:
lik
past stem:
likt.
vd
to be infected, to be infested.
· wamsikk-ɛllɛ kɛ-lik-lo! — you'll get chicken-lice
lima

root:
lis
present stem:
li
past stem:
lis.
vt
to enter surreptitiously, to insert one's hand (e.g. into a container), to inspect.
postfinal-related: lis-/liːnt-
limba
see: liŋba
limdzɛkcɛk
also: limdzɔkcɔk.
adj
insipid, not salty enough, slightly sweet.
etymology: limma
limik
n
pocket of a slingshot, to hold the projectile ["bow-eye"].
etymology: li, mik
limma

root:
limt
present stem:
lim
past stem:
limd.
vi
to be sweet.
liːmma

root:
liːnt
present stem:
liːn
past stem:
liːnd.
vt
to tunnel under or out of sth..
postfinal-related: lis-/liːnt-
limsut'rak
n
a plant, used as a condiment
Oxalis cornulata.
liŋ
also: niŋ.
suffix, adv
year.
occurs in: ɛtnimma, ɛnniŋ, khɛmliŋ, metliŋ, sumliŋ (Note the form niŋ in ɛtnimma, ɛnniŋ, etc.)
liŋ
n
thatch grass.
· liŋ mɛ-hɛkk-ɛllɛ — when they are cutting thatch (so181)
liŋba
also: limba.
n
seedling.
· yaˀrimba — rice seedling
etymology: liŋma
liŋgɛndaŋ
also: liŋgɛndaŋma.
n
a fern.
liŋghambo
n
area under the eaves where water runs off the roof.
liŋma

root:
liŋ
present stem:
liŋ
past stem:
liŋ.
vt
to climb, to cross (a bridge).
· siŋ liŋu-aŋ yakk-ɛllɛ — when he's climbing a tree (so218)
vi
to sprout.
· ku-murik mu liŋ mu kem-ba mu — his hair growing long (so40)
vi
to rise (of stars).
· khemsikpa yammu mɛ-liŋɛ — the stars rose again
liŋma

root:
liŋs
present stem:
liŋ
past stem:
liŋs.
vt
to copy, to transfer, to pour (from one container to another).
liːŋma

root:
liːks
present stem:
liːŋ
past stem:
liːks.
vt
to insert, to thread (a needle).
· sam liːŋma — to re-insert an errant soul into a patient's ear
lipma

root:
lip
present stem:
lip
past stem:
lib.
vt
to twine, to roll into a ball.
liːpma

root:
liːpt
present stem:
liːp
past stem:
liːpt.
vi
to be heavy.
· cɛtci yɔm-b'-ɛn ci-liːp — one who is a little bigger is heavier (dan298)
lisi
num
four.
lo
n
tight-woven bamboo mat on which grain is dried
nepali:māndro.
lo
excl
[exclamation].
· "a-dza-dza-ba thikk-aŋ khapmu yak lo!" mɛlɔˀ — "there's a man-eater in there!" they say
lokma

root:
lokt
present stem:
lok
past stem:
lokt.
vi
to run.
· khɛni him-haˀ-mu waripari loktaŋ pindaŋ — I ran and jumped around your [P] houses (so224)
postfinal-related: lokt-/loks-
lokpha
n
a large bamboo used to make vessels, house-pillars, etc.
nepali:bhālu bām̐s
nepali:toŋbe bām̐s.
etymology: pha
loma

root:
lor
present stem:
lo
past stem:
lor.
vi
to sing a song.
· sam kɛ-lo-b'-ɛn sam mɛ-lo — the singers sing songs (naro22)
loma

root:
lor
present stem:
lo
past stem:
lor.
see: lam=loma
loma

root:
los
present stem:
lo
past stem:
los.
see: lam=loma
loma

root:
los
present stem:
lo
past stem:
los.
vt
to lay down sth. to sit or lie on, to sit or lie on sth..
postfinal-related: lott-/los-
lomma

root:
lont
present stem:
lon
past stem:
lond.
vt
to decide, to determine, to diagnose (of a shaman).
loŋma

root:
loks
present stem:
loŋ
past stem:
loks.
vt
to echo, to roar.
· timmɔkk-ɛllɛ loksu — the gun sounded
loŋma

root:
loks
present stem:
loŋ
past stem:
loks.
vt
to cause to run, to chase.
postfinal-related: lokt-/loks-
lotma
also: lopma
root:
lott
present stem:
lot
past stem:
lott.
vt
to lay a surface (e.g. to surface a floor with earth, to lay a pad under a carpet).
postfinal-related: lott-/los-
lɔk
n
a serving, a portion.
· tɔːk lɔk thik — a serving of rice
lɔkcu
n
digging stick.
lɔkkhet
n
traditional carrying-pouch garment worn over both shoulders and crossed front and back.
lɔkkhum
also: lɔklum.
n
front courtyard of a house
nepali:ām̐gan.
lɔklum
see: lɔkkhum
lɔkma

root:
lɔk
present stem:
lɔk
past stem:
lɔg.
vt
to reach, to go out to meet (a new bride, to escort her to the house).
lɔkma

root:
lɔkt
present stem:
lɔk
past stem:
lɔkt.
vt
to poke, to prick, to pound (e.g. Eleusine in a stone mortar, husked rice to make flour).
· piṅ lɔkma — to play on a swing
lɔma

root:
lɔs
present stem:

past stem:
lɔs.
vt
to emerge, to cross, to succeed, to complete training (esp. as a shaman).
lɔˀma

root:
lɔˀr
present stem:
lɔˀ
past stem:
lɔˀr.
vi
to say, to make a noise, to seem, to act in a certain way.
· khɔrɔkkhɔrɔk lɔˀ — he snores
· iŋga yeye lɔˀa — I became happy
· "a-niŋwa mɛ-duknɛn" lɔˀrɛ — "I have no regrets," he said (so206)
· the lɔˀrɛ-aŋ phɔtchiŋ kɔ? — how did he fall?
lɔmma

root:
lɔnt
present stem:
lɔn
past stem:
lɔnd.
vt
to spin (thread).
lɔːmma

root:
lɔːnt
present stem:
lɔːn
past stem:
lɔːnd.
vi
to exit, to come or go out, to make a debut.
· khɛnɛ yɛba kɛ-lɔːnn-i? — will you become a shaman?
· ku-mi mu lɔːn — its tail will grow out (so46)
· ɛtyo tinsukiyā mɛ-mɛttu-ba tɛnn-ɛtmu lɔːndigɛ — we [PE] came out down in a place they call Tinsukiya
· makkhi lɔːndɛ — blood came out (naro104)
postfinal-related: lɔːnt-/lɔːtt-
lɔːmma

root:
lɔːps
present stem:
lɔːm
past stem:
lɔːps.
vt
to beat so. (esp. with a stick).
lɔŋma

root:
lɔŋ
present stem:
lɔŋ
past stem:
lɔŋ.
vi
to be dug up (of a surface).
postfinal-related: lɔŋ-/lɔŋs-
lɔŋma

root:
lɔŋs
present stem:
lɔŋ
past stem:
lɔŋs.
vt
to dig up (root crops).
postfinal-related: lɔŋ-/lɔŋs-
lɔːppɛppa
adj
cylindrical.
occurs in: carɔːppa
lɔˀrik
also: lɔrik. (never has initial r-)
pp
[adverbial].
· khɔmbh'-lɔrik paːrɛ — he spoke thus
· lɛp-lɔrik — exactly (so305)
etymology: lɔˀma, rik
lɔtma
also: lɔpma
root:
lɔt
present stem:
lɔt
past stem:
lɔr.
vt
to swallow.
lɔːtma
also: lɔːpma
root:
lɔːtt
present stem:
lɔːt
past stem:
lɔːtt.
vt
to extract, to take out.
· khunchi sambet mɛ-lɔːttu-aŋ mɛ-bɛrigɛ — they took out some beaten rice and gave it to us [PE]
· ɔŋɛːkwa lɔːttu — she gave birth
postfinal-related: lɔːnt-/lɔːtt-
lɔtthik
q
only one.
· lɔtthik mɔna kɛ-lɛ-ba wayɛ — there was only one man who knew
etymology: rɔt, thik
lukma

root:
luk
present stem:
luk
past stem:
lug.
vi
to be completed (of work, a story), to be at an end.
postfinal-related: luk-/luks-
lukma

root:
lukt
present stem:
luk
past stem:
lukt.
vt
to prick (of a thorn).
luːkma

root:
luːk
present stem:
luːk
past stem:
luːg.
vi
to fall, to come loose (e.g. fruit from a tree).
postfinal-related: luːk-/luːks-
lum
n relative noun
the middle, the midst of.
· tɛrɔŋŋ-ɛllɛ ku-lum-mu — in the middle of the bridge (so29)
etymology: kurum
luˀma

root:
luˀr
present stem:
luˀ
past stem:
luˀr.
vt
to suffice (of liquid or curry to accompany cooked grain).
luːmba
n
small deep dish used by women for eating
nepali:ḍabakā.
lumbhu
n
large, tightly-woven carrying basket
nepali:thunse.
lumma

root:
lups
present stem:
lum
past stem:
lups.
vt
to pile up (e.g. earth, stones).
postfinal-related: lup-/lupt-/lups-
luŋ
n
stone.
occurs in: cumluŋ, hutluŋ, luŋdhak, luŋghoŋ, luŋs'waːt
luŋdhak
also: luŋdhakke.
n
stone wall, foundation.
· luŋdhak sɛttigɛ — we built a wall (nup36)
etymology: luŋ
luŋghakca
n
maize meal (wrapped in husks and steamed).
luŋghoŋ
n
stone on which spices are ground.
etymology: luŋ, khoŋ
luŋ haˀma

root:
haˀr
present stem:
haˀ
past stem:
haˀr.
vt
to feel anger toward so. (e.g. so. who has failed to help in time of need).
etymology: luŋma, haˀma
luŋlumba
adj
gentle, mild-tempered.
luŋma
n
heart, liver.
(Informants did not clearly distinguish the heart from the liver. Cf. nɛrɛt.)
luŋma

root:
luks
present stem:
luŋ
past stem:
luks.
vt
to complete, to reach the end of (of work, a story, digging a long yam).
postfinal-related: luk-/luks-
luːŋma

root:
luːks
present stem:
luːŋ
past stem:
luːks.
vt
to shell (maize), to strip (the leaves of taro), to shake loose (fruit from a tree).
postfinal-related: luːk-/luːks-
luŋma hiːmma

root:
hiːps
present stem:
hiːm
past stem:
hiːps.
vi (imps) pronominal prefix indexes experiencer
to feel nostalgia, to feel pain of separation.
luŋma tukma

root:
tuk
present stem:
tuk
past stem:
tug.
vi (imps) pronominal prefix indexes experiencer
to miss, to feel love or regret.
· kha nayām̐ a- juttā sārai a-luŋma tuk — I miss those new shoes of mine very much (so155)
· khunchi luŋma tugɛ-aŋ kɔ jamma mɛ-buru — they felt sorry and they gave him everything [he asked for] (so278)
postfinal-related: luŋma tuk-/luŋma tukt-
luŋma tukma

root:
tukt
present stem:
tuk
past stem:
tukt.
vt (imps) pronominal prefix indexes experiencer
to love, to feel sorry for.
postfinal-related: luŋma tuk-/luŋma tukt-
luŋsi
n
marrow.
etymology: yɛˀsi
luŋsiŋ
also: luŋsiŋma, luŋsiŋba.
n
a lichen that grows on rocks.
etymology: luŋ
luŋsum
n
quern, small hand-mill for grinding grain.
etymology: luŋ
luŋs'waːt
n
pebble with which spices are crushed.
etymology: luŋ
luŋwa

poss:
lluŋwa.
n
cross-cousin of opposite sex (a joking relationship), child of one's k'wa
.
luŋwaba

poss:
lluŋwaba
fem:
luŋwama.
n
male cross-cousin.
cf.: luŋwa
lup
n
water-leech.
lupli
n
earthquake.
lupma

root:
lup
present stem:
lup
past stem:
lub.
vi, vd
to sink, to be buried, to go under.
· ku-laŋ-haˀ mu makkhi-rɛ ɛmbha lup — his legs are covered with blood (so244)
postfinal-related: lup-/lupt-/lups-
lupma

root:
lupt
present stem:
lup
past stem:
lupt.
vt
to bury, to fill in, to cover.
· ɔrɔkk-ɛllɛ luptu-aŋ s'yɛ — he went under the water and died
vt
to fatten (a pig).
postfinal-related: lup-/lupt-/lups-
luppɛt
also: luppɛppa.
adv
manner of piling up.
· luppɛt nɛssu — he piled it up
etymology: lumma, pɛt
ma
(The vowel is elided before the topic/definite marker ɛn, locative ɛtyo, etc.)
suffix, n
female.
· ku-nara nu-m'-ɛn — pretty girl ["pretty-faced one (fem.)"] (dan21)
ma
also: mɔpma
poss:
mma.
n
mother
.
mak
adj, color-type
black, dark.
· mak lɔˀrɛ — it is black, it is dark
occurs in: kumakla, makkhi etymology: makma
maːkka
n
a vine of the "camel's foot" genus; the leaves are used to make rain-shields, the fiber for rope
Bauhinia valhii
nepali:bhorlo.
maːkki
n
maize.
makkokkokpa
adj (color deriv.)
of a dark color.
etymology: mak
makkɔŋgɔŋba
adj (color deriv.)
of a dark color.
etymology: mak
makk'roba iwat
n
a creeper
Biswarea tonglensis.
makkhi
n
blood.
· makkhi lam — vein
etymology: mak
makkhoˀ
n
onion, garlic.
makkho namba
n
a kind of thatch grass ["onion-smeller"]
nepali:arthuŋge.
makkho phuŋma
n
crocus ["onion flower"]
Zephranthus sp..
makkhundia
n
muddiness.
· makkhundia thumma — to stir up (mud in clear water)
makkhuŋba
n
a plant
Leea aspera.
maklɛp
n
a black wart, beauty-mark.
etymology: mak
makma

root:
makt
present stem:
mak
past stem:
makt.
vt
to dream, to see in a dream.
· anigɛ-aŋ sɛpmaŋ maktumbɛ-aŋ khɔmbhɛ maktumbɛ — we [PE] also had a dream and we dreamed it [i.e. that so. had died] (so247)
see: kha=makma
maksiːmma
n
blackbird
nepali:kālcauḍo.
etymology: mak
maːksiŋdhok
n
cob (of maize).
etymology: maːkki
maksiŋ'ro
n
charcoal.
cf.: mighaŋ'rok etymology: mak
maksusuba
adj
of a dark color.
etymology: mak
maktaŋba
adj (color deriv.)
dark in color.
etymology: mak, taŋ
maːkyu
also: ma:ʔyu.
n
bear.
maːkyu sikwa
n
a nettle whose fiber is used for weaving ["bear nettle"]
Girardinia heterophylla
nepali:allo sisnu.
mama

root:
mas
present stem:
ma
past stem:
mas.
vt
to lose (sth.).
· yakthuŋ paːn ci kɛ-masum — you [P] have lost the Limbu language to some extent (dan292)
postfinal-related: mɔ-/mas-
maˀma

root:
maˀr
present stem:
maˀ
past stem:
maˀr.
vt
to hold down, to suppress (in order to conceal).
postfinal-related: maːt-/maˀr- (possibly related to mɔma.)
maːnda
n
a soup of Eleusine flour sometimes mixed with rice, a low-status food which few will admit to eating.
maŋ
n
god, spirit.
· maŋ tesu — he exorcised the spirit
occurs in: sammaŋ
preverb
occurs in: maŋ=bhotma, maŋ=ghotma, maŋ=ghɔma
maŋ=bhotma
also: maŋ=bhopma
root:
phott
present stem:
phot
past stem:
phott.
vt
to exorcise a spirit.
maŋdɔk
n
meal, mush (esp. of Eleusine)
nepali:ḍhero.
etymology: tɔːk
maŋdukma
n
smallpox.
etymology: maŋ, tukma
maŋdza
also: maŋdza pha.
n
a bamboo with edible shoots.
maŋgɛnna
n
ancestor worship, a propitiation ritual performed in Cait ("ascending") and optionally in Karttik ("descending"); in Libang, two chickens are sacrificed
nepali:sir uṭhāune.
etymology: maŋ
maːŋg'wi
n
a leguminous creeper, of ritual importance ( soghasiŋ).
maːŋgha
adv
far.
etymology: maːŋma
maŋ=ghotma
also: maŋ=ghopma
root:
khott
present stem:
khot
past stem:
khott.
vt
to exorcise (so.).
etymology: maŋ
maŋ=ghɔma

root:
khɔ
present stem:
khɔ
past stem:
khɔy.
vt
to perform a ritual, esp. before slaughtering an animal.
etymology: maŋ
maŋlok
also: maŋlokpa.
n
a tree
Erythrina sp..
maŋma
n
a weed of paddy
nepali:bansyo.
maːŋma

root:
maːks
present stem:
maːŋ
past stem:
maːks.
vi
to be far.
etymology: maːŋgha
maːŋma

root:
maːks
present stem:
maːŋ
past stem:
maːks.
vi
to low, to moo (of cattle).
maŋnɛnɛba
also: maŋnɛnɛma.
n
cicada.
maːŋbha
adv
more, very much.
etymology: maːŋgha, maːŋma
maŋ'ra
n
amaranth
Amaranthus caudatus.
maŋwa sɔkwa
n
wild bee, honey of wild bees gathered from cliffs.
maŋyaːn
n
a plant, medicinal for pain in the legs.
maraŋ
suffix, q
all (with numbers from three to ten).
· summaraŋ — all three
· limaraŋ — all four
masi
n
wheat.
etymology: si
maːtma
also: maːpma
root:
maːt
present stem:
maːt
past stem:
maːr.
vi
to be finished, to run out.
postfinal-related: maːt-/maˀr-
vr
to die.
· maːtchiŋ — he died
maːtma
also: maːpma
root:
maːtt
present stem:
maːt
past stem:
maːtt.
vt
to twist cords into rope.
maːʔyu
see: maːkyu
meˀdiŋ
n
Sichuan pepper, timur
Zanthoxylum alatum
nepali:ṭimur.
etymology: tiŋ
medhumba
n
lower back, area of the kidneys.
mepph'ra
n
transverse flute.
met
n
wife [not considered a polite term]
.
metliŋ
adv
last year.
etymology: liŋ (Cf. Panchthar (etc.) mepma 'yesterday'.)
mɛkma

root:
mɛk
present stem:
mɛk
past stem:
mɛg.
vi
to run out, to be finished.
· ɛmbha nɛm'-ɛllɛ kɔ paisa-aŋ cāhīm̐ cama-aŋ kɛ-mɛk-pa — just staying around our money and food are running out
· asenn-aŋ tho mɛgɛ — It ran out long ago
postfinal-related: mɛk-/mɛks-
mɛkwa
see: nɛkwa
mɛːkma

root:
mɛːkt
present stem:
mɛːk
past stem:
mɛːkt.
vi
to bleat, to cry (as a goat or a deer).
mɛlluŋ
n
bride-price
nepali:sāimundrī.
occurs in: mɛlluŋ phuˀma etymology: mɛn
mɛlluŋ phuˀma

root:
phuˀr
present stem:
phuˀ
past stem:
phuˀr.
vt
to transfer a woman to her husband's clan
nepali:kriyā sārnu.
(the final marriage-ritual, usually after a woman has borne children, sometimes after her death)
etymology: phuˀma
mɛˀma

root:
mɛˀr
present stem:
mɛˀ
past stem:
mɛˀr.
vi, vd
to become fat.
· kɛ-mɛˀ-ba — a fat man
mɛmma
n
[hesitation word].
mɛn
n
price.
occurs in: mɛlluŋ
mɛn
sentence particle
if, then [marks condition and conclusion of some conditional sentences, usually contrary-to-fact].
· khɔn thikk-aŋ mɛ-bia-llɛ mɛn a-niŋwa ta mɛn — if they give me that one thing as well I'll be satisfied (so164)
mɛːn

root:
mɛːnt
present stem:
mɛːn
past stem:
mɛːnd. (Only 3d person singular finite forms are recorded.)
vd (defective)
is not [identification], no.
· khɛsuŋ mɛːnn-ɛ thi mɛ-boŋnɛn — without yeast, it won't become beer
· mɛːn a, siŋyaːn khɛmyaːn lɔt s'yɛ-ba ni a — No, no, its one who died only three or four days ago (so43)
· mɛ-nɛssu mɛ-bia kɔrɔ iŋga a-niŋwa ta, mɛːn kɔrɔ … — if they lay it out for me, I'll be satisfied; if not ... (so178)
· amm-uːt mɛːnn-i? — they'll call us, no? (dan150)
· khamdaŋba kɔ mɛːndu? — that's the way it is, isn't it (dan87)
· am-bhu-i! mɛːn! atti-n kɛ-buru-a? mɛːn! — Oh, brother! No! Which one did you give it to? It's not possible! (so213)
mɛncha

poss:
mmɛncha.
n
grandchild.
occurs in: cɔkmɛncha
mɛncha prukma
also: mɛncha prupma.
n
the big dipper.
mɛnchukma
adj
pregnant [?"incapacitated female"].
etymology: sukma
mɛnchuma
n
woman.
· ku-sa mɛnchuma — his daughter (mari2)
mɛnch'ya
also: mɛnchia.
n
unmarried young woman.
· mɛnch'ya kɛttɛ — she has reached young womanhood
mɛnch'ya lambɔmma
n
a plant
nepali:bepārī.
mɛːnda
n
goat.
mɛndɛgɛkna
n
a tree
Grewia asiatica
nepali:kharī.
mɛndzo
adv
so-so, ordinary, mediocre, moderately.
· mɛndzo mɛndzo nu-ba — more or less all right
mɛːndz'yak
also: mɛːnda c'yak.
n
kid (young goat).
etymology: c'yak
mɛːŋgɔrɔ
see: mɛːn
mɛŋma

root:
mɛks
present stem:
mɛŋ
past stem:
mɛks.
vt
to finish off (e.g. to eat all of, to buy up all of).
postfinal-related: mɛk-/mɛks-
mɛːppɛppa
adj
squat, low, flat (e.g. of a house, a nose).
mɛːpphe
(doublet of nɛːpphɛ.)
n
a plant
Oroxylon indicum
nepali:ṭaṭalo.
mɛtma
also: mɛpma
root:
mɛtt
present stem:
mɛt
past stem:
mɛtt.
vt
to do, to do sth. to.
· bihā-ŋ mɛtnɛ — I arranged a marriage for you (so200)
· the-aŋ am-mɛtnɛn — it is harmless ["it does nothing to us [PI]"]
occurs in: im=mɛtma, o=mɛtma
to call (sth. by a name).
· "mɔtta" mɛ-mɛttu — they call him "Motta"
to say, to say to, to tell.
· "nurik coguŋ piniŋ a" yɛba-llɛ mɛttusi — "I'll do a good job for you [P], don't worry" the yɛba told them (so115)
· kɛnn'ya-rɛ kɛmɛt-lo — your maternal aunt will tell you (jari32)
to do (in expressions with an adjective, action noun, verb, etc.).
· pɛgɔk mɛttu — he bent it
· ku-mik hɔŋ mɛttu — he opened his eyes
occurs in: im=mɛtma, o=mɛtma
mi
n
fire.
· mi-'pmu amsu — he baked it in the fire
occurs in: midɔt, midhɔkpu, miɛppha, mighaŋ'rok, misam, misek
preverb
occurs in: mi=dikma, mi=dumma, mi=dupma, mi=rakma, mi=raŋma
mi
n
tail.
· ku-daŋ mu lɔːn, ku-mi mu lɔːn — its horns grow out, its tail grows out (so46)
· mi laŋ — hind ["tail"] leg
mi=dikma

root:
tik
present stem:
tik
past stem:
tig.
vi
to be burned in a fire.
midɔt
n
live coals and ashes in the bed of a fire.
mi=dumma

root:
tums
present stem:
tum
past stem:
tums.
vt
to kindle a fire (by putting the logs together)
nepali:āgo jornu.
etymology: tumma
mi=dupma

root:
tupt
present stem:
tup
past stem:
tupt.
vt
to blow up a fire, to light a fire.
· mi mɛ=duptu-aŋ nɛssɛ — they had lit a fire
midhappu
see: midhɔkpu
midhɔkpu
also: midhɔppu, mudhɔppu.
n
a burning log
nepali:agulṭo.
dialect: midhappu
midzak
n
steel for striking sparks (used with a flint).
miɛppha
n
bamboo fan for the hearth.
etymology: ɛpma
mi=goma

root:
ko
present stem:
ko
past stem:
koy.
vi
to be burned in a fire.
etymology: mi postfinal-related: mi=go-/kos-
mighaŋ'rok
n
charcoal.
mihutluŋ
see: hutluŋ
mik
n
eye.
occurs in: mikcigek, mik-haŋma, mikkhok, mikkhuŋba, mikpe, miksaŋ, mikwa
joint, node (of bamboo), germ (of grain).
· laŋŋ-ɛllɛ ku-mik — ankle
preverb
occurs in: mik=yama, maŋ=ghotma, maŋ=ghɔma
mikcigek
n
eye-mucus.
etymology: cigek
mik cirappa
n
a blink of an eye.
· mik cirappa thik-lɛ — in the blink of an eye
cf.: cirap
mik-haŋma
n
pupil and iris of the eye ["eye-queen"].
etymology: haŋma
mik hekma

root:
hekt
present stem:
hek
past stem:
hekt.
vi
to be cross-eyed, to have strabismus.
mikkhak
n
mixture of coals and ashes.
mikkhok
n
skull, brow.
miːkkhu
n
smoke.
mikkhuŋba
n
eyebrow.
a plant
Clerodendron sp..
mikla
also: miklama.
n
a thin bamboo
nepali:māliŋgo.
mikpe
n
souvenir, memorial.
miksaŋ
n
eyelash.
mik sɔkwa
n
a kind of bee
nepali:bārulo.
miksut
n
soot.
miksuwa phekma
n
a fern used in yeast-cakes.
mikwa
n
tear ["eye-water"].
mik=yama

root:
yas
present stem:
ya
past stem:
yas.
vi (imps) pronominal prefix indexes experiencer
to be horrified, to be unable to look, to avert one's gaze.
mik yuma

root:
yus
present stem:
yu
past stem:
yus.
vi (imps) pronominal prefix indexes experiencer
to feel sleepy.
· iŋga a-mik yu — I feel sleepy
mi-laŋ
n
hind leg ["tail-leg"].
etymology: mi, laŋ
miŋ
n
name.
· ku-ŋg'wa-rɛ ku-miŋ kɔ jagat bahādur mɛ-mɛttu — as for his uncle's name, they called him Jagat Bahadur (so141)
· miŋ waːtchu — he named (the baby)
· miŋ waːttu — he named (the baby)
mi=rakma

root:
rakt
present stem:
rak
past stem:
rakt.
vi
to be burned (of food).
· tɔːk mi=raktɛ — the food burned
etymology: lakma postfinal-related: mi=rakt-/mi=raks-
mi=raŋma

root:
raks
present stem:
raŋ
past stem:
raks.
vt
to burn (food).
postfinal-related: mi=rakt-/mi=raks-
miːʔwa
see: niːʔwa
misam
n
fire-spirit.
misek
n
spark.
· misek sammaŋ — hearth-spirit
miyɔŋ
also: muyɔŋ.
n
cat.
miʔyunde
n
a plant
Mirabilis jalapa.
mɔˀi
n
topknot.
etymology: i
mɔkma

root:
mɔkt
present stem:
mɔk
past stem:
mɔkt.
vi
to feel warm.
vt
to heat (water).
etymology: mɔkwa
mɔkwa
n
hot water.
etymology: mɔkma, wa
mɔma

root:

present stem:

past stem:
mɔy.
vi
to get lost.
· yakthuŋ paːn mɔyɛ pe — the Limbu language has become lost
postfinal-related: mɔ-/mas-
mɔna
n
person.
mɔpma
n
mother
.
mɔre
adv
for a long time.
· mɔre kɛ-hiŋ-lo! — long may you live!
· mɔre naːttu — he chased him for a long time
mɔsu
adv
late.
· mɔsu yagɛ — he stayed late
mɔtci
n
chili pepper.
mu
pp
at, to, in.
· ku-ŋg'wa-rɛ ku-him-mu — in his uncle's house (so7)
occurs in: ɛtmu
adv
down, underneath.
· mu yu-aŋ kɔ a-ɔːk-pa — [snakes] which come down [from the trees] and strike ["us [PI]"]
mu
part
[emphatic focus].
· ku-daŋ mu lɔːn, ku-mi mu lɔːn — its horns grow out; its tail grows out (so46)
mudɛn
pn
Tibet.
mudɛmba

fem:
mudɛmma.
n
a Tibetan, a Sherpa.
mu=dɔːmma

root:
tɔːps
present stem:
tɔːm
past stem:
tɔːps.
vi, vd
to be foggy.
· mu=dɔːm-aŋ ni mɛ-dɛtnɛn — because of the fog, there's no visibility
etymology: tɔːpma
mudɔːp-mudɔːp
adj
foggy.
mudhɔppu
also: mudhappu, midhappu.
n
a burning log from the fire.
mudh'rik
adv
manner of getting up, suddenly.
· mudh'rik pogɛ — he sprang up
mudzik
n
fragment, piece.
· siŋ mudzik — chip of wood
· sa mudzik — bits of meat
cf.: tamdziˀ sweepings
mugɔkma

poss:
m'gɔkma.
n
buttocks.
muˀiŋ teˀma

root:
teˀr
present stem:
teˀ
past stem:
teˀr.
vt
to carry news.
etymology:
mukkumba
n
a tree
nepali:kaĩjal.
mukma

root:
mukt
present stem:
muk
past stem:
mukt.
vi
to ring, to give a sound.
· akkhe muktɛ? — what time is it?
postfinal-related: mukt-/muks-
muktu
n
a grass
nepali:ghuŋriŋ.
muma

root:
mu
present stem:
mu
past stem:
muy.
vt
to hoe (esp. around the roots of a plant), to cultivate.
· yaːn kɛ-mu-ba — fieldhand ["weeder"]
muma

root:
mu
present stem:
mu
past stem:
muy.
vi, vd
to be intoxicated, to be drunk, to be poisoned.
postfinal-related: mu-/mus-
muma

root:
mu
present stem:
mu
past stem:
muy.
see: hɛna=muma, o=muma
muma

root:
mus
present stem:
mu
past stem:
mus.
vt
to poison, to intoxicate.
· khɔllɛ-aŋ musu, yammu mundhumm-ɛllɛ eptu — he poisoned it with that [poison], and he subdued it with the ritual (so319)
· a-mu-ba-haˀ-aŋ khatmu thɛktu — he put poisons ["things which poison us [PI]"] in there as well (so294)
postfinal-related: mu-/mus-
muma

root:
mus
present stem:
mu
past stem:
mus.
see: siriŋ muma
mumma

root:
munt
present stem:
mun
past stem:
mund.
vi
to shake, to move.
· ku-hukk-ɛn mɛ-munnɛn — his arm is paralysed
vt
to shake, to stir, to knock (at a door).
· lamdhett-ɛn mundɛ! — knock on the door!
mumma

root:
muts
present stem:
mun
past stem:
mutch.
vt
to forget.
occurs in: niŋwa mumma
mundhum
n
tradition, ritual.
muŋma

root:
muks
present stem:
muŋ
past stem:
muks.
vt
to cause to sound, to crumple, to play (e.g. a drum, a radio).
postfinal-related: mukt-/muks-
mura

poss:
m'ra
poss:
mbra.
n
mouth, beak.
murase
also: mura wase.
n
lip.
cf.: wase etymology: se
murik

poss:
m'rik
poss:
murik.
n
hair, feathers, fur.
occurs in: cuŋmurik
murum
n
middle, main pillar of house.
etymology: lum
mut
preverb
down.
occurs in: mut=thama, mut=thama, mut=thaːmma etymology: mu
muːt
n
stump.
· siŋ muːt — tree-stump
· pha muːt — stump of bamboo
muːtche
n
a fig.
etymology: se
muːtma
also: muːpma
root:
muːtt
present stem:
muːt
past stem:
muːtt.
vt
to blow.
mut=thama

root:
tha
present stem:
tha
past stem:
th'y. (vowel contraction as tama 'to come')
vi (contr)
to fall.
· tɛrɔŋ-ɛtmu-nu mut th'yaŋ s'yaŋ — I fell from the bridge and died (so134)
postfinal-related: mut=tha-/mut=thaːnt-/mut=thas-
mut=thama

root:
thas
present stem:
tha
past stem:
thas.
vt
to drop, to cause to descend.
postfinal-related: mut=tha-/mut=thaːnt-/mut=thas-
mut=thaːmma

root:
thaːnt
present stem:
thaːn
past stem:
thaːnd.
vt
to drop (sth. on so.).
postfinal-related: mut=tha-/mut=thaːnt-/mut=thas-
mutthoˀ
n
beard, moustache, cornsilk.
mutth'rik
adv
manner of springing upright.
· mutth'rik mɛ-bogɛ-aŋ — springing to their feet
muya
n
hawk
nepali:cil.
na
adv
there, across, over there, on the other side.
· na pāri pegigɛ-aŋ — after going across to the other side (so28)
· c'waːtt-ɛllɛ na-haŋ — on the other side of the water
· a-hema-n na-b'-ɛn aːgɛ — my tooth, the one there, came out
also: ɛtna.
pp
over to, beyond.
· him-na pegi — let's go over to the house
na
n
face.
· na sɔkpɛt lɔˀrik yuŋigɛ — we [PE] sat with our faces turned downwards (nup80)
occurs in: nahɛn, nara, nawet
preverb
occurs in: na=dhama, na=dhiŋma, na=hɛmma, na=nɔˀma, na=nuˀma, na=saˀma
na=dhama
also: na mut=thama
root:
tha
present stem:
tha
past stem:
th'y.
vi (imps) pronominal prefix indexes experiencer
to lose face.
· anigɛ na th'yɛ — we lost face (nup53)
etymology: thama
na=dhiŋma

root:
thiŋ
present stem:
thiŋ
past stem:
thiŋ.
vi (imps) pronominal prefix indexes experiencer
to be unabashed, without shame.
cf.: thiːŋma
na=hɛmma

root:
hɛnt
present stem:
hɛn
past stem:
hɛnd.
vi (imps) pronominal prefix indexes experiencer
to be jealous.
nahɛn
n
evil eye, jealousy, envy.
etymology: na=hɛmma
na=hɛtma
also: na=hɛpma
root:
hɛt
present stem:
hɛt
past stem:
hɛr.
vi (imps) pronominal prefix indexes experiencer
to be jealous.
· a-na hɛrɛ — I am jealous
postfinal-related: na=hɛt-/na=hɛtt-
na=hɛtma
also: na=hɛpma
root:
hɛtt
present stem:
hɛt
past stem:
hɛtt.
vt
to be jealous of, to envy.
· sarik mɔna-llɛ na=am-hɛt — people are jealous of us
· iŋga na=hɛttuŋ — I am jealous of him
postfinal-related: na=hɛt-/na=hɛtt-
naidemba
pn
a clan (Libang).
nakma

poss:
nnakma.
n
niece (a man's brother's daughters, a woman's sibling's daughters, a man's wife's sisters' daughters)
.
nakma

root:
nakt
present stem:
nak
past stem:
nakt.
vi
to be fooled, to forget, to overlook.
postfinal-related: nakt-/naks-
naːkma

root:
naːkt
present stem:
naːk
past stem:
naːkt.
vt
to ask for, to request.
· akkh'-yarik kɛ-naːktu? — iŋga kɔ mɛ-naːkŋan — how much are you asking? -- I'm not asking! (so194)
nakpa

poss:
nnakpa
fem:
nakma.
n
nephew (a man's brother's sons, a woman's sibling's sons, a man's wife's sisters' sons)
.
naksob'rik
n
caterpillar
nepali:jusle kirā.
nam
n
smell.
· ku-nam khɛpsu — he smelled it
· nam susɛ — it stank, an odor wafted up
nam
n
string (of bow), carrying strap, handle (attached at both ends).
occurs in: caŋnam, khaˀnam, kheŋnam
nam
n
sun.
· nam caˀma — to warm oneself in the sun
occurs in: nam phɛtma, nam taːtma, nam thama, nam thama
nama

root:
nas
present stem:
na
past stem:
nas.
vi
to become weak, to tire.
· ain kɔ yuŋinnɛ, kɛ-nasi — stay [P] today, you [P] are tired (nup59)
postfinal-related: nas-/naːˀr-
naˀma

root:
naˀr
present stem:
naˀ
past stem:
naˀr.
vt
to desist from, to stop.
postfinal-related: nas-/naːˀr-
nambɔŋ
n
Perilla, an odorous oilseed
Perilla frutescens
nepali:silām.
etymology: namma
namdzikkhu
n
shade.
· namdzikkhu-tyo — in the shade
namhak
n
the heat of the sun (held responsible for spoiling food).
· namhaklɛ teˀru — the sun's heat spoiled [the beer]
· namhak la — the sun's heat will get to it
namma

root:
nams
present stem:
nam
past stem:
nams.
vt
to sniff, to smell; to kiss.
etymology: nam
naːmma

root:
naːnt
present stem:
naːn
past stem:
naːnd.
vt
to defeat (so.), to win (sth.).
· khɔpmɛːn yɛba-llɛ mɛ-naːndun — the shaman almost failed to vanquish it (the spirit) (so312)
naːmma

root:
naːps
present stem:
naːm
past stem:
naːps.
vt
to rest (a load), to lean on sth..
· ekk-ɛn naːmma — to lean one's back against sth.
· naːmsiŋma — to prop oneself up
nam phɛtma
also: nam phɛpma
root:
phɛtt.
vt
to dry (sth.) in the sun.
etymology: phɛtma
namsusuma
n
a plant, the leaves and seed of which are used in a condiment
Houttuynia cordata.
etymology: namma
a plant
Cleodendron infortunatum
Cleodendron fragrans.
nam taːtma
also: nam taːpma
root:
taːt.
vi
to be dawn.
· nam taːttaːt — until dawn, all night (dan101)
· nam taːrɛ pe — it became day (mari116)
etymology: taːtma
nam thama

root:
tha
present stem:
tha
past stem:
th'y.
vi
to set (of the sun).
· nam th'yɛ — the sun set (nup43)
· nam thadha yuŋigɛ — we stayed until sunset, we stayed all day (mari118)
etymology: thama
nam thama

root:
thas
present stem:
tha
past stem:
thas.
vd
to set (of the sun).
etymology: thama
namyoba
n
a plant, used in yuma pujā (with siwali)
Artemesia vulgaris
nepali:tīte pātī.
etymology: namma
namyuk
n
house-lizard
nepali:bhāle muŋgro.
nanak
dem
over there.
· nanak siŋ — that tree over there
· na c'waːtt-ɛtmu nanak nanak lasigɛ — we [PE] went farther and farther into the water
etymology: na
na=nɔˀma

root:
nɔˀr
present stem:
nɔˀ
past stem:
nɔˀr.
vt
to love (so.).
· paŋli na=nɔˀruŋ — I like [our] daughter-in-law
na=nuˀma

root:
nuˀr
present stem:
nuˀ
past stem:
nuˀr.
vt
to like, to love.
· khunɛ iŋga sarik na=nuˀa — she likes me a lot
naŋ
n
snow.
naŋma

root:
naks
present stem:
naŋ
past stem:
naks.
vi
to become insane.
· naksɛ khɛrɛ — he went mad
· kɛ-naŋ-ba — madman
naŋma

root:
naks
present stem:
naŋ
past stem:
naks.
vt
to fool so..
postfinal-related: nakt-/naks-
naŋma

root:
naŋ
present stem:
naŋ
past stem:
naŋ.
vt
to protect (so. in danger), to defend.
napma

root:
napt
present stem:
nap
past stem:
napt.
vt
to take, to snatch.
naːpma
n
an edible insect that lives in bamboo.
napmi
also: yapmi.
pron, n
the other (person), someone else.
· napmi him-mu — in someone else's house
· napmi mɛ-biyan — I won't give it to anyone else
us [1st person non-singular object pronoun].
· pa ma-rɛ-aŋ napmi mɛn-dɔrɛn, kusiŋ mɛn-niːttun — [our] parents don't scold us -- they don't even know (dan244)
(The verb appears in an intransitive form with no object agreement.)
spouse, in-law.
occurs in: napmi sokma etymology: yapmi
napmi sokma
n
index-finger ["other-pointer"].
etymology: sokma
nara
n
face, cheeks.
· ku-nara nu-m'-ɛn — a pretty woman (dan18)
· nu-ba tap-phɛːm-ba ku-nara o=mɛm-mɛt-pa anigɛ kɔ — we [PE] don't look at her face, whether it is pretty or ugly (dan95)
etymology: na
nara suːmma

root:
suːnt.
vt pronominal prefix indexes experiencer
to insult (passing the hand in front of so.'s face in a sweeping movement).
· a-nara suːndu — he insulted me
etymology: suːmma
narumbopma
see: nurumbot
na=saˀma

root:
saˀr
present stem:
saˀ
past stem:
saˀr.
vt
to trust, to have faith in so..
etymology: na
nas'ma
dem
that over there, the one over there.
etymology: na, s'ma
nas'mu
pp
on the far side of, across from.
cf.: pes'yo etymology: na
naːtma
also: naːpma
root:
naːtt
present stem:
naːt
past stem:
naːtt.
vt
to chase, to pursue, to hunt, to drive (cattle).
· sa naːttu — he hunted game
· anigɛ mɛ-naːttigɛ — they pursued us [PE]
nawet
n
bridge of the nose.
etymology: na, wet
nehi karak sɔkwa
n
a stinging insect.
nɛbo

poss:
n'bo.
n
nose.
· a-n'bo-n tugɛ — my nose hurts
face, respect.
· a-n'bo-n kɔ pe-ro! — I lost face
· a-n'bo-n kɛ-desum — you [P] caused me to lose face
nɛbuhoŋ
n
nostril.
nɛbhak

poss:
n'bhak.
n
ear.
· nɛbhak hi — earwax
nɛbhak phiːpphiːppa
n
an insect, earwig.
etymology: phiːtma
nɛdɛkma
n
a tree, the wood is used for making vessels
Sarcococca pruniformis.
nɛdɛŋba

poss:
n'dɛŋba.
n
cheek, side of a blade.
nɛhi

poss:
n'hi.
n
brain.
· khɛnɛ kɛ-n'hi hopp-i? — Don't you have any brains?
nɛhik
n
snot.
etymology: hiːk
nɛhiksɔrɔ
n
an asparagus
nepali:kurilo.
nɛhi lɛŋma
pronominal prefix indexes experiencer
to faint.
· a-n'hi lɛksɛ — I fainted
etymology: lɛŋma
nɛkkhɛkpa
n
a vine with large disc-shaped seeds
Entada sp.
nepali:pāŋgrā.
(a soghasiŋ.)
money, coin.
nɛkkhɔkk'riŋ
n
snail.
nɛːkma

root:
nɛːkt
present stem:
nɛːk
past stem:
nɛːkt.
vd
to be smeared with something, to be soiled.
nɛksa
n
flesh, meat; strength.
etymology: sa
nɛkwa
n
bat.
dialect: mɛkwa
nɛma

root:
nɛss
present stem:

past stem:
nɛss.
vi
to lie, to lie down, to be, to be situated (in a reclining posture, on the land or on a flat surface, of long objects, of geographical features, fields, forests, etc.).
· iŋga kɔ a-ghambek nɛssɛ, iŋga kɔ ɛmdaŋba a-him nɛssɛ — I had land, I had a house like this (so128)
· pulis-haˀ mɛ-d'yɛ-aŋ mɛ-nɛssɛ rahecha — it turned out the police had come and were waiting
· kha siŋŋ-ɛn condɛ-aŋ nɛssɛ — the tree had fallen there
· sarik ku-luŋma tuk nɛssɛ — he sorely missed it (so157)
vi
[perfect/resultative auxiliary].
· a- khet-ɛn cɛtcik thubɛ-aŋ nɛ — my rice-field has collapsed a bit (nup84)
· mi mɛ-duptu-aŋ nɛssɛ — they had made a fire (so299)
· i=mɛ-ghɛksu-aŋ nɛ — they've tied him up
· ɛ nɛssuŋ-aŋ nɛ ro! — I've put it down here, look! (so221)
(used especially for objects viewed as lying on the ground)
vt
to lay down.
· kɛ- koṭ-aŋ nɛssumbɛ-aŋ waˀ — we've [PE] laid out your coat (so252)
· duī sai yaŋ mɛ-nɛssu mɛ-buru — they [P] laid out Rs. 200 for him (so168)
· nɛsiŋŋ-aŋ ku-laŋŋ-ɛllɛ lɛˀru — lying down, he drew [the bow] with his feet (kana27)
nɛˀma

root:
nɛˀr
present stem:
nɛˀ
past stem:
nɛˀr.
vt
to work for a daily wage.
· yaːllek nɛˀma — to engage oneself as a field hand
nɛˀma

root:
nɛˀr
present stem:
nɛˀ
past stem:
nɛˀr.
vt
to fill in, to flood (of a mudslide, of water).
· nɛˀru teˀru — it filled it in and washed it away
nɛːndi
n
gums.
nɛːndzɔŋ
n
cock's comb.
nɛnɛ
also: nɛnnɛ
poss:
nnɛ.
n
elder sister, sister-in-law (wife's elder sister)
.
nɛpcɔŋ
also: nɛpcaŋ.
n
clitoris.
nɛːpma

root:
nɛːpt
present stem:
nɛːp
past stem:
nɛːpt.
vt
to push down into the ground, to crush, to subdue; (joc.) to copulate with.
· khan phaŋ-lɛ-aŋ tɛmsusi-aŋ nɛːptusi — those two caught it and pinned it down (so314)
nɛpmaŋ
q
both.
etymology: nɛtchi, maraŋ
nɛːpphɛ
(probably a doublet of mɛːpphe)
n
a plant
nepali:ṭaṭalo.
nɛrɛt
n
liver, heart.
(Informants did not clearly distinguish the heart from the liver. Cf. luŋma%1.)
nɛse
n
a kind of earring (in the form of a large flattened gold disk).
nɛtchi
num
two.
occurs in: nɛtmu etymology: si
nɛtl'bhak
n
a tree (?or shrub)
Callicarpa macrophylla
Callicarpa arborea.
nɛtma
also: nɛpma
root:
nɛtt
present stem:
nɛt
past stem:
nɛtt.
vt
to stop, to abstain, to withhold
nepali:bārnu.
· yum kɛn-nɛttun? — do you not abstain from salt [i.e. observe mourning]?
nɛtmu
num
both.
· nɛtmu- janā — both [human] (jari105)
etymology: nɛtchi
nɛt yukma

root:
yukt
present stem:
yuk
past stem:
yukt.
vi
to fast, to observe ritual pollution.
etymology: nɛtma
ni
part
precisely [emphatic].
· libaŋ-ni mɛ-yuŋ ku-mbhuˀ ku-n'saˀ — his brothers live right in Libang (so13)
· khɔn-haˀ-rɛ-rɔt-ni mɛ-sɛru-llɛ si — only they can kill it ["only if they kill it it will die"] (so36)
ni
bound prefix, num
two.
occurs in: niyaːn, nirɛŋ
nikma

root:
nikt
present stem:
nik
past stem:
nikt.
vt
to copulate with.
nim
n
a field-termite (eaten, used as fish bait)
nepali:chichimire.
nima

root:
nis
present stem:
ni
past stem:
nis.
vt
to see, to know.
· khɛni lam kɛ-nisum — you [P] know the road
· am-ni phɛaŋ kɔ mi mɛn-dup-pa — not lighting a fire lest they see us [PI]
· mi kɛ-ot-pa nisumbɛ-aŋ — we [PE] saw a fire burning and ...
occurs in: kusen nima postfinal-related: nis-/niːt-
nimma

root:
nint
present stem:
nin
past stem:
nind.
vd
to shake, to reverberate (as an earthquake).
niŋ
also: niŋbɔːt.
n
poison (?aconite).
· niŋ caːttu-aŋ niŋbɔːt caːttu-aŋ sɛru — he fed [the ghost] poison and killed it (so331)
etymology: pɔːt
niŋ
n
mind.
preverb
occurs in: niŋ=dhɛmma, niŋ=lɛˀma etymology: niŋwa
niŋbɔːt
see: niŋ
niŋ=dhɛmma

root:
thɛnt
present stem:
thɛn
past stem:
thɛnd.
vt pronominal prefix indexes experiencer
to be loud for so., to disturb with noise.
· a-niŋ kɛ-dhɛndu — you're breaking my eardrums
etymology: thɛmma
niŋge
n
oil.
niŋghuʔwa
n
an edible grasshopper (?locust).
niŋ=lɛˀma

root:
lɛˀr
present stem:
lɛˀ
past stem:
lɛˀr.
vd (imps) pronominal prefix indexes experiencer
to have enough, to be sick of.
· a-niŋ=lɛˀru — I am sick of it
niŋsaŋ
n
hope.
niŋsaŋ pukma

root:
puk
present stem:
puk
past stem:
pug.
vi pronominal prefix indexes experiencer
to be heartbroken.
postfinal-related: niŋsaŋ puk-/niŋsaŋ puks-
niŋsaŋ puŋma

root:
puks
present stem:
puŋ
past stem:
puks.
vt pronominal prefix indexes experiencer
to forget so. (esp. deliberately), to cease to care for so..
postfinal-related: niŋsaŋ puk-/niŋsaŋ puks-
niŋ sisi lɔˀma

root:
lɔˀr
present stem:
lɔˀ
past stem:
lɔˀr.
vi (imps) pronominal prefix indexes experiencer (takes an infinitival complement)
to feel tired, to feel lazy.
niŋwa
n
mind, intelligence.
etymology: niŋ
niŋwa hɔŋma

root:
hɔks
present stem:
hɔŋ
past stem:
hɔks.
vt pronominal prefix indexes experiencer
to sound out so.'s intentions.
· ku-niŋwa hɔksuŋ — I sounded him out.
niŋwa lɛŋma

root:
lɛks
present stem:
lɛŋ
past stem:
lɛks.
pronominal prefix indexes experiencer
to have a mental lapse, to forget.
· ku-niŋwa lɛksɛ — he had a mental lapse
etymology: lɛŋma
niŋwa mumma

root:
muts
present stem:
mun
past stem:
mutch.
lt
vi (imps) pronominal prefix indexes experiencer
to forget.
· a-niŋwa mutchɛ — I forgot
lt
vt pronominal prefix indexes experiencer
to forget.
· a-niŋwa mutchuŋ — I forgot
· asen huˀnɛ, niŋwa kɛmutchu — I taught you that before; you forgot
niŋwa pɔŋma

root:
pɔŋ
present stem:
pɔŋ
past stem:
pɔŋ.
vi (imps) pronominal prefix indexes experiencer
to be restless.
niŋwa tama

root:
ta
present stem:
ta
past stem:
tay.
vi (imps) pronominal prefix indexes experiencer
to be happy, to be content, to be satisfied.
· mɛːn kɔrɔ iŋga a-niŋwa mɛ-danɛn iŋga kɔ — otherwise I will not be satisfied, for my part (so179)
postfinal-related: niŋwa ta-/niŋwa tas-
niŋwa tama

root:
tas
present stem:
ta
past stem:
tas.
vt pronominal prefix indexes experiencer
to make happy, to please [the verb shows 3d person object agreement].
· kɛ-niŋwa tasumbɛ — we [PE] will make you happy (so140)
postfinal-related: niŋwa ta-/niŋwa tas-
niŋwa-'tmu lama

root:
las
present stem:
la
past stem:
las.
vi (imps) pronominal prefix indexes experiencer
to come to mind.
niŋwa-'tmu pekma

root:
pek
present stem:
pek
past stem:
peg.
vi (imps) (irr) pronominal prefix indexes experiencer
to come to mind.
niŋwa tɔkma

root:
tɔkt
present stem:
tɔk
past stem:
tɔkt.
vi (imps)
to be reliable (of a person).
niŋwa tukma

root:
tuk
present stem:
tuk
past stem:
tug.
vi (imps) pronominal prefix indexes experiencer
to feel sadness, to feel regret.
niŋwa yakma

root:
yak
present stem:
yak
past stem:
yag.
vi (imps) pronominal prefix indexes experiencer
to remember.
· khan-haˀ jamma a-niŋwa mɛ-yagɛn, nɛtchi kɔ a-niŋwa yak — I don't remember all of them; I remember two (so81)
· ku-miŋŋ-ɛn iŋga a-niŋwa mɛ-yaknɛn — I don't remember his name
niːpma

root:
niːpt
present stem:
niːp
past stem:
niːpt.
vd (imps)
to be properly salted.
· yum niːptu — it is salted
vt
to spice, to put salt in (food).
nirɛŋ
adv
twice.
niːtma
also: niːpma
root:
niːt
present stem:
niːt
past stem:
niːr.
vt
to read, to count.
occurs in: kha=niːtma postfinal-related: nis-/niːt-
niːtma
also: niːpma
root:
niːtt
present stem:
niːt
past stem:
niːtt.
see: kusiŋ niːtma
niːttaŋ
adv
nearby.
· a-him niːttaŋ yuŋ — my house is nearby
niːʔwa
n
pus.
dialect: miːʔwa
niyaːn
adv
two days.
nɔˀima
n
a small basket in which mustard-seed is held in the oil-press.
nɔːk
n
shoot, leaf-bud.
occurs in: cinɔːk, phanɔːk
nɔksuːmba
n
elbow.
nɔllɛk
n
house-lizard.
nɔma

root:

present stem:

past stem:
nɔy.
vt
to stir-fry, to pop (corn).
· ghī-n cɛ mɛdhɛktu-aŋ mɛ-nɔyu — they put in a little ghee and fried it (dan143)
nɔˀma

root:
nɔˀr
present stem:
nɔˀ
past stem:
nɔˀr.
see: na=nɔˀma
nɔmma

root:
nɔn
present stem:
nɔn
past stem:
nɔr.
vi
to be left over.
postfinal-related: nɔn-/nɔtt-/nɔns-
nɔmma

root:
nɔns
present stem:
nɔn
past stem:
nɔnch.
vt
to keep as leftovers, to leave aside (in eating).
postfinal-related: nɔr-/nɔtt-/nɔns-
nɔːŋma

root:
nɔːks
present stem:
nɔːŋ
past stem:
nɔːks.
vt
to shave.
nɔtma
also: nɔpma
root:
nɔtt
present stem:
nɔt
past stem:
nɔtt.
vd
to be half-cooked, to be spoiled by being left too long (of beer, of rice cooked over too slow a fire).
postfinal-related: nɔr-/nɔtt-/nɔns-
nu
n
breast, udder, milk.
occurs in: pitnu
nu
pp
with, and.
· kappoba-nu kapmu khunchi cumluŋ cogɛsi — the old man and the old woman took counsel together
· yɛba-nu yɛma-llɛ mɛttusi — the male and female yɛba said [D] (so35)
· ku-nara nu-m'-ɛn-nu-rɔt yaˀ=mɛ-raːktɛ — they only paddy-dance with the pretty ones (dan33)
· celī-nu sɔmma-nu kɛ(peg)i mɛːn-i — you went, both boys and girls together, no? (dan220)
from, than.
· khunchi am-bi-b'-ɛn-nu-llɛ ci-yɔm-ba pimasi poŋŋ-i? — or should we give them a bit more than what they give us? (dan159)
while, [continuous].
· tak=kɔn-nu tak=kɔn-nu yɛ — came wandering down (kana5)
nudhak
n
homespun thread.
nuːdhi
n
greens, green vegetables.
nukma

root:
nuk
present stem:
nuk
past stem:
nug.
vt
to trample, to crush against the ground; to thresh (
Eleusine
"millet") by trampling it.
nuːkma

root:
nuːkt
present stem:
nuːk
past stem:
nuːkt.
vt
to give or receive in return, to answer.
· nuːktu teˀru — he gave it back
· nuːktu phɛttu — he got it back
· anigɛ paisa nuːktum yuːrumbɛ — we [PE] brought down the money and gave it back
postfinal-related: nuːks-/nuːkt-
numa

root:
nuːr
present stem:
nuː
past stem:
nuːr.
vs
to be good.
· kudza nu — it is tasty
· ku-nara nu-m'-ɛn — pretty girl (dan21)
· alla ɛmbha ɛmbha yuŋma mɛ-nunɛn — now it's not good for us [PI] just to stay around
· khɔl-lɔt kɔ nuːkma mɛ-nuːrɛn — it's not good enough just to give the same in return (dan166)
nuˀma

root:
nuˀr
present stem:
nuˀ
past stem:
nuˀr.
vi
to be sprained, to be dislocated.
nuˀma

root:
nuˀr
present stem:
nuˀ
past stem:
nuˀr.
vi
to be enough (of curry, etc., to accompany a given quantity of rice).
nuˀma

root:
nuˀr
present stem:
nuˀ
past stem:
nuˀr.
see: na=nuˀma
nuːmma

root:
nuːnt
present stem:
nuːn
past stem:
nuːnd.
vi
to feel shame, to be shy.
nuːŋma

root:
nuːks
present stem:
nuːŋ
past stem:
nuːks.
vi
to return, to go back.
· khɛni akkhe poksɛ-aŋ kɛ-nuːksi? — why ["how having happened"] did you [P] come back?
postfinal-related: nuːks-/nuːkt-
nupma

poss:
nnupma.
n
mother-in-law
.
(addressed as "mother")
nuppa

poss:
nnuppa
fem:
nupma.
n
father-in-law
.
(addressed as "father")
nurik
adv
well.
· nurik cogɛ! — do a good job! (so116)
etymology: numa, rik
nurumbot
n
fontanel.
dialect: narumbopma
nusaˀ

poss:
n'saˀ.
n
younger sibling
.
nuseˀ
n
nipple ["breast fruit"].
etymology: nu, se
nusi
num
seven.
n'ya

poss:
nn'ya.
n
aunt (father's sister, mother's brother's wife)
.
ŋa
n
fish.
· ŋa kɛ-sɛt-pa-haˀ — fishermen
ŋabondzi
n
small fish
nepali:bhurā māchā.
ŋaghɛkya
n
dried fish.
etymology: khɛkya
ŋasi
num
five.
· ŋa-ŋasi — five each (jari103)
ŋɛːkma

root:
ŋɛːkt
present stem:
ŋɛːk
past stem:
ŋɛːkt.
vi
to cry, to scream (esp. of a pig).
ŋɛkŋa
n
a fish
nepali:tite.
o
preverb
look.
occurs in: o=mɛtma, o=muma
ok
interj
yes, O.K., right.
· ok — iŋga coguŋ — OK, I'll do it (so115)
oˀma

root:
oˀr
present stem:

past stem:
oˀr.
vt
to burn, to roast, to cremate.
· a-hukk-ɛn oˀru — I burned my hand
to inform on.
· mɔna kɛ-oˀ-ba — informer
· indɛn yammu anigɛ mɔna-llɛ mɛ-oˀrigɛ rahecha — it turned out that people had informed on us [PE] again
· mɔna-rɛ kɛmy-oˀri kɛm-suri mu khɛni — people have already informed on you [P]
o=mɛtma
also: o=mɛpma
root:
mɛtt
present stem:
mɛt
past stem:
mɛtt.
vt
to look at, to consider.
· o=mɛttu-rɔ māc-ɛn nisu — looking, he saw the platform (nup71)
· nu-ba tap=phɛːm-ba ku-nara o=mɛn-mɛt-pa anigɛ kɔ — we [PE] don't even look at her face, whether it is beautiful or ugly (dan93)
cf.: o=muma
omma

root:
ont
present stem:
on
past stem:
ond.
vd
to shine.
· namm-ɛn ondu — the sun came out (appearing from behind a cloud)
postfinal-related: ott-/ont-/ots-
omma

root:
ots
present stem:
on
past stem:
otch.
vt
to cause to shine brightly.
postfinal-related: ott-/ont-/ots-
o=muma

root:
mu
present stem:
mu
past stem:
muy.
vi
to look.
cf.: o=mɛtma
on
preverb
occurs in: on=dhakma
on=dhakma

root:
thakt
present stem:
thak
past stem:
thakt.
vt
to show.
· anigɛ kɔkk-ɛn ɔn=dhaktumsimbɛ-llɛ kɔ — when [PE] we showed them our loads
ondh'yakma
n
a near-chestnut
Castanopsis sp.
nepali:pātle kaṭus.
otma
also: opma
root:
ott
present stem:
ot
past stem:
ott.
vi
to give light, to shine (of the sun, a lamp, a firefly).
· mi kɛ-op-pa nisumbɛ-aŋ — we [PE] saw the fire burning and ...
occurs in: kha=otma postfinal-related: ott-/ont-/ots-
ɔdo
n
a sling for throwing.
ɔdzɔ
n
a woven fish-trap.
ɔˀi
n
porcupine.
ɔkkh'rɔːnda
also: ɔkkh'rɔːndama.
n
castor bean
Ricinus communis.
ɔkkhukkhuˀba
adj
bent over, curved (as a sickle)
nepali:kupro.
ɔkkhum
n
a bow (bending over).
· ɔkkhum lɔˀrɛ — he bent over, he bowed down
· ɔkkhum mɛtmasiŋ — to bend over, to bow down
· ɔkkhum pɔtchɛ — he remained bent over
ɔkma

root:
ɔk
present stem:
ɔk
past stem:
ɔg.
vi
to come unstuck, to come loose (e.g. a rock from a slope).
· mu ɔgaŋ th'yaŋ — I fell down off the slope (naro100)
postfinal-related: ɔk-/ɔks-
ɔːkma

root:
ɔːk
present stem:
ɔːk
past stem:
ɔːg.
vt
to dig (with a hoe), to peck, to strike (of a snake), to tatoo.
· yaˀ ɔːkma — to cultivate rice (dan258)
· thakpa kusikmu yu-aŋ kɔ a-ɔːk-pa — rope-like [snakes], that come down and strike
ɔːkma

root:
ɔːkt
present stem:
ɔːk
past stem:
ɔːkt.
vi
to shout, to cry out, to crow.
· ɔːktɛ phiːktɛ — he shouted and screamed (naro86)
ɔm
adj, color-type
yellow.
· ɔm kɛ-lɔˀ-ba — yellow
cf.: hiːk occurs in: ɔmdaŋba
ɔma

root:
ɔs
present stem:
ɔ
past stem:
ɔs.
vt
to spit out.
· ca-n ɔsu — he spat out the food
ɔˀma

root:
ɔˀr
present stem:
ɔˀ
past stem:
ɔˀr.
vi
to break without separating (of a twig), to come loose (as a rock from a cliff, etc.).
postfinal-related: ɔˀr-/ɔnt-
ɔmdaŋba
adj (color deriv.)
yellow.
etymology: ɔm, taŋ
ɔmma

root:
ɔnt
present stem:
ɔn
past stem:
ɔnd.
vt
to break off, to put aside (a part), to remove,.
· tɔːkk-ɛn ɔndɛ — take out a bit of rice! (in cooking or serving)
postfinal-related: ɔˀr-/ɔnt-
ɔn
n
horse.
ɔna
n
a bitter medicinal herb
Drymaria cordata
nepali:abijālo.
ɔŋ
n
brother-in-law, sister-in-law.
· a-ɔŋŋ-e! — o sister-in-law!
(form of address for ɔŋɛːkma, ɔŋɛːkpa)
ɔŋɛk
adv
slowly, carefully, softly.
· ɔŋɛk peginnɛ! — take it easy!
· ɔŋɛk ɔːktɛ-llɛ kɔ — when he cried out softly
ɔŋɛːkma
n
sister-in-law, younger brother's wife, wife's younger sister (joking relationship), husband's younger sister
.
cf.: ɔŋ
ɔŋɛːkpa

fem:
ɔŋɛːkma.
n
brother-in-law, younger sister's husband (of a woman), husband's younger brother (not a term of address)
nepali:dewar
.
cf.: ɔŋ
ɔŋɛːkwa
n
baby.
ɔŋma

root:
ɔks
present stem:
ɔŋ
past stem:
ɔks.
vt
to pull off, to pull loose, to peel off, to take off the fire.
postfinal-related: ɔk-/ɔks-
ɔŋma

root:
ɔŋ
present stem:
ɔŋ
past stem:
ɔŋ.
vr
to lay off work.
· sɔpma mɛny-ɔŋŋasinnɛ! — don't stop work just yet!
(possibly related to ɔk-/ɔks-)
ɔŋsɔksɔk
adj
loose (of clothing).
ɔraŋghɛkpa
n
a plant.
ɔse
n
a kind of aerial wild yam (a famine food)
nepali:giṭṭho.
jack-in-the-pulpit, a famine food
Arisaema sp.
nepali:bām̐ko.
ɔsek
n
snake.
ɔsek ŋa
n
eel ["snake-fish"].
ɔsek yakla
n
an Arisaema ["snake-taro"]
Arisaema sp.
nepali:bām̐ko.
cf.: ɔse
ɔtchɛrɛpma
n
a creeper.
ɔʔwanama
n
main pillar of house.
pa
(The vowel is elided before the topic/definite marker ɛn, locative ɛtyo, etc.)
suffix, n
[nominal]; male.
· asen-ba lamm-ɛn mɛ-nunɛn — the road we took before won't do
pa

poss:
mba.
n
father
.
cf.: pɔppa
pa
preverb
occurs in: pa=mɛtma (possibly an error for paːn=mɛtma)
paːkma

root:
paːk
present stem:
paːk
past stem:
paːg.
vt
to scoop up (liquid), to scratch in the earth (of a chicken).
paːkma

root:
paːkt
present stem:
paːk
past stem:
paːkt.
lt
vt
to bite, to take between the teeth.
paːkpa

fem:
paːkma.
adj
younger, junior.
· tɔŋbe nɛtchi-aŋ paːkma — junior by two years [of a female]
pakpɛppa
also: wakpɛppa.
n
hole (in the ground).
· kha pakpɛpp'-ɛn luptɛ — fill in that hole with earth
pakwa
n
water-hole.
paːkwa
n
bamboo ladle; a groove in wood.
etymology: paːkma
palam
n
song.
· yaˀ=raːktɛsigɛ-llɛ kɔ khunɛ-aŋ palam mɛttaŋ, inga-aŋ mɛttuŋ palam — when we [DE] paddy-danced, she sang to me and I sang to her (naro12)
pa=mɛtma
see: paːn=mɛtma
paːm-paːm
adj
fine (of cloth), dilute (of beer).
· thi-n paːm-paːm lɔrɛ — the beer is weak
paːn
n
word, speech, language.
preverb
occurs in: paːn=khɔˀma, paːn=mɛtma, paːn=phɔˀma, paːn=tumma, paːn=thumma
paːn=khɔˀma

root:
khɔˀr
present stem:
khɔˀ
past stem:
khɔˀr.
vd pronominal prefix indexes experiencer
to stammer, to have a speech defect.
· a-n'saˀ-rɛ ku-baːn khɔˀru — my younger brother stammers
· ku-baːn kɛ-ghɔˀ-b'-ɛn — a stammerer
postfinal-related: paːn khɔˀr-/khɔs-
paːn=mɛtma
also: paːn=mɛpma, pa=mɛtma
root:
mɛtt
present stem:
mɛt
past stem:
mɛtt.
vt
to scold, to warn, to instruct, to reason with.
paːn=phɔˀma

root:
phɔˀr
present stem:
phɔˀ
past stem:
phɔˀr.
vt
to interrupt (so. talking).
paːn-taːtma
n
suitor's ceremonial offering of money and spirits, given by his spokesman to the girl's parents.
etymology: taːtma
paːn=tumma
vi
to meet and talk.
etymology: tumma
paːn=thumma

root:
thunt
present stem:
thun
past stem:
thund.
vt
to bring up something forgotten (usually unpleasant).
etymology: thumma
paŋ
n (in expressions)
house, village.
occurs in: paŋbhe, paŋ khe, paŋyɔk
preverb
occurs in: paŋ=wama
paŋboˀma
also: paŋbohaŋ.
n
a clan (Libang).
paŋbo phuŋma
n
a medicinal plant, jatamasi
nepali:jaṭamansī.
paŋbhe
n
village.
etymology: paŋ
paŋdu
n
a plant
Rubia cordifolia
nepali:majiṭho.
paŋ khe
n
a cultivated yam, white-fleshed, deep (1m), one yam per plant ["village-yam"].
paŋli
also: paŋlima
poss:
mbaŋli.
n
daughter-in-law
.
· paŋl'-e!, paŋlim'-e! — o daughter-in-law!
paŋlimi

poss:
mbaŋlimi
fem:
paŋli
fem:
paŋlima.
n
son-in-law, daughter-in-law's male agnates
.
paŋma

root:
paŋs
present stem:
paŋ
past stem:
paŋs.
vt
to send (so.), to send on an errand.
· anigɛ alla mɔna thik paŋsum tesumbɛ tho — now we [PE] will send a man up there (so263)
[causative] to have so. (obj.) do sth..
· cok mɛ-baŋsu — they had him do it (so84)
· khunɛ him bhitri laːt mɛm-baŋŋɛ! — don't allow him to enter the house!
(with the present stem of the governed verb)
paːŋma

root:
paːks
present stem:
paːŋ
past stem:
paːks.
vi
to come undone.
initial-related: paːks-/phaːks-
paŋ'risiŋma
n
a plant
Woodfordia fruticosa.
cf.: piːppiːpma
paŋsuŋma
n
suitor's ceremonial offering (of money, meat, and spirits to the subba of a girl's family).
paŋ=wama

root:
wa
present stem:
wa
past stem:
way.
vi
to play, to take a walk.
· paŋ=wasɛ pe — he went for a walk
paŋyɔk
n
site or ruin of a house.
etymology: paŋ
parama
l
n
an early variety of Eleusine.
· parama thi — millet beer (kana40)
also: parama sammaŋ.
lt
n
leprosy.
parɛp tɛtla
n
a plant
Macaranga denticulata.
paːtma
also: paːpma
root:
paːt
present stem:
paːt
past stem:
paːr.
vi
to speak.
· kɛ-si-b'-ɛn kɔ paːrɛ — the dead man spoke (so136)
· anigɛ s'waˀ paːrigɛ, mɛŋ-ghɛmm-ɛ khunchi — we spoke quietly, so they [P] would not hear (nup93)
postfinal-related: paːt-/paːtt-
paːtma
also: paːpma
root:
paːtt
present stem:
paːt
past stem:
paːtt.
vt
to say.
· sɛtma suk mɛ-dɛtnɛn phɛaŋ kɔ paːttusi — "it can't be killed," they [D] said (so42)
· khɛnɛ kɛ-baːttu-b'-ɛn kusik — as you said (dan207)
postfinal-related: paːt-/paːtt-
peˀhi cadzama
n
a bird, the forktail
nepali:lāmpuchare.
pekma

root:
pek
present stem:
pek
past stem:
peg
past stem:
pe. (The present stem is pit- in dual forms; in past forms, pegɛ has the alternant (and more usual) form pe.)
vi (irr)
to go.
· pegi-ro! — let's [P] go!
· anchigɛ pitchigɛ-aŋ — we [DE] will go and ...
to happen, to come about [impersonal auxiliary].
· sira a-dhaŋ pek — one gets to like them (dan30)
to go on doing, to continue.
· khan-haˀ-nu yaˀ=a-raːk a-waˀ a-bek — we go on paddy-dancing with them regularly (dan22)
· cɛ wettaŋ pegaŋ — I had gotten a little better (naro145)
pemma

root:
pent
present stem:
pen
past stem:
pend.
vi
to be neglected inadvertently, to turn out badly (of work).
initial-related: pent-/phent-
pes'mu
also: pesu.
see: pes'yo
pes'yo
also: pes'mu.
pp relative noun
next to, beside.
· kɛ-bes'mu — next to you
cf.: nas'mu etymology: kube
pɛdɛkna
n
chatterbox.
pɛdɛktɛk
adv
manner of chattering.
pɛdɔːk
see: pɔdɔːk
pɛgɔk
adv
crooked, in a crooked way.
· pɛgɔk lɔˀrɛ — it is crooked
· pɛgɔk mɛttu — he bent it
cf.: cigɔk
pɛgɔkkɔkpa
adj
crooked.
pɛˀhi
n
placenta.
pɛːkko
n
girl's pouch of woven bamboo, in which her personal valuables are kept.
pɛːkko sama
n
delivery of a gift by a suitor to the girl's father.
etymology: sama
pɛma

root:
pɛːr
present stem:
pɛː
past stem:
pɛːr.
vi
to fly.
postfinal-related: pɛːr-/phɛs- initial-related: pɛːr-/phɛs-
pɛma

root:
pɛs
present stem:

past stem:
pɛs.
vt
to vomit.
postfinal-related: pɛs-/pɛˀr-
pɛˀma

root:
pɛˀr
present stem:
pɛˀ
past stem:
pɛˀr.
vi
to break (without separating, e.g. of a broken stalk or branch).
initial-related: pɛˀr-/phɛˀr-
pɛˀma

root:
pɛˀr
present stem:
pɛˀ
past stem:
pɛˀr.
vt
to vomit on.
vr
to vomit.
· pɛˀsiŋŋ-aŋ sima cok — He looks as if he'll die from vomiting
postfinal-related: pɛs-/pɛˀr-
pɛˀmat
n
vomit.
· a-bɛˀmat lɔːndɛ — I vomited
cf.: seˀmat
pɛmma

root:
pɛns
present stem:
pɛn
past stem:
pɛnch.
vt
to line up, to straighten.
pɛmma

root:
pɛnt
present stem:
pɛn
past stem:
pɛnd.
vi
to slip down (of a landslide, trousers), to slip (out of the hand).
initial-related: pɛnt-/phɛnt-
pɛna
n
Eleusine "millet"
Eleusine coracana
nepali:kodo.
pɛni
n
Nepali, esp. as opposed to Limbu or Kiranti
nepali:khas
nepali:bāhun-chetrī.
· pɛni paːn ci-yɔllik kɛ-baːri — you [P] speak a bit too much Nepali (dan291)
pɛːŋgo
n
handful, the two hands cupped together.
· kɛ-bɛːŋgo-pmu — in your hands
pɛŋwa
n
deer.
pɛraŋghɛk
adv
manner of sitting, cross-legged.
pɛrɛm
adv
across, horizontally, diagonally.
· pɛrɛm siŋ — main beam supporting the upper floor of a house
· pɛrɛmlɛmba — straight, horizontal
pɛrɛkkɛkkɛkpa
adv
stylishly (of dressing, of wearing a cap).
· ṭopī pɛrɛkkɛkkɛkpa kɛ-ghuːŋ-ba — wearing a cap stylishly (dan85)
pɛt
suffix, adv
[indicates a position or posture].
occurs in: kikpɛt, kukpɛt, luppɛt, sabhɔkpɛt, tukpɛt, thɛːkpɛt
pɛtma
also: pɛpma
root:
pɛtt
present stem:
pɛt
past stem:
pɛtt.
vt
to trim with an adze.
pima

root:
pi
present stem:
pi
present stem:
pit
past stem:
pir
past stem:
pur
past stem:
pɛr. (This is the only verb with an open present stem and a short past stem in r. The present stem is pit before the dual suffix si. The stem vowel in the past stem alternates, generally in harmony with the suffix. It has the form pur- before 3d person object suffixes beginning with u, and in imperatives with 3d person objects ( purɛ 'give it to him!'); pɛr- before suffixes beginning with a or ɛ ( a-bɛrɛ 'he gave to us [PI]'); and pir- before suffixes beginning with i ( pirigɛ 'he gives/gave us [PE]').)
vt (irr)
to give.
· paisa mɛ-birigɛ — they gave us [PE] the money
· jamma kɛm-biri, yo peginnɛ! — they'll give you everything, go down there! (so334)
· aŋ-g'wa-rɛ kɔ jamma pɛraŋ — my uncle has given me everything (so256)
· thi purumsimbɛ — we [PE] give them beer (dan140)
[benefactive auxiliary].
· nurik coguŋ piniŋ a — I'll do a good job for you [P] (so115)
· ɛ-yarik mɔre pit saŋwa kɛ-gɔttu kɛ-bɛraŋ kɛ-wayɛ — you [S] took care of the cattle for me for so long (so185)
piˀma

root:
piˀr
present stem:
piˀ
past stem:
piˀr.
lt
vi
to be dented.
l
vt
to dent.
initial-related: piˀr-/phiˀr-
pimba
n
rib.
piːmba
n
silverfish
nepali:dhule kiro.
pimma

root:
pint
present stem:
pin
past stem:
pind.
vi
to jump.
· pindɛ-rɔ pe — he went leaping along
· kɛ-m'ra bhitri pinna laːtna — I'll jump into your mouth (kana25)
postfinal-related: pint-/pitt-/phint- initial-related: pint-/pitt-/phint-
piːnda
n
plastered floor.
piːŋma

root:
piːks
present stem:
piːŋ
past stem:
piːks.
vi
to fall off, to come out, to come loose (of the horn of an animal, thread from a needle).
initial-related: piːks-/phiːks-
pipmi pholloba
n
plants of the genus Arisaema (young tubers and stalks of some varieties are used for food)
Arisaema sp.
nepali:bām̐ko.
piːppiːpma
n
a plant
Woodfordia fruticosa
nepali:dhaŋero.
pirima
n
a plant
Eleagnus sp.
nepali:malleḍo.
pit
n
cow, ox.
pitcam'rɛkma
n
a weed of Eleusine
nepali:dām̐de.
pitco-khiːkpa
n
a bird
nepali:cibe caro.
piːtchiŋ
n
a bamboo straw for drinking tongbā.
etymology: piːtma, siŋ
pitma
also: pipma
root:
pitt
present stem:
pit
past stem:
pitt.
vt
to splash (so. or sth.).
pitma
also: pipma
root:
pitt
present stem:
pit
past stem:
pitt.
vt
to jump (to a point, across sth.).
postfinal-related: pint-/pitt-/phint- initial-related: pint-/pitt-/phint-
piːtma
also: piːpma
root:
piːtt
present stem:
piːt
past stem:
piːtt.
vt
to suck.
pitnu
n
cow's milk.
etymology: pit, nu
podhɛba

fem:
poyuma.
n
great-great-great-grandfather.
etymology: pomɛncha, poyuma
pokla liŋ
n
thatch grass.
etymology: liŋ
pokma

root:
pok
present stem:
pok
past stem:
pog.
vi
to rise, to stand up, to get up.
· yo-haŋ-nu tho-haŋ-nu mɛ-bogɛ-aŋ kɔ anigɛ mɛ-naːttigɛ — they rose up on all sides and pursued us
· kusik pogɛ — he became angry
postfinal-related: pok-/phoks- initial-related: pok-/phoks-
poma

root:
por
present stem:
po
past stem:
por.
vi
to grow.
· sarik kɛ-bo-ba — fast-growing
postfinal-related: por-/pont-/phos- initial-related: por-/pont-/phos-
pomɛncha
n
great-great-grandchild.
etymology: podhɛba, poyuma
pomma

root:
pont
present stem:
pon
past stem:
pond.
vi
to be numerous, to flourish (esp. of offspring).
· pondɛ thɛˀrɛ — they prospered
postfinal-related: por-/pont-/phos- initial-related: por-/pont-/phos-
poŋ
q, bound element
ten.
occurs in: thiboŋ, sumboŋ
poŋma

root:
poks
present stem:
poŋ
past stem:
poks.
vi
to be, to become.
· numa poksɛ — it is good
· the poksɛ kɔ? — what happened?
· iŋga yɛtchaba poksaŋŋ-aŋ ni … — just because I'd become an orphan ... (so131)
vi (imps) (takes an inflected or (usually) infinitive complement)
to be obliged to (impersonal).
· alla yɛba taːtma poŋ — now a yɛba must be brought (so32)
· iŋga pekma poksɛ-ro — now I must go
· khɛni niyaːn the kɛ-nɛssi poŋ — now you [P] must stay for a couple of days
potma
also: popma
root:
pott
present stem:
pot
past stem:
pott.
vi
to make a mistake, to miss.
· lam pottɛ — he missed the road
to be tangled (of thread).
postfinal-related: pott-/phots- initial-related: pott-/phots-
poyuma
n
great-great-great-grandmother.
etymology: pomɛncha, podhɛba, yuma
pɔdɔːk
n
toad.
pɔdɔːk-laŋ
n
a plant ["toad's-foot"]; the greens are used in a sour condiment
Bigonia sp..
pɔduktuk
adv
sound of heartbeat.
pɔdhe
n
pangolin
nepali:salak.
pɔˀɛːp
also: pɔˀɛːppa.
n
fig
Ficus carica.
pɔgi
adv
manner of being afraid.
· pɔgi kɛgisi — You [P] were terrified! (so146)
pɔiŋ

poss:
mbɔiŋ.
n
ritual friend's father.
pɔit
also: pɔet.
n
cucumber.
pɔkka
see: pɔkwa
pɔkkhɛ
adv
a little.
· pɔkkhɛ thubɛ — collapsed slightly
pɔkkhɔr'namba
n
civet cat.
etymology: nam
pɔk mikla
n
a thin bamboo with shorter inter-nodes than mikla.
pɔkwa
n
a small storage basket with feet
nepali:ḍālo.
dialect: pɔkka
pɔˀma

root:
pɔˀr
present stem:
pɔˀ
past stem:
pɔˀr.
vt
to cultivate (by digging up earth around the roots of plants, e.g. maize).
pɔmma

root:
pɔns
present stem:
pɔn
past stem:
pɔnch.
vt
to bind (a wound), to wrap up, to collect (e.g. to wrap flour into a leaf for cooking, to swarm onto sth. (of bees), to collect (a loan)).
postfinal-related: pɔtt-/pɔns-
pɔːmma

root:
pɔːnt
present stem:
pɔːn
past stem:
pɔːnd.
vi
to be mixed together.
· cɛtcik pɛni paːnn-ɛtmu pɔŋdɛ lasɛ-aŋ yak — it's gotten mixed in with Nepali (dan68)
initial-related: pɔːnt-/phɔːnt-
pɔːmma pekma
vi
to move into a new house.
pɔŋ
n
wooden vessel for spirits
nepali:cāũṭho.
pɔŋge
n
belt of small bells worn by the yɛba.
etymology: pɔːŋgheba
pɔːŋgheba
n
a near-chestnut
Castanopsis indica
nepali:ḍhālne kaṭus.
pɔŋma

root:
pɔks
present stem:
pɔŋ
past stem:
pɔks.
vt
to lift up, to carry (in the arms, on the shoulder, on the hip).
· am-ba-rɛ pɔksu-ba-yarik — as much as my father could carry (dan273)
postfinal-related: pɔŋ-/pɔks-
pɔŋma

root:
pɔŋ
present stem:
pɔŋ
past stem:
pɔŋ.
vi
to rise (of wind), to break up (of a market).
see: niŋwa pɔŋma
postfinal-related: pɔŋ-/pɔks-
pɔppa

poss:
mba.
n
father
.
cf.: pa
pɔri
n
comb.
pɔrɔksiŋ
n
willow.
pɔr'sek
n
a tree
Saurauia nepaulensis
nepali:gogun.
pɔːt
n
mushroom.
pɔtma
also: pɔpma
root:
pɔts
present stem:
pɔn
past stem:
pɔtch.
vi (irregular correspondence of present stem in t (instead of n) to past in ts)
to be (suspended or perched), to exist (persons or of things considered as suspended, e.g. followers, body parts, a roof, clouds, leaves or fruit on a tree, unfinished business, a soul unable to join the ancestors).
· iŋga kɔ a- koṭ nu-b'-ɛn atti pɔt kɔ? — where is my nice coat (?hanging)? (so150)
· a-luŋma tuk, a-māyā pɔt — I miss it, I am [still] attached to it ["my heart aches, my attachment remains"] (so158)
· ku-le pɔtt-i mɛ-bɔtnɛnn-i? — is it a boy or a girl?
· anigɛ ku-egaŋ ku-egaŋ pɔtchigɛ — we [PE] were following [?"hanging"] behind
· sɔpma pɔtchɛ! — stay back a moment!
to be hired, to work.
· saŋlaŋgoˀba mɛ-bɔtchɛ — there were acolytes (of the shaman) (so312)
vi (usually impersonal; may agree with the possessor)
to remain in the possession of so..
· ing'-ɛtmu pɔt — I have some left
· alla khɛnɛ kɛ-dhe-aŋ mɛ-bɔtchigɛl-lo anigɛ — now we [PE] don't have anything of yours (so248)
postfinal-related: pɔtt-/pɔns-
vi (imps)
[perfect/resultative auxiliary].
· siŋ thik kɔ haptu-aŋ pɔtchɛ — one tree-trunk had gotten caught (nup9)
· iŋga a- paisa-n phɛt mɛlaːndu-aŋ pɔt — they have wasted my money [and not returned it] (so177)
· sai yaŋ puruŋŋ-aŋ pɔt — I gave her Rs. 100 [and she still has it]. (so175)
· phɔtyi jamma tɛmsumbɛ-aŋ pɔtchɛ — we [PE] had all grasped the waistband
(Often used for things viewed as in suspense, literally or figuratively. The governed verb carries the suffix .)
vi (imps)
[progressive auxiliary].
· co-rɔ pɔt — he is eating
· wahit thasu-rɔ pɔtchɛ-llɛ — as it was [keeping on] raining (so28)
· khɛnɛ theaŋ kɛ(dɔn)na-ba? ɛm'daŋba (cog)uŋ-lɔ (pɔt)na, theaŋ kɛ(bhɛk)ŋa? — Why are you abusing me? I'm working like this, why do you scold me? (naro63)
(May suggest prolongation of the activity ("to be still doing x"). The governed verb carries the suffix .)
pɔːtma
also: pɔːpma
root:
pɔːtt
present stem:
pɔːt
past stem:
pɔːtt.
vt
to pile on, to put sth. on top of, to fill in (e.g. a hole in a dike or plastered surface), to cover (of animals copulating).
· yopp-ɛllɛ phakk-ɛn pɔːttu — the boar covered the sow
· ālī pɔːttu — he constructed dikes (around rice paddies)
pɔːtthaŋ
n
headcloth (worn by women).
· ṭāṭān pɔːtthaŋ khuːksu — she wears a tartan shawl (dan109)
etymology: pɔːtma
pɔyo
n
a small plant with edible leaves
nepali:ṭhotne
Polygonum molle.
pu
n
bird.
pu
n
hump (of a cow).
pukma

root:
puk
present stem:
puk
past stem:
pug.
see: niŋsaŋ pukma
puksu
pp
next to.
· siŋbuŋŋ-ɛllɛ ku-buksu-mu — at the foot of the tree
puˀma

root:
puˀr
present stem:
puˀ
past stem:
puˀr.
vi
to break (e.g. of a string).
initial-related: puˀr-/phuˀr-
pumma

root:
puns
present stem:
pun
past stem:
punch.
vt
to form into a ball.
pumma

root:
punt
present stem:
pun
past stem:
pund.
vi
to come off, to spring (of water) to become uncovered or unblocked (of a stream, a pipe).
initial-related: punt-/phunt-
puːmma

root:
puːnt
present stem:
puːn
past stem:
puːnd.
vt
to push (esp. with the shoulder), to root (of a pig).
puŋ
n
cooperative work-party (working on the members' fields in rotation)
nepali:melo.
· puŋŋ-aŋ kɛm-begin — you don't even go to the work-party (dan233)
puŋ
n
trunk (of a tree), base, important man.
puːŋghu
n
cubit (distance from the elbow to the end of the hand or fist).
· puːŋghu thik-thik-lɔt tɔyumbɛ — we only dug each one one cubit deep (nup63)
puŋma

root:
puks
present stem:
puŋ
past stem:
puks.
see: niŋsaŋ puŋma
putma
also: pupma
root:
putt
present stem:
put
past stem:
putt.
vt
to hold firmly, to squeeze in the hand, to strain beer-mash through the fingers.
putma
also: pupma.
n
fist.
etymology: putma
puːtma
also: puːpma
root:
puːtt
present stem:
puːt
past stem:
puːtt.
vd
to boil over.
p'yaˀ
n
millet
nepali:kāgunu.
p'yat
n
a small grasshopper.
pha
see: phɛ
suffix, adv
[manner adverbial].
occurs in: abhebha, ɛmbha, khambha, khɔmbha
pha
n
bamboo.
occurs in: haŋbha, lokpha, phadoŋ'riŋ, phahorik, phahɔk, phanɔːk, pharek, phasɛn, sakpha, thɛbha
phadaŋdaŋba
adv
[manner of laughing] boisterously.
· mɛ-erɛ phadaŋdaŋba khunchi kɔ — they laughed boisterously
phadoŋ'riŋ
n
an edible insect which eats bamboo shoots.
phahorik
n
papery sheath at the node of new bamboo.
etymology: horik
phahɔk
n
papery sheath at the node of new bamboo.
etymology: hɔk
phak
n
pig.
phakc'yak
n
piglet.
etymology: c'yak
phak-hɔk
n
gift of a whole male pig (offered to bride's family).
phakkhoŋ
n
trough (for pigs) [?"pig-boat"].
etymology: khoŋ
phakma
n
sow.
· phakma-laŋba — bow-legged ["sow-legged"]
phakma

root:
phakt
present stem:
phak
past stem:
phakt.
vt
to fold.
phaːkma

root:
phaːkt
present stem:
phaːk
past stem:
phaːkt.
vt
to permit.
· phɛn phaːktɛ — let him come
see: lam phaːkma
phaksa
n
pork.
etymology: sa
phaktaŋ
n
triangular wooden pig-collar (prevents pigs from getting through fences).
etymology: taŋ
phakyaːn
n
a plant
Amaranthus viridis.
phaˀma

root:
phaˀr
present stem:
phaˀ
past stem:
phaˀr.
vt
to help.
· a-bhaˀrinnɛ! — help [P] us! (so311)
· jamma-rɛ nɛːp mɛ-bhaˀru — they all helped subdue it (so314)
· yaˀ let-ma phaˀruŋsiŋ — I helped them transplant rice (naas16)
phaːmma

root:
phaːnt
present stem:
phaːn
past stem:
phaːnd.
vt
to dig out (a hole or pit), to carve (a groove, etc.).
phanɔːk
n
bamboo shoot.
etymology: pha, nɔːk
phaŋ
n
pair, twosome.
· khan phaŋ-lɛ-aŋ tɛmsusi — those two held it as well (so314)
· kānchā-nu parsurām mɛ-mɛttu-ba phaŋ phɛttusi-aŋ phɛrɛ — he came bringing the two they called "kid brother" and "Parsuram"
· kapsaba phaŋ — the twins
· ɛmbhaŋ — these two
phaŋma

root:
phaŋ
present stem:
phaŋ
past stem:
phaŋ.
vt
to fence in, to dam, to partition off.
phaːŋma

root:
phaːks
present stem:
phaːŋ
past stem:
phaːks.
vt
to undo, to untie.
initial-related: paːks-/phaːks-
phaŋsi
num
nine.
etymology: si
phara
n
bush, jungle, forest.
· phara-pmu imma poŋ — [we'll] have to sleep rough
occurs in: siŋla-phara etymology: pha, ra
pharaklak
adv
[manner of bubbling or boiling].
pharek
n
stick of split bamboo.
phasɛn
n
bamboo strips used as ties
nepali:bātā.
phat
see: phatt'ra
phatca pekma

root:
pek
present stem:
pek
past stem:
peg.
vi
to elope.
phaːt lɛːŋma

root:
lɛːks
present stem:
lɛːŋ
past stem:
lɛːks.
vt
to clear brush.
phaːtma
also: phaːpma
root:
phaːtt
present stem:
phaːt
past stem:
phaːtt.
vt
to fill a container with, to fetch (esp. water).
· cowat phaːttɛ — fill it with water
phatt'ra
also: phat.
n
grass-fire (usu. set to burn over pasture).
· phatt'ra lasɛ — a grass-fire broke out
· phatt'ra oˀru — he set a grass-fire
· phatt'ra labu — he set a grass-fire
pheˀbat
n
maggot, worm.
pheˀdum
also: pheˀrum.
n
flour.
phema

root:
phes
present stem:
phe
past stem:
phes.
vt
to fart.
postfinal-related: phes-/pheˀr-
pheˀma

root:
pheˀr
present stem:
pheˀ
past stem:
pheˀr.
vt
to fart at (so.).
postfinal-related: phes-/pheˀr-
pheˀmat
n
fart.
etymology: phema
phemma

root:
phent
present stem:
phen
past stem:
phend.
vt
to make a mistake, to miss (a road), to spoil (sth.) by a mistake.
· paːnn-ɛn phendu — he missspoke
initial-related: pent-/phent-
phɛphɛllɛ
also: pha.
suffix, adv
[manner adverbial].
see: abhebhɛ, ɛmbhɛ
also: phɛaŋ.
complementizer
[quotation marker] endquote, that, lest, thus.
· khɔn kɔ sɛtma suk mɛ-dɛtnɛn phɛaŋ kɔ paːttusi — "that one can't be killed," they [D] said (so42)
· "anigɛ kɔ hatna kuer khetī kɛ-dzok-p'-adigɛ," phɛ iŋ=lɛktumsimbɛ — "we're just peasants over there in Kuer," we [PE] lied to them
· am-dɛmm-i phɛaŋ a-gi-ba — fearing they might catch us [PI]
· am-ni phɛaŋ kɔ mi mɛn-dup-pa — not lighting a fire lest they see us [PI]
phɛdaŋma
n
shaman.
(responsible for "the gods of the locality, the clan, and the house" (Ph. Sagant).)
phɛdɛkna
also: pɛdɛkna.
n
chatterbox.
phɛdza
n
knife, khukurī.
phɛgisiŋma
n
a plant, of ritual importance, of the family Urticacae
Pousolzia sp.
Maoutia sp..
phɛk
n
crowd.
· hindza phɛkk-ɛtmu — among the group of boys (dan202)
phɛkma

root:
phɛkt
present stem:
phɛk
past stem:
phɛkt.
vi
to flower.
postfinal-related: phɛk-/phɛks-
to burst.
postfinal-related: phɛkt-/phɛks-
to scold.
· theaŋ kɛ-bhɛkŋa — why do you scold me? (naro63)
phɛːkma

root:
phɛːkt
present stem:
phɛːk
past stem:
phɛːkt.
vi
to bleat (of sheep).
vt
to hail, to shout at, to scold.
phɛkwa
n
leaf, cache-sexe.
cf.: tɛtla phɛkwa
phɛllɛŋ
n
wave, current.
· c'waːt-phɛllɛŋ — wave
· ŋabondzi phɛllɛŋ — school of small fish
phɛma

root:
phɛs
present stem:
phɛ
past stem:
phɛs.
vt
to cause to fly.
postfinal-related: pɛːr-/phɛs- initial-related: pɛːr-/phɛs-
phɛma

root:
phɛs
present stem:
phɛ
past stem:
phɛs.
vt
to lay down, to spread (a mat, bedding, planks for a floor).
postfinal-related: phɛs-/phɛˀr-
phɛˀma

root:
phɛˀr
present stem:
phɛˀ
past stem:
phɛˀr.
vt
to break (e.g. a stalk, without severing it).
initial-related: pɛˀr-/phɛˀr-
phɛˀma

root:
phɛˀr
present stem:
phɛˀ
past stem:
phɛˀr.
vt
to lay down a mat for.
phɛmbasɔŋ
n
a clan (of Libang, originally said to have worked iron).
(Cf. phɛndze, but this may be a folk-etymology.)
phɛmma

root:
phɛn
present stem:
phɛn
past stem:
phɛr.
vi
to come.
· khunchi-aŋ celī sɔmma mɛ-bhɛrɛ — they came too, both girls and boys (dan206)
postfinal-related: phɛn-/phɛtt-/phɛns-
phɛmma

root:
phɛn
present stem:
phɛn
past stem:
phɛr.
vi
to be spoiled.
· kudza phɛn — it tastes bad
· kunam phɛn — it smells bad
etymology: phɛt=laˀma, phɛt=laːmma postfinal-related: phɛn-/phɛns-
phɛmma

root:
phɛns
present stem:
phɛn
past stem:
phɛnch.
vt
to bring, to send (toward the speaker).
· mɛ-haŋu mɛ-bhɛnchu — they sent it [the letter] here (naas150)
postfinal-related: phɛn-/phɛtt-/phɛns-
phɛmma

root:
phɛns
present stem:
phɛn
past stem:
phɛnch.
vt
to spoil (sth.).
postfinal-related: phɛn-/phɛns-
phɛmma

root:
phɛnt
present stem:
phɛn
past stem:
phɛnd.
vt
to undo, to take off (clothing).
· tara ku-gɔkk-ɛn kɔ phɛndu-aŋ yuŋɛ rahecha — but he had undone his load and was sitting there
initial-related: pɛnt-/phɛnt-
phɛːmma

root:
phɛːnt
present stem:
phɛːn
past stem:
phɛːnd.
see: tap=phɛːmba
phɛna
n
jackfruit.
phɛndɛgɛk
n
a bird.
phɛndza
n
inferior food, famine food.
etymology: phɛmma, cama
phɛndze
n
iron.
phɛndze-laŋma
n
a tree.
phɛniŋ
n
snuff.
· phɛniŋ namsu — he took snuff
a plant, used for snuff
Myriactis nepalensis.
phɛŋma

root:
phɛks
present stem:
phɛŋ
past stem:
phɛks.
vt
to burst.
· kaˀi phɛŋma — to break the laws against incest
postfinal-related: phɛkt-/phɛks-
phɛŋma

root:
phɛks
present stem:
phɛŋ
past stem:
phɛks.
vt
to cause to flower.
postfinal-related: phɛk-/phɛks-
phɛŋwa
n
left (side).
phɛsiŋba
n
an oak
nepali:bām̐j.
phɛt
preverb
damage.
occurs in: phɛt=laˀma, phɛt=laːmma
phɛt=laˀma

root:
laˀr
present stem:
laˀ
past stem:
laˀr.
vi
to be damaged.
postfinal-related: phɛt=laˀr-/phɛt=laːnt-
phɛt=laːmma

root:
laːnt
present stem:
laːn
past stem:
laːnd.
vt
to damage, to misuse.
· iŋga a- paisa-n phɛt=mɛ-laːndu-aŋ pɔt — they are still wasting my money [and not returning it] (so177)
postfinal-related: phɛt=laˀr-/phɛt=laːnt-
phɛtlise
n
horsegram
nepali:gahat.
dialect: phɛtlukse
phɛtlukse
also: phɛtlusi.
see: phɛtlise
phɛtma
also: phɛpma
root:
phɛtt
present stem:
phɛt
past stem:
phɛtt.
vt
to bring.
· kha sardār-ɛn mɛ-bhɛrɛn, paisā-ŋ mɛ-bhɛttun — that contractor didn't come, and he didn't bring the money (nama4)
occurs in: nam phɛtma postfinal-related: phɛn-/phɛtt-/phɛns-
phɛyo
n
a weir, a pound-trap for fishing.
phiːkma

root:
phiːkt
present stem:
phiːk
past stem:
phiːkt.
vi
to scream.
· haːbɛ phiːktɛ-llɛ kɔ — weeping and screaming (so175)
phima

root:
phiːr
present stem:
phiː
past stem:
phiːr.
vi
to shrink, to become thin.
postfinal-related: phiːr-/phis-
phima

root:
phis
present stem:
phi
past stem:
phis.
vt
to reduce (sth. in size).
postfinal-related: phiːr-/phis-
phiˀma

root:
phiˀr
present stem:
phiˀ
past stem:
phiˀr.
vt
to dent.
initial-related: piˀr-/phiˀr-
phimma

root:
phint
present stem:
phin
past stem:
phind.
vt
to cause to jump, to operate a foot-mill, to offer first-fruits (by throwing them in the air).
occurs in: wa=bhimma postfinal-related: pint-/pitt-/phint- initial-related: pint-/pitt-/phint-
phiːmma

root:
phiːnt
present stem:
phiːn
past stem:
phiːnd.
vt
to milk.
phindziriphindziriba
n
a medicinal plant.
phiŋ
adj, color-type
blue (may be deep green or gray).
occurs in: kubhiŋla, phiŋdaŋba, phiŋgɔkkɔkpa
phiŋdaŋba
adj (color deriv.)
blue.
etymology: phiŋ, taŋ
phiŋgɔkkɔkpa
adj
blue.
etymology: phiŋ
phiːŋma

root:
phiːks
present stem:
phiːŋ
past stem:
phiːks.
vt
to pull out, to draw (a weapon).
· anigɛ kɔ phɛdza phiːksumbɛ-aŋ kɔ saːpsumbɛ — we [PE] drew our knives and waved them threateningly
vr
to leave.
· alla hara ni phiːŋmasiŋŋ-aŋ him-mu pekma poŋ — now we should pull out quickly and go home
initial-related: piːks-/phiːks-
phiŋ'rɔkna yaːn
n
a plant
nepali:citre bansyo.
phitco
n
a small hawk
nepali:pesware.
phiːtma
also: phiːpma
root:
phiːtt
present stem:
phiːt
past stem:
phiːtt.
vi
to be flattened.
vt
to flatten, to pinch flat.
· luŋŋ-ɛllɛ phiːttu-aŋ yuŋɛ — it was held fast between the rocks
· kɛbhiːppa — tongs
phoˀba
also: phoʔwa, phokwa.
n
youngest of a sib.
phokwa
see: phoˀba
phoma

root:
phos
present stem:
pho
past stem:
phos.
vt
to increase, to add to (e.g. a price, the size of a field).
postfinal-related: por-/pont-/phos- initial-related: por-/pont-/phos-
phoma

root:
phos
present stem:
pho
past stem:
phos.
vt
to spread (drying grain).
postfinal-related: phott-/phos-
phomma

root:
phont
present stem:
phon
past stem:
phond.
vt
to hang up, to suspend (esp. by a cord).
phomma

root:
phots
present stem:
phon
past stem:
photch.
vt
to confuse so., to trick so. into error.
· iŋga khunɛ lam photchuŋ — I made him miss the road
postfinal-related: pott-/phots- initial-related: pott-/phots-
phoŋma

root:
phoks
present stem:
phoŋ
past stem:
phoks.
vt
to rouse, to awaken, to get up (tr.), to lift.
· khunɛ ku- guru phoksusi — he called up his tutelary deities (so93)
vr
to stand up possessed (of a shaman); to pick oneself up (after a fall).
· phoŋsiŋɛ-llɛ kɔ khunɛ ku-mundhum thaktu — when he was possessed he recited his ritual (so91)
postfinal-related: pok-/phoks- initial-related: pok-/phoks-
photma
also: phopma
root:
phott
present stem:
phot
past stem:
phott.
vt
to stir, to turn (drying grain).
· yaʔro-n phottɛ hesɛ — spread the grain and dry it
vt, vr
to do sloppy work.
see: maŋ=bhotma
postfinal-related: phott-/phos-
phɔ
adj, color-type
white.
· phɔ lɔˀrɛ — it became light (of the dawn)
occurs in: kubhɔra, phɔdaŋba
phɔ
see: pha, phɛ
phɔdaŋba
adj (color deriv.)
white.
etymology: phɔ, taŋ
phɔdɔk
adv
pop! [manner of popping, e.g. of maize].
phɔdiŋ'rek
also: tiŋ'rek.
n
a plant, used for soap ["white thorn"]
Solanum khasianum.
etymology: phɔ, tiŋ'rek
phɔdɔŋdɔŋba
adv
[manner of welling up or gushing].
· phɔdɔŋdɔŋba makkhi lɔːndɛ — blood gushed out (naro104)
phɔg'na
see: phɔŋna
phɔgɔrɔ
(apparently shows vowel harmony)
conj
if.
· asɛn siŋyaːl-lɔt kɛ-si-ba phɔgɔrɔ, anchigɛ sɛtma suksigɛ — if it's one that died only yesterday or the day before, we [DE] can kill it (i.e. the ghost) (so38)
· mɛ-yuːrun phɔgɔrɔ khɛnɛ uːksɛ teˀrɛ — if she doesn't bring it down, drag her away!
etymology: pha, ,
phɔˀi
n
belt, waistband.
phɔkma

root:
phɔkt
present stem:
phɔk
past stem:
phɔkt.
vt
to transplant (e.g. Eleusine, not rice).
phɔkma

root:
phɔkt
present stem:
phɔk
past stem:
phɔkt.
vt
to castrate.
(usually khasī phɔkma 'to castrate'.)
phɔkma

root:
phɔkt
present stem:
phɔk
past stem:
phɔkt.
vi
to explode, to go off.
· maːkki nɔm'-ɛllɛ kɛ-bhɔk-pa kusik phɔktɛ — it popped as maize pops when roasted (so310)
postfinal-related: phɔkt-/phɔks-
phɔkphɔkya
n
a plant, datura
Datura suaveolens.
phɔks'ya
n
a plant
nepali:bogote.
phɔktaŋ
n
shoulder.
etymology: taŋ
phɔktuŋ
n
lap.
· a-bhɔktuŋ-'yo — in my lap
phɔkthiːmba
n
owl.
phɔma

root:
phɔ
present stem:
phɔ
past stem:
phɔy.
vt
to braid, to knit, to weave (e.g. basketry, not at a loom).
· co phɔyu — he wove bamboo strips
· thak phɔyu — she braided a braid
phɔˀma

root:
phɔr
present stem:
phɔ
past stem:
phɔr.
see: paːn=phɔˀma
phɔmma

root:
phɔts
present stem:
phɔn
past stem:
phɔtch.
vt
to put (in a high place, in a suspended position); to apply (oil on the body, white earth on a house).
to hire, to employ (a worker).
· yaːllek phɔmmasi — to hire fieldhands (dan258)
phɔmma

root:
phɔts
present stem:
phɔn
past stem:
phɔtch.
vr
to trip, to get caught up.
· thakpa-n phɔtchiŋ — the rope is tangled
occurs in: sabhɔkpɛt
phɔːmma

root:
phɔːnt
present stem:
phɔːn
past stem:
phɔːnd.
vt
to mix together.
initial-related: pɔːnt-/phɔːnt-
phɔːn
n
hail.
goiter, boll on a tree.
phɔŋ
adv
manner of swinging, of doors.
· anigɛ lamdhaːtt-ɛn phɔŋ lɔˀrik kɛ-hɔndu — you threw open our doors (so227)
phɔŋa

poss:
-mbhɔŋa.
n
uncle (father's younger brother, mother's younger sister's husband)
.
(husband of suma.)
phɔŋma

root:
phɔks
present stem:
phɔŋ
past stem:
phɔks.
vt
to explode, to set off.
· blasṭiṅ mɛ-bhɔksu — they set off explosives (naro133)
postfinal-related: phɔkt-/phɔks-
phɔŋma

root:
phɔŋ
present stem:
phɔŋ
past stem:
phɔŋ.
see: sik=phɔŋma
phɔːŋma

root:
phɔːks
present stem:
phɔːŋ
past stem:
phɔːks.
vt
to make shares, to divide up, to break apart.
phɔŋna
n
water-vessel
nepali:loṭā.
dialect: phɔg'na
phɔtma
also: phɔpma
root:
phɔtt
present stem:
phɔt
past stem:
phɔtt.
vt
to cover sth., to jump on so. headlong, to dive headlong.
to swim.
occurs in: warɔk phɔtma, wasuli phɔtma
phɔtyi
n
a bundle, a load.
phɔʔya
n
a self-revealed shaman ( phɛdaŋma) whose first trance was spontaneous..
phuˀ

poss:
mbhuˀ.
n
elder brother
.
· am-bhui! — oh, brother!, oh my god! (so213)
(Note that the glottal final is absent in the exclamation.)
phudoŋ
n
hospitality.
phudɔre

poss:
mbhudɔre.
n
brother-in-law (a woman's elder sister's husband; a joking relationship)
.
etymology: tɔre
phudzik
n
earthen pot for popping maize
nepali:hām̐ḍī.
phuˀiŋ

poss:
mbhuˀiŋ.
n
bond-friend's elder brother.
phukko
n
cave.
phuma

root:
phu
present stem:
phu
past stem:
phuy.
see: waˀi phuma
phuˀma

root:
phuˀr
present stem:
phuˀ
past stem:
phuˀr.
vt
to break, to sever (e.g. a string).
· s'yak phuˀru-rɔ cɛptu — he cut it right off
occurs in: mɛlluŋ phuˀma initial-related: puˀr-/phuˀr-
phumma

root:
phunt
present stem:
phun
past stem:
phund.
vt
to open, to unplug.
initial-related: punt-/phunt-
phumma

root:
phunt
present stem:
phun
past stem:
phund.
vt
to pound half-dried maize to make semolina, or moist milled rice into flour to make deep-fried bread (Nep. sel)..
phunchiŋma
n
a cherry tree
Prunus sp.
nepali:paiyũ.
phunduwa
n
a bird.
phuŋ
n
flower.
phuŋbit
n
yak, a cross between yak and cow.
etymology: pit
phuŋ khe
n
canna ["flower-yam"]
nepali:phul tarul.
phuŋma

root:
phuks
present stem:
phuŋ
past stem:
phuks.
vt
to pile up, to gather together.
· kɛ-waˀ-ba-haˀ-rɛ paisā phuksumbɛ-aŋ kɔ pegigɛ — we [PE] pooled the money of all who were present, and we went
vr
to meet, to assemble, to gather.
· kak phuŋŋasigɛ-aŋ khatmu yuŋigɛ — we [PE] all got together and stayed there
phuŋwat
n
gourd.
phururu
adv
heaping (of a measure).
· phururu siːktɛ — heap it up
cf.: kulɛːm
phuːt
adj, color-type
gray, pale.
occurs in: kubhuːtla, phuːttaŋba
phutlama tɛtla
n
a plant; the leaves are used to line bamboo beer-containers (used when large quantities are prepared)
Mallotus sp..
phutma
also: phupma
root:
phutt
present stem:
phut
past stem:
phutt.
vi
to turn gray (of hair).
etymology: phuːt
phutma
also: phupma
root:
phutt
present stem:
phut
past stem:
phutt.
vt
to mix, to prepare (beer).
· thi phuttu — she prepared beer
see: i=phutma
phuːttaŋba
adj (color deriv.)
gray.
etymology: phuːt, taŋ
phuyokpa
adjn
gray.
etymology: phuːt
ph'yaːtluŋ
n
whetstone.
ra
suffix, n
leaf, grove.
occurs in: phara, siŋla-phara, tɛtla, yakla
ret
see: let
retla
also: reʔla.
see: let
also: .
pp
of [genitive].
· aŋ-g'wa-rɛ ku-him-mu — to my uncle's house (so131)
· damar dhoj-lɛ ku-nnakpa — Damar Dhoj's nephew (so1)
· jaṅgal-lɛ kuya-'pmu — at the edge of the jungle
by [ergative/instrumental].
· aŋ-g'wa-rɛ kɔ jamma pɛraŋ — my uncle has given me everything (so256)
· timmɔk-lɛ mɛ-saːpsigɛ — they threatened us [PE] with guns
(The ergative is often marked by the suffix llɛ after a vowel; this is presumably a combination of the definite/topic suffix ɛn followed by the postconsonantal form of the ergative. In many cases, however, it may be justifiable to consider simply as an unconditioned variant of .)
rɛŋ
also: lɛŋ.
suffix, adv
time (repetition).
occurs in: thiklɛŋ, nirɛŋ, yɛtlɛŋ
rik
also: lik.
suffix, adv
[adverbial].
· nurik — well
· yɔllik — much
cf.: tik
ro
also: lo.
sentence particle
[often used in warnings or proclamations].
· khɛpsumbɛ-ro! — we [PE] did hear you! (so227)
· kɛ-gɛŋ-lo! — look out, you'll fall!
· kɛ- paisa-n mɛ-deˀrumbɛl-lo! kɔ waˀ-ro! teˀrɛ-ro! — we didn't take your money! here it is! take it! (so167)
[jussive, hortative].
· a- paisa-n yuːru phɔgɔrɔ yuːru ro! — if she's bringing my money, let her bring it! (so261)
· mɔre kɛ-hiŋ lo! — long may you live!
· pegi ro! — let's go!
also: .
v suffix ((suffixed to finite forms))
[progressive].
· pindɛ-rɔ pe — went leaping along
· khemsikpa o=mɛttu-rɔ laŋ=ghek — he walks looking at the stars [for orientation]
[marks the governed verb in causative and some desiderative constructions].
· laktu-rɔ mɛ-yaːndu — they boiled it (so302)
· ku-luŋm'-ɛtmu kɛrɛ-rɔ abu — he shot and struck the heart ["in such a way that it reached the heart"] (kana28)
· māl-ɛn kɛ-dhoktum-lɔ poŋ — you [P] have to cook [?"go on cooking"] the stuff
rɔkma
also: lɔkma
root:
rɔkt
present stem:
rɔk
present stem:
lɔk
past stem:
rɔkt
past stem:
lɔkt.
see: wa=rɔkma
rɔŋma
also: lɔŋma
root:
rɔks
present stem:
rɔŋ
present stem:
lɔŋ
past stem:
rɔks
past stem:
lɔks.
see: wa=rɔŋma
rɔt
also: lɔt.
suffix
only.
· phara siŋla-rɔt — only jungle
· sɛndik-lɔt — only by night
occurs in: lɔtthik
rumma
also: lumma
root:
rups
present stem:
rum
present stem:
lum
past stem:
rups
past stem:
lups.
see: wa=rumma
sa
n
child, son, daughter
.
· a-sa — my son (so25)
sa
n
meat, game.
· sa mɛ-naːttu — they hunted game
· sa mɛ-sɛru — they hunted, they killed game
sa
suffix, n
[instrumental nominal].
occurs in: cɛpsa knife, yaksa shelter
sa
also: saŋ.
part
precisely, even, indeed.
· a-niŋwa mɛn-da-ɛ s'yaŋŋ-aŋ-sa ɛmbhɔ kɛ-him waripari luŋ-haˀ kɛŋsuŋ … — precisely because I died unsatisfied, I rolled stones down around your house (so144)
· ɛnniŋ sa — this very year
· khɔmbhɛ-aŋ sa — for that very reason (dan319)
· abhɛllɛsaŋ — always
· alla-saŋ a-niŋwa kɛ-duk-pa k'wa-i waˀ — even now, uncle, I [still] have regrets (so161)
· kudzɛk aghi kuhiŋwɛt wayɛ-saŋ khɔtmu yuŋsiŋŋ-aŋ yuŋɛ — really, when he was alive, too, he used to sit there (so276)
· khɔmbha-saŋ — even so (naas42)
(often followed by #-aÑ 'too, even')
etymology:
sabɔn
adv
manner of lying down, prone.
sabhɔkpɛt
adv
on all fours, bent forward.
· nurik ciŋŋasigɛ mu sabhɔkpɛt phɔnnasigɛ — we [PE] hid well -- we went down on all fours
etymology: pɛt
sadaːk kappa
n
a gift from a suitor to a girl's mother, for bringing her up.
sadzoŋ'riŋ
n
swallow nesting in houses.
sagik
n
fermented and dried meat condiment.
etymology: kik
saghɛkya
n
dried meat.
etymology: khɛkya
saˀi
n
intestines.
etymology: i
sak
n
famine.
· sakk-ɛllɛ a-si — people ["we [PI]"] are dying of famine
· sak pogɛ — famine occurred
· sak mɛn-dza siliguḍī sāt din nɛssigɛ — we stayed 7 days in Siliguri without food (nama6)
sakma

root:
sakt
present stem:
sak
past stem:
sakt.
vi
to be hard.
sakma

root:
sakt
present stem:
sak
past stem:
sakt.
vt
to close off, to block, to imprison.
· mɛ-nisu-llɛ khan tɔŋbe sumsi am-sak-pa, tɔŋbe lisi am-sak — if they find out, they lock you ["us [PI]"] up for 3 or 4 years
· c'waːtt-ɛn sɔpma saktu nɛssu — it blocked the river for a time (kana32)
saːkma

root:
saːkt
present stem:
saːk
past stem:
saːkt.
vt
to sort, to cull, to weed by hand.
sakpha
n
a bamboo.
etymology: sakma
sallik
see: sarik
sam
n
song.
· sam mɛ-lo — they sing songs (naro22)
sam
n
soul
nepali:sāṭo.
· ku-samm-ɛn lɛmu-rɔ thaktu — he brought its soul along coaxing it (so98)
occurs in: sam ikma, sam lama, sam liːŋma, sammaŋ, samsiŋ, thɛbasam taksam, yɛtcham
an ailment, caused by supernatural influence
nepali:sehe.
· samm-ɛllɛ tɔru — he suffered an attack of sam
sama

root:
sa
present stem:
sa
past stem:
s'y
past stem:
so
past stem:
sa. (vowel contraction as cama 'to eat')
vt
to deliver, to escort.
· sam sama — to escort the soul (to the other world)
postfinal-related: sa-/saːtt-
saˀma

root:
saˀr
present stem:
saˀ
past stem:
saˀr.
vt
to try on, to test.
· o=mɛttammɛ! saˀrammɛ! — look [P]! check it out [P]! (so210)
· pɔksuŋ saˀruŋ — I tried to lift it
· caksɛ saˀrɛ! — try it on!
· cɛ saˀrɛ! — taste it!
to visit (so.).
occurs in: na=saˀma, yaŋ=saˀma
samba
n
a priest who plays finger-cymbals.
samban
n
penalty, fine.
sambet
n
flattened rice
nepali:cyurā.
saːmbhe
n
lightning.
· saːmbhe lɛktɛ — lightning flashed
samdaŋwa
n
a pheasant
nepali:ḍām̐phe.
etymology: wa
samɛkwa
n
soup in which meat is cooked, bullion.
sam ikma

root:
ik
present stem:
ik
past stem:
ig.
vt
to coax away the soul of a deceased person.
(possibly related to iŋma, etc. 'to call'.)
sam lama

root:
las
present stem:
la
past stem:
las.
vt
to fetch an errant soul.
sam liːŋma

root:
liːks
present stem:
liːŋ
past stem:
liːks.
vt
to restore an errant soul (by inserting it into the patient's ear).
saːmma

root:
saːps
present stem:
saːm
past stem:
saːps.
vt
to threaten (raising the hand or a weapon).
· anigɛ kɔ phɛdza phiːksumbɛ-aŋ kɔ saːpsumbɛ — we [PE] drew our knives and waved them threateningly
sammaŋ
n
god.
· misek sammaŋ — hearth god
· yuma sammaŋ — house god
· him sammaŋ — house god
etymology: sam, maŋ
sammi-khuŋba
n
a person's shadow.
sammit
n
wind.
samsiŋ
n
various laurels used as a purifying agent in rituals
nepali:kāulo.
samyakpa
n
a buckwheat
Fagopyrum cymoseum.
sammyaŋ
n
gold.
· kɛ-sammyaŋ yuppa mɛ-bɔtchigɛn — we [PE] haven't kept your gold or silver (so248)
saŋ
n
various trees
nepali:cimte.
saŋ
see: sa
saŋboŋ
also: samboŋ.
n
tassel of maize.
saŋlaŋgoba
n
apprentice of a shaman.
saŋma

root:
saks
present stem:
saŋ
past stem:
saks.
vt
to shake out (clothing, straw).
saŋma

root:
saŋ
present stem:
saŋ
past stem:
saŋ.
vt
to call to work.
saŋma

root:
saŋs
present stem:
saŋ
past stem:
saŋs.
vt
to clarify butter.
saŋsaŋba
n
a fern.
saːŋwa
n
water buffalo.
saŋ yakma

root:
yak
present stem:
yak
past stem:
yag.
vi
to be clear (of weather).
etymology: saŋma
sap
also: sappo.
n
carrying basket
nepali:ḍoko.
saːp
n
root.
saːpcigeŋba
also: sapcigekwa.
n
tick.
sapla
n
paper.
etymology: sapma, ra
sapma

root:
sapt
present stem:
sap
past stem:
sapt.
vt
to write.
occurs in: sapla, kusap
saːppa
n
maggot.
sappo
see: sap
sappok
n
belly.
sara
n
wild boar.
sarabhe
n
uterus.
saraŋ
also: bihā saraŋ.
n
offering of a leg of pork to the bride's parents.
sarik
also: sallik.
adv
very, much.
etymology: rik
saːtma
also: saːpma
root:
saːtt
present stem:
saːt
past stem:
saːtt.
vt
to tease.
· saːpma miŋ — nickname
saːtma
also: saːpma
root:
saːtt
present stem:
saːt
past stem:
saːtt.
vt
to deliver to (so.).
postfinal-related: sa-/saːtt-
sawa sɔkwa
n
hornet.
sawet
n
tendon, nerve.
etymology: wet
se
n
fruit, seed, berry.
occurs in: nuseˀ, murase
a white spot on the eye
nepali:phulo.
· se thasu — he exorcised a white spot
seba

poss:
ncheba.
n
bond-friend.
· seba cokma — to contract a ritual friendship
sek
n
scale (of a fish).
sekma

root:
sek
present stem:
sek
past stem:
seg.
vt
to choose.
sekma

root:
sekt
present stem:
sek
past stem:
sekt.
vt
to pinch.
selɛŋgoma
n
mirror.
sem
n
cold.
etymology: semma
sema
vt
to urinate.
· makkhi sema — to menstruate
postfinal-related: ses-/seˀr-
seˀma

root:
seˀr
present stem:
seˀ
past stem:
seˀr.
vt
to urinate on.
postfinal-related: ses-/seˀr-
seˀmat
n
urine.
· hi seˀmat-ni mɛ-yunɛn phɔgɔrɔ ɛmbha yak-muna-ba — just staying in there, if one didn't have to relieve oneself (dan100)
etymology: pɛˀmat
semma

root:
seps
present stem:
sem
past stem:
seps.
vi
to get cold, to go stale, to get damp.
vt
to chill, to cause to feel cold.
· cowatt-ɛllɛ a-hebu-n sepsu — the water made my tooth feel cold
occurs in: kɛsemba
sen
preverb
question.
occurs in: sen=doma
sendi
n
nail, claw.
sen=doma

root:
tos
present stem:
to
past stem:
tos.
vt
to ask (a question of so.).
· khɔmbh'-ɛllɛ iŋga khɛnɛ sen=donɛ-ba — that's why I'm asking you (dan75)
· "thetmu kɛ-niŋwa mɛ-danɛn" phɛaŋ sen=mɛ-dosu — "what are you unsatisfied about?" they asked him (so257)
seŋ
also: sekma.
n
kidney.
seŋga
n
lowlands, god of the lowlands.
· ani-'tna kɔ tɔksɔŋ kɛ-waˀ-b'-adi, ɛtna kɔ seŋga — over in our [PI] country we're [PI] highland dwellers; here it's the lowlands
sepma
interj
just a moment.
sepma
n
light-colored wart.
ser'ma
n
a snake, said to jump.
set
n
inauspicious sign, ill omen.
· set tonsiŋ — an inauspicious time has come
seʔwa
n
frost.
sɛgɛk phuŋma
n
plant used in Bhimsen puja.
sɛːkma

root:
sɛːkt
present stem:
sɛːk
past stem:
sɛːkt.
vi (imps)
to be hot.
· iŋga haŋwa sɛːktɛ — I feel the heat
· nam sɛːktɛ — the sun is hot
· mi sɛːktɛ — the fire is (too) hot
sɛllɔkwa
also: sɛllɔʔwa.
n
a bird
nepali:nyāulī.
(said to call " sɛllɔk sɛllɔk")
sɛma

root:
sɛːr
present stem:
sɛː
past stem:
sɛːr.
vi
to separate, to split up.
· anigɛ sɛːrigɛ — we [PE] separated (dan7)
postfinal-related: sɛːr-/sɛnt-/sɛs-
sɛma

root:
sɛːr
present stem:
sɛː
past stem:
sɛːr.
vi
to exude (sweat), to shed (blood).
· homb'rikwa sɛma — to sweat
sɛma

root:
sɛs
present stem:

past stem:
sɛs.
vt
to separate, to scatter, to split open.
· thɛgek sɛsu — he split open the skull
· khappu sɛsu — he scattered the ashes
postfinal-related: sɛːr-/sɛnt-/sɛs-
sɛˀma

root:
sɛˀr
present stem:
sɛˀ
past stem:
sɛˀr.
v
to turn white (of hair), to clear (of the milk of a cow that has just given birth).
sɛmma

root:
sɛms
present stem:
sɛm
past stem:
sɛms.
vt
to repair (a blade, by reshaping).
sɛmma

root:
sɛnt
present stem:
sɛn
past stem:
sɛnd.
vt
to separate, to distinguish, to butcher (meat), to divide a stream.
postfinal-related: sɛːr-/sɛnt-/sɛs-
sɛn
n
rope-ladder (used in collecting wild honey from cliffs).
sɛndik
n
night, by night.
· sɛndik kɔ pekma mɛn-chuk-pa — unable to go by night
sɛndzik-kumma
n
money-bird (a good omen).
sɛndzikpa
n
shrew (considered as ill-omened)
nepali:chucundro.
sɛŋma

root:
sɛks
present stem:
sɛŋ
past stem:
sɛks.
vt
to break.
cf.: ɛŋma postfinal-related: cɛk-/sɛks- initial-related: cɛk-/sɛks-
sɛŋma

root:
sɛŋ
present stem:
sɛŋ
past stem:
sɛŋ.
vr
to clear off (of weather).
· sɛŋsɛŋ — clear
sɛŋma

root:
sɛŋ
present stem:
sɛŋ
past stem:
sɛŋ.
vi
to dry in air, hanging in the shade.
postfinal-related: sɛŋ-/sɛŋs-
sɛŋma

root:
sɛŋs
present stem:
sɛŋ
past stem:
sɛŋs.
vt
to hang up to dry (in the shade).
postfinal-related: sɛŋ-/sɛŋs-
sɛːpma

root:
sɛːpt
present stem:
sɛːp
past stem:
sɛːpt.
vd
to feel heat (e.g. of fire or the sun).
· mi-llɛ sɛːptaŋ — I feel hot from the fire
sɛpmaŋ
n
dream.
· anigɛ-aŋ sɛpmaŋ maktumbɛ-aŋ khɔmbhɛ maktumbɛ — we [PE] too had a dream and we dreamed that very thing (so247)
sɛrɛna
n
a variety of Eleusine.
sɛtlon
n
broom-plant
nepali:amleso.
diaper.
sɛtluppa
n
hasty marriage performed at night with little ceremony.
sɛtma
also: sɛpma
root:
sɛt
present stem:
sɛt
past stem:
sɛr.
vt
to kill.
· kha kanayɔŋb'-ɛn sɛruŋ pinɛ — I'll kill that Kanayongba for you [S] (kana10)
sɛtma
also: sɛpma
root:
sɛtt
present stem:
sɛt
past stem:
sɛtt.
vt
to lay a foundation or wall.
· luŋ sɛttumbɛ-rɔ teˀrumbɛ — we [PE] carried on laying stones (nup43)
· luŋdhak sɛttigɛ — we [PE] made a wall (nup36)
si
n
barley, grain.
occurs in: sis'yaˀ, hɔksi
si
suffix
[collective, plural].
· asen am-ba-si-rɛ mɛ-doksu-ba-yarik — as much as my father's generation plowed in the past (dan269)
· ku-mbhuˀ ku-n'saˀ-si ku-ndumba-si ku-nnakpa-si mɛn-chɛtm'-ɛllɛ uːksusi mu — his elder and younger brothers, his father's elder brothers, his nephews -- if they didn't kill it [the ghost], it would drag them off. (so58)
· ku-ndumba-rɛ ku-sa-haˀ, ku-ndumba-si, ku-mbhɔŋa-rɛ ku-sa-haˀ mɛ-be-aŋ — his father's elder brother's sons, his father's elder brothers, and his father's younger brothers' sons went and ... (so25)
· ɛn-haˀ kɔ kachin-chi rahecha — why, these are Kachins!
occurs in: anchi, khɛnchi
[suffixed element in all numbers from 2 to 9].
siˀ
n
louse.
sibut
n
white earth, used as plaster
nepali:kamero.
sibh'rɔŋwama
n
a fig.
sidaˀ
n
medicine.
sidakpa
n
a medicinal root
Acorus calamus
nepali:bojho.
sidaːm
n
exhausted beer mash from which all alcohol has been extracted.
sidiŋba
n
plant used in ritual against the evil eye
nepali:aḍeri.
etymology: tiŋ
sidɔt
q
much, many.
siˀdhiːmba
n
nit.
etymology: siˀ, thiːn
sidza
n
fly.
sighap
n
an near-chestnut
Castanopsis tribuloides.
sigɛk
adv
manner of tying, tightly.
sigip
n
bedbug.
sigolia
n
flour dumpling, ball of Eleusine flour steamed with rice.
etymology: si
sik
n (in expressions)
hunger, appetite, desire, anger.
preverb
occurs in: sik=cimma, sik=khɛŋma, sik=laːkma, sik=lɛːŋma, sik=pokma, sik=pokma, sik=phɔŋma
sikcemba
n
ant.
sik=cimma

root:
cim
present stem:
cim
past stem:
cim.
vi (imps) pronominal prefix indexes experiencer
to be satisfied.
· iŋga a-sik cimɛ — I am satisfied.
initial-related: cim-/sips-
sikkoma
also: sikkoˀma.
n
nape of the neck.
sikkum-niŋwa
n
wisdom.
sik=khɛŋma

root:
khɛŋ
present stem:
khɛŋ
past stem:
khɛŋ.
vi (imps) pronominal prefix indexes experiencer
to be disappointed, to be frustrated.
· a-sik=khɛŋɛ — I was disappointed
sik=laːkma

root:
laːkt
present stem:
laːk
past stem:
laːkt.
vi (imps) pronominal prefix indexes experiencer
to be hungry.
· iŋga a-sik laːk — I'm hungry
sik=lɛːŋma

root:
lɛːks
present stem:
lɛːŋ
past stem:
lɛːks.
vi (imps) pronominal prefix indexes experiencer
to be disgusted.
sikma

root:
sikt
present stem:
sik
past stem:
sikt.
vt
to sting.
occurs in: sikwa
siːkma

root:
siːkt
present stem:
siːk
past stem:
siːkt.
vt
to measure (length or volume).
· kɛ-buːŋghu-llɛ siːktɛ — measure it against your forearm (= 1 cubit)
siːkma

root:
siːkt
present stem:
siːk
past stem:
siːkt.
cf.: ciːkma occurs in: cuŋ=siːkma
sik=pokma

root:
pok
present stem:
pok
past stem:
pog.
vi (imps) pronominal prefix indexes experiencer
to become angry.
· iŋga a-sik pogɛ — I am angry
sik=pokma

root:
pokt
present stem:
pok
past stem:
pokt.
vi (imps) pronominal prefix indexes experiencer
to become angry.
· ku-sirɛllɛ thuktu, ku-sik poktɛ-ro! — he is shaking, he is angry!
sik=phɔŋma

root:
phɔŋ
present stem:
phɔŋ
past stem:
phɔŋ.
vi (imps) pronominal prefix indexes experiencer
to become angry.
· kɛ-sik mɛm-bhɔŋɛ! — don't get angry!
sikwa
n
nettle.
occurs in: maːkyu sikwa etymology: sikma
sikwa
adj
stale.
· tɔːk sikwa — stale food
sim
n
skirt, sari.
sima

root:
si
present stem:
si
past stem:
s'y.
vi
to die.
· iŋga a-niŋwa mɛn-da-ɛ s'yaŋ — I died unsatisfied (so142)
· khɔn-haˀ-rɛ-rɔt-ni mɛ-sɛru-llɛ si — only if they [the shamans] kill it will it die (so36)
siˀma

root:
siˀr
present stem:
siˀ
past stem:
siˀr.
vt
to catch up with, to have time to.
simbɔl khe
n
cassava, manioc ["kapok-yam"]
nepali:simal tarul.
(The name refers to the palmate leaf, which resembles that of the simal tree (
Bombax ceiba
).)
simma

root:
sim
present stem:
sim
past stem:
sim.
vt
to gather (e.g. belongings, a harvest), to herd (cattle together).
simma

root:
sint
present stem:
sin
past stem:
sind.
vt
to undo, to lay flat (clothing or bedding).
simma

root:
sips
present stem:
sim
past stem:
sips.
vt
to stop (a radio, a wound).
initial-related: cim-/sips-
siːmma

root:
siːps
present stem:
siːm
past stem:
siːps.
vt
to insert lengthwise (esp. a stick into the spaces at the top of a house wall, to hang things on).
postfinal-related: siːps-/siːpt-
simsimba
adj
mild-tempered, serious.
siŋ
n
tree, wood.
siŋbuŋ
n
tree.
etymology: puŋ
siŋdaŋba
also: siŋdaŋma.
n
chin, jaw.
siŋduŋ phuŋma
n
an epiphyte.
siŋdhok
n
cob (of maize).
siŋdhɔkthɔkwa
n
woodpecker.
siŋgaŋba
n
fork: a small digging tool with two teeth
nepali:kutiyā.
siŋgoŋba
n
a bright red snake.
siŋla
n
forest, bush.
· phara siŋla-rɔt — only jungle
(usually in the echo-compound siŋla-phara)
occurs in: siŋla-phara etymology: siŋ, ra
siŋla-phara
n
forest, bush, jungle.
etymology: siŋ, phara, ra
siːŋma

root:
siːks
present stem:
siːŋ
past stem:
siːks.
vt
to peel off, to extract fibers, to turn back (a sleeve).
siŋmuːt
n
tree stump.
etymology: muːt
siŋnaːt
n
a loan of money, debt.
siŋse
n
certain wild edible plants.
etymology: se
siŋyaːn
n
the day before yesterday.
· siŋyaːn khɛmyaːl-lɔt — only yesterday or the day before (so45)
sip
n
husk (of maize), peel.
· maːkki sip — cornhusk
sipma

root:
sip
present stem:
sip
past stem:
sib.
vd
to sweat (of an earthen vessel), to seep.
siːpma

root:
siːpt
present stem:
siːp
past stem:
siːpt.
vt
to repair a roof by inserting thatch.
postfinal-related: siːps-/siːpt-
siːpma

root:
siːpt
present stem:
siːp
past stem:
siːpt.
vt
to strain, to sieve (e.g. beer, meat from broth), to catch (food between one's teeth).
siptɔk
n
flea.
siptukma
n
dove
nepali:ḍhukur.
sira
preverb
occurs in: sira=dhaŋma
sira=dhaŋma

root:
thaŋ
present stem:
thaŋ
past stem:
thaŋ.
vi (?imps) pronominal prefix indexes experiencer
to like, to enjoy.
· ku-nara nu-m'-ɛn kɛ-sira=dhaŋɛ-i, ku- sor kɛ-nu-m'-ɛn kɛ-sira=dhaŋɛ-i khɛnɛ-a — now, do you like girls with nice faces or ones with nice voices? (dan18)
· sira=a-dhaŋ pek — one gets to like them (dan30)
(Note the use of a personal verb rather than an experiencer possessive in this example.)
siragopma
also: ciragopma.
n
a plant
Gnaphalium luteo-album.
sirɛllɛ thukma

root:
thukt
present stem:
thuk
past stem:
thukt.
vd pronominal prefix indexes experiencer
to tremble (with anger, when possessed).
· ku-sirɛllɛ thuktu, ku-sik poktɛ-ro! — he is shaking, he is angry!
· a-sirɛllɛ thuktaŋ — I was possessed.
siriŋ muma

root:
mus
present stem:
mu
past stem:
mus.
vi (imps)
to be ashamed.
siriŋliŋ
adv
uneasy, nervous.
· a-dhɔkk-ɛn siriŋliŋ lɔˀrɛ — I felt queasy
sisi
see: niŋ sisi lɔˀma
sis'yaˀ
n
barley.
sitla
n
neck, throat.
· a-sitla-tmu haptu — it stuck in my throat
sitlaŋ
n
pillar.
sitma
also: sipma
root:
sit
present stem:
sit
past stem:
sir.
vt
to take offense at, to be insulted at.
· ku-baːnn-ɛn siruŋ — I grew angry over his words
sitthi
n
plant whose fiber is extracted for fishing-line and bird-snares.
s'ma
suffix, adv
occurs in: kudaːndiks'ma, nas'ma, thes'ma, yos'ma
soˀbu

poss:
nchoˀbu
fem:
soˀna.
n
bond-friend.
sogikkikpa
adj
thin, lean, stringy (of person, meat).
sogha
n
spirit of the victim of untimely death, esp. of a fall.
· kha sogha kɛ-boŋ-ba kɛ-si-b'-ɛn — that dead man who had become a spirit (so135)
sogha siŋ
n
category of plants used to subdue ghosts.
cf.: nɛkkhɛkpa
sokma

root:
sokt
present stem:
sok
past stem:
sokt.
v
to aim, to point.
occurs in: napmi sokma
sollak
n
double handful (with hands open).
som
also: somma.
n
lung.
soma

root:
sos
present stem:
so
past stem:
sos.
vi
to itch.
n
scabies.
soma

root:
sos
present stem:
so
past stem:
sos.
vi
to be rich in taste (of pork, walnuts).
soma

root:
sor
present stem:
so
past stem:
sor.
vi
to wake (intr.).
postfinal-related: sor-/sos-
soma

root:
sos
present stem:
so
past stem:
sos.
vt
to wake, to rouse.
postfinal-related: sor-/sos-
soˀma

root:
soˀr
present stem:
soˀ
past stem:
soˀr.
vi
to be improper, to be incestuous (of relation too close for dancing, teasing, or marriage).
· soˀ-i mɛ-soˀnɛnn-i? — is it improper [to dance together] or not?
· huk-nu soˀma — illicit contact, teasing, etc. ["hand-breast sin"]
postfinal-related: soˀr-/sott-
soˀmit

poss:
nchoˀmit.
n
sister-in-law (elder brother's wife)
.
somma

root:
sont
present stem:
son
past stem:
sond.
vi
to be polished (of milled rice).
vt
to polish (rice or Eleusine, by a second milling)
nepali:phallāunu.
somma

root:
sont
present stem:
son
past stem:
sond.
vt
to fell (a tree).
· siŋ thik ārā kɛ-hɛk-pa-rɛ mɛ-hɛgu-aŋ kɔ mɛ-sondu-aŋ nɛssɛ rahecha — there was a tree which some woodsmen had cut and felled
initial-related: cont-/sont-
somma

root:
sons
present stem:
son
past stem:
sonch.
see: sɔkma somma
somma

root:
sont
present stem:
son
past stem:
sond.
see: sɔkma somma
soˀna

poss:
nchoˀna.
n
female bond-friend, bond-friend's wife, wife's bond-friend.
sorik
also: sosorik.
adv
together.
· anigɛ kɔ ɛmbhɛllɛ kɔ celī sɔmma-nu sorik laŋ=ghekma hop — for us [i.e. "in our time"], there was no question of girls and boys walking together like that (dan230)
dialect: soˀrik etymology: rik
soˀrik
see: sorik
sot
n
fat, grease.
also: sotlaŋ, soʔlaŋ.
sugarcane.
etymology: laŋ
sotma
also: sopma
root:
sott
present stem:
sot
past stem:
sott.
vi
to tease, to play flirtatiously (touching and pushing -- improper between the sexes except in joking relationships).
postfinal-related: soˀr-/sott-
sɔba
n
red monkey, macaque.
sɔbɛn
n
a tree, the tooni, used in the sogha ritual
Cedrella tooni
nepali:ṭunī.
sɔkma
n
breath.
· ku-sɔːkma puˀrɛ — he ran out of breath
· sɔkma sonchuŋ — I draw breath
occurs in: sɔkma somma, sɔkma somma
sɔkma

root:
sɔkt
present stem:
sɔk
past stem:
sɔkt.
vi
to be crippled (of a limb), to be lame.
· laŋ sɔkpa — lame-footed
· huk sɔkpa — crippled in the arm
sɔːkma

root:
sɔːkt
present stem:
sɔːk
past stem:
sɔːkt.
vi
to roar, to thunder (of a waterfall, of thunder).
sɔkma somma

root:
sons
present stem:
son
past stem:
sonch.
vt
to breathe.
· sɔkma sonchuŋ — I draw breath
sɔkma somma

root:
sons
present stem:
son
past stem:
sonch.
vt
to breathe.
sɔkpa
n
wild-man (a man-eating forest creature whose feet are turned backwards; he eats the eyes, nose, and ears of his victim first; hunters speak a secret language to deceive him).
etymology: tɔksɔŋba
sɔkpɛt
adv
downward.
· na sɔkpɛt lɔˀrik yuŋigɛ — we sat with our faces turned downwards (nup80)
sɔkwa
n
bee, honey.
· sɔkwa yɔkma — to extract honey from a hive
· sɔkwa him — beehive
occurs in: ek sɔkwa, khiboma, nehi karak sɔkwa, maŋwa sɔkwa, mik sɔkwa, yuma sɔkwa, sɔkwa khu, yɔŋbɔŋ sɔkwa, wanatnapma sɔkwa, sawa sɔkwa, him sɔkwa
sɔkwa khu
n
honey.
sɔm
n
point, tip.
· siŋŋ-ɛllɛ ku-sɔmm-ɛn yaŋsumbɛ — we [PE] struck the top of a tree [which was lying in the river]
sɔma

root:
sɔːr
present stem:
sɔː
past stem:
sɔːr.
vi
to drip (e.g. of nose), to slip downwards, to slide, to drool.
postfinal-related: sɔːr-/sɔːnt-
sɔˀma

root:
sɔˀr
present stem:
sɔˀ
past stem:
sɔˀr.
vt
to attack.
· khunchi phɛdza mɛ-bhiːksu-aŋ kɔ yaŋna mɛ-sɔˀrigɛ — they drew their knives and attacked us [PE] in turn
sɔˀma

root:
sɔˀr
present stem:
sɔˀ
past stem:
sɔˀr.
vi
to fall apart, to crumble.
· yaˀ sɔˀrɛ — the grain failed to ripen
vt
to knead.
sɔmma
also: sɔmmaba
poss:
nchɔmma.
n
clan-brother, male member of a female's natal lineage, the reciprocal is celī (Nep.).
· anigɛ-aŋ celī-sɔmma pegigɛ — we [PE] too went, clan-brothers and sisters together (dan206)
sɔmma

root:
sɔns
present stem:
sɔn
past stem:
sɔnch.
vt
to stretch, to unfold, to pull straight.
sɔmma

root:
sɔps
present stem:
sɔm
past stem:
sɔps.
vt
to feel (with the hand), to touch.
sɔːmma

root:
sɔːnt
present stem:
sɔːn
past stem:
sɔːnd.
vt
to push or slide along.
postfinal-related: sɔːr-/sɔːnt-
· to move beer-mash to a jug to complete fermentation
sɔmmet
n
needle.
sɔŋ
adj (in compounds)
new.
· sɔŋ-him — new house
occurs in: kusɔŋ
sɔːŋ
n
clan, lineage.
sɔŋaˀ
n
fermented Eleusine "millet".
sɔŋbɔpma
also: sɔŋbepma.
n
chest.
sɔŋma

root:
sɔŋ
present stem:
sɔŋ
past stem:
sɔŋ.
vi
to be cooked (of grain, roasted bread).
sɔŋma

root:
sɔŋs
present stem:
sɔŋ
past stem:
sɔŋs.
vt
to sell.
· thi soŋsumbɛ — we [PE] sold beer
sɔŋmaŋ
adv
downhill.
· sɔŋmaŋmaŋba — steeply down-sloping
sɔpma
adv
moment, one moment, a while.
· khɛni sɔpma mɛn-dhaŋŋinnɛ! — don't you [P] come up for a while!
sɔrɛm
adj
gently sloping.
sɔrumba

fem:
sɔrumma.
n
second of a sib.
occurs in: yaŋsɔrumba, kaŋsɔrumba
sɔsiŋ
n
sal tree
Shorea robusta
nepali:sāl.
sɔːtma
also: sɔːpma
root:
sɔːtt
present stem:
sɔːt
past stem:
sɔːtt.
vi
to enjoy oneself.
· sɔːttɛ — drink up!
sɔya
n
gourd , a creeper with a large (10x15cm) fruit, red when ripe; the seeds are used as condiment
nepali:indrenī
Citrullus colocynthis.
su
also: wasu.
n
a wild yam
Dioscorea sp.
nepali:bhyākur.
suba
n
headman.
suba
n
mouse.
sudhɛba
n
great-grandfather.
sugup
n
spirit of a woman dead in childbirth.
sughe
n
a wild yam with bristling roots
nepali:bhutle tarul.
etymology: su, khe
suk
n
cock's spur.
sukma

root:
suk
present stem:
suk
past stem:
sug.
vt
to wait in ambush for.
sukma

root:
sukt
present stem:
suk
past stem:
sukt.
vt
to be able [usu. with infinitive; shows the logical object agreement of the governed verb].
· siŋla phara-'tmu khunchi tɛmma mɛn-chuktigɛn — in the jungle they couldn't catch us [PE]
· yɔllik kɔ mɛ-sukŋan iŋga kɔ — I can't do much [i.e. in giving money] (so200)
· khɔn jamma paisā pi-ma suktumbɛ — we [PE] can pay all of the money (naro43)
occurs in: ha=sukma
suːkma

root:
suːkt
present stem:
suːk
past stem:
suːkt.
vi
to dive (at a target, as a hawk), to rush (of wind), to run.
postfinal-related: suːkt-/suːks-