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Index
tʰɑ˧‑
tʰɑ˧-ni˥-ni˩-gv˩
tʰɑ˩lo˧
tʰɑ˩mi#˥
tʰɑ˩pʰv#˥
tʰɑ˩tʰɑ˩
tʰɑ˩zo#˥
tʰɑ˩-ʐwæ˧mi˧
tʰɑ˧˥
tʰɑ˧˥
tʰɑ˩˥
tʰæ˧ɻæ˩
tʰæ˩tsɯ˧
tʰi˧‑
tʰi˧
tʰi˩ a
tʰi˩mi#˥
tʰi˩zo#˥
tʰi˩˥
tʰi˩˥
tʰo˥ a
tʰo˥ a
tʰo˧ɕi˧˥
tʰo˧dzi˩
tʰo˧dzi˩-hwæ˩tsɯ˩
tʰo˧fv˧
tʰo˧li˧
tʰo˧li˧kʰv˧˥
tʰo˧li˧-mi˩
tʰo˧li˧-pʰv#˥
tʰo˧li˧-zo#˥
tʰo˧-mo˩
tʰo˧ɻæ˥
tʰo˧tɕo˧
tʰo˧tsʰe˧-ʁwɤ#˥
tʰo˧ʈɯ#˥
tʰo˧ʐv˥
tʰo˩ a
tʰo˩lo˧
tʰo˩pʰv˧tɕʰɤ˧
tʰo˩ʁæ˩
tʰo˩ʂv˩
tʰo˩tɕi˧˥
tʰv˥
tʰv˥
tʰv˥
tʰv˧ a
tʰv˧ b
tʰv˧gi˧
tʰv˧-hɑ̃˩-ne˩-ʝi˩-zo˩
tʰv˧-kʰv˩-ne˩-ʝi˩-zo˩
tʰv˧-ɬi˧-ne˧-ʝi˥-zo˩
tʰv˧ne-ʝi˥
tʰv˧ɲi#˥
tʰv˧ɲi˧-ne˧-ʝi˥-zo˩
tʰv˧qo˧
tʰv˧-se˩-gɤ˩
tʰv˧-si˥
tʰv˧-sɯ˩kv˩
tʰv˧-ʂɯ˥-ne˩-ʝi˩-zo˩
tʰv˩ b
tʰv˧˥
tʰv˧˥
tʰv˧˥ a
tʰɑ˧‑ prefix Tone: M/0.
proh . 禁止式 . morphosyntax.

tʰɑ˧-lɑ˩~lɑ˩-ze˩!
Don't quarrel!
别吵架了!

tʰɑ˧-dzo˧~dzo˥!
Don't touch!
不要动来动去! / 不要碰来碰去!
tʰɑ˧-ni˥-ni˩-gv˩ adverb
similar. 类似. morphosyntax. See:
tʰɑ˩lo˧ noun Tone: LM.
From: Tibetan tharlam. Tibetan_name_of_Yongning. 永宁的藏语名称. place name.

tʰɑ˩lo˧-go˧bɤ˩
the temple of Thar Lam
永宁大寺

tʰɑ˩lo˧ se˧gi˧ kɤ˩mv˩
mount Gemu, in Yongning
永宁格姆山
tʰɑ˩mi#˥ noun Tone: LM+#H.
classifier: pʰo˧˥ female_water_buffalo. 母水牛. animal.

dʑi˧mi˧-tʰɑ˩mi˩
same meaning: female water buffalo
母水牛

dʑi˧mi˧ ʈʂʰɯ˧-pʰo˩ dʑo˩, | tʰɑ˩mi˧ ɲi˥!
This buffalo is a female!
这头水牛是母的!
tʰɑ˩pʰv#˥ noun Tone: LM+#H.
classifier: pʰo˧˥ male_water_buffalo. 公水牛. animal.
tʰɑ˩tʰɑ˩ noun Tone: L.
classifier: kʰwɤ˥ good_spot. 好地方. natural environment.

tʰɑ˩tʰɑ˩˥ | ɖɯ˧-kʰwɤ˥
a good spot (for hunting a certain kind of wild plant)
一个好地方
tʰɑ˩zo#˥ noun Tone: LM+#H.
classifier: mi˩ baby_water_buffalo. 小水牛. animal.
tʰɑ˩-ʐwæ˧mi˧ noun Tone: L-.
classifier: pʰo˧˥ donkey. 驴子. animal.
tʰɑ˧˥ adjective Tone: MH.
sharp. 锋利. adjective.
tʰɑ˧˥ verb Tone: MH.
permissive . 可以. verb.

mɤ˧-tʰɑ˧˥ | mɤ˧-ʐv˩! | njɤ˧ | dzɯ˧-bi˧ni˧-mɤ˧-gv˧˥!
It's not that good! I don't like to eat that!
不怎么好吃!我不喜欢吃!

ə˩ljɤ˩hæ̃˩ʂɯ˥-mo˩-ʈʂʰɯ˩-dʑo˩, | hĩ˧ | mɤ˧-tʰɑ˧˥ | dv˩-mɤ˧-kv˧˥!
The Golden Mushroom is not all that poisonous! / The Golden Mushroom is not really dangerous!
黄蜡伞不怎么会让人中毒!/ 毒性不太大!
tʰɑ˩˥ noun Tone: LH.
classifier: pʰo˧˥ water_buffalo. 水牛. animal.
tʰæ˧ɻæ˩ noun Tone: L#.
classifier: pɤ˩ book. 书. object.
tʰæ˩tsɯ˧ noun Tone: LM.
From: Chinese 坛子 . 坛子::jar. 坛子( 借词) . object.
tʰi˧‑ prefix Tone: M/0.
dur . 持续体 . morphosyntax.

tʰi˧-dzɯ˥-dʑo˩!
(She) is eating!
她在吃东西!

tʰi˧-mɤ˧-ɲi˥
otherwise, or else
否则、要不然
tʰi˧ adjective Tone: M.
competent. 能干. adjective.

ɖwæ˧˥ | tʰi˧
intensive .very
很能干

mv˩tʰi˩ tʰv˩-v˩˥
that clever woman
那个聪明女人

zo˧tʰi˧
clever man
聪明男人
tʰi˩ a verb Tone: La.
to_plane. 刨. verb.

tso˧~tso˧ tʰi˥(-ze˩)
to plane things
刨东西

le˧-tʰi˩-ze˩
accomp _ pfv
刨了

tso˧~tso˧ | le˧-tʰi˩(-ze˩)
to plane things
刨东西

pæ˩pʰæ˧ tʰi˥
to plane a plank
刨木板
tʰi˩mi#˥ noun Tone: LM+#H.
classifier: nɑ˧ large_plane. 大刨. object.
tʰi˩zo#˥ noun Tone: LM+#H.
classifier: nɑ˧ small_plane. 小刨. object.
tʰi˩˥ noun Tone: LH.
classifier: nɑ˧ plane. 刨. object.
tʰi˩˥ particle Tone: LM? LH?.
so/then. 然后. morphosyntax.
tʰo˥ a classifier Tone: Ha.
clf .solutions . 量词 .办法 . classifier.

ə˧tso˧ tʰo˧ dʑo˧-kv˩?
What can we do about it? / What can be done about it?
有什么办法?
tʰo˥ a classifier Tone: Ha.
From: Chinese . clf .套::sets . 量词 .套( 借词) . classifier.
tʰo˧ɕi˧˥ noun Tone: MH#.
classifier: pʰæ˧˥ forest_of_conifers. 松树林. natural environment.
tʰo˧dzi˩ noun Tone: L#.
classifier: dzi˩ pine_tree. 松树. plant.
tʰo˧dzi˩-hwæ˩tsɯ˩ noun Tone: LM-.
hedgehog. 刺猬. animal.
tʰo˧fv˧ noun Tone: M.
From: Chinese 土匪 . 土匪::bandit. 土匪( 借词) . society.
tʰo˧li˧ noun Tone: M.
classifier: mi˩ rabbit. 兔子. animal.
tʰo˧li˧kʰv˧˥ noun Tone: MH#.
year_of_the_Rabbit. 兔年. time.
tʰo˧li˧-mi˩ noun Tone: °L.
classifier: mi˩ jill. 母兔. animal.
tʰo˧li˧-pʰv#˥ noun Tone: #H.
classifier: mi˩ male_rabbit. 公兔. animal.
tʰo˧li˧-zo#˥ noun Tone: #H.
classifier: ɭɯ˧ baby_rabbit. 小兔. animal.
tʰo˧-mo˩ noun Tone: L#.
pine_tree_mushroom. “松树菌”. plant.
tʰo˧ɻæ˥ noun Tone: H#.
classifier: ʈʂwɤ˧ classifier: poignée pine_nut_kernel. 松子. plant.
tʰo˧tɕo˧ adverb
backward. 往后. space.

tʰo˧tɕo˧ li˧
to look back
往后看

tʰo˧tɕo˧ ɖɯ˧-li˧-ɻ˧
to glance backward
往后看一眼
tʰo˧tsʰe˧-ʁwɤ#˥ noun Tone: #H.
village_name. 村落名. place name.

tʰo˧tsʰe#˥
same meaning
同上

ə˧go˧-ʁwɤ˧, | ʁwɤ˧lɑ˩-bi˩, | bæ˧ʁwɤ˧, | tʰo˧tsʰe#˥, | pi˧tsʰe˩-di˩, | pɤ˧dʑɤ˩-di˩, | ʁwɤ˧tv˧
Villages that one encounters as one leaves the plain of Yongning (away from the Lake); the first two are perceived as villages with a high proportion of Na members, and the third as a mostly Na village, whereas the next ones are Pumi (Prinmi).
永宁背向泸沽湖方向经过的村落。前两个村落拥有相当大的摩梭人口比例,第三个村落是摩梭村,最后一个是普米村。

tʰo˧tsʰe˧: | bɤ˧!
/tʰo˧tsʰe˧/ is a Pumi village!
fv:/tʰo˧tsʰe˧/是一个普米族村落!
tʰo˧ʈɯ#˥ noun Tone: #H.
village_name. 拖支开基村. place name.

dʑɤ˩bv˧kɤ˧-sɑ˥ʁwɤ˩, | hi˩ʁwɤ˩-lo˥, | æ˩mi˧-ʁwɤ#˥, | lɑ˧lo˧-ʁwɤ˥, | lɑ˧ŋwɤ˧, | bɤ˧tsʰo˧gv˥, | ə˧lɑ˧-ʁwɤ#˥, | gæ˧ɻæ˩, | qʰæ˧tɕʰi˧, | tʰo˧ʈɯ#˥
the ten villages traditionally considered as part of Yongning
摩梭传统地理概念中,属于永宁的十个村落之一
tʰo˧ʐv˥ noun Tone: H#.
classifier: mi˩ pigeon. 鸽子. animal.

tʰo˧ʐv˥-mi˩
female pigeon
母鸽子

tʰo˧ʐv˥-pʰv˩
male pigeon
公鸽子

tʰo˧ʐv˥-zo˩
baby pigeon
小鸽子
tʰo˩ a verb Tone: La.
to_lean. 靠. verb.
tʰo˩lo˧ noun Tone: LM.
horse_walking_in_front. 头马. society.
tʰo˩pʰv˧tɕʰɤ˧ noun Tone: LM.
classifier: kʰɯ˩ From: Chinese? . firelock. 明火枪. object.
tʰo˩ʁæ˩ noun Tone: L.
classifier: ʈʰɤ˥ pine_resin. 松香. plant.
tʰo˩ʂv˩ noun Tone: L.
classifier: qɑ˩ classifier: botte pine_needles. 树针. plant.
tʰo˩tɕi˧˥ noun Tone: LM+MH#.
classifier: ɭɯ˧ brick. 砖. house.
tʰv˥ pronoun Tone: #H.
dem .dist . 指示 .远指 . morphosyntax.

tʰv˧ ɲi˥!
It's that one! / That's the one!
是那个!

tʰv˧-v#˥
that one
那个
See: tʰv˥2 See: tʰv˥3
tʰv˥ pronoun Tone: #H.
3sg . 他. morphosyntax.

tʰv˧=ɻ˩
his family, his household, his clan, his kin
他家、他家族、他的人
See: tʰv˥1 See: tʰv˥3
tʰv˥ suffix Tone: #H.
top(°dem .dist) . 主题(°指示 .远指) . morphosyntax. See: tʰv˥1 See: tʰv˥2
tʰv˧ a verb Tone: Ma.
to_come_out. 出来. verb.

ɑ˩pʰo˩ tʰv˩˥
to come out: e.g. an animal comes out of its burrow
出来,如:动物从地洞里爬出来

ɲi˧mi˧ tʰv˧
the sun comes out
太阳出来

to_come_out. 刮. verb.
to_sprout. 发芽. verb.

si˧dzi˩ | ʁo˧bv˧ tʰv˧
the tree buds
树抽芽

to_get(wound). 出现. verb.

mi˧ tʰv˧
to get wounded
受伤

ɖɯ˧-v˧ mi˧ tʰv˧-ze˧!
someone has got wounded!
有人受伤了!

to_create/to_found. 建立/创造. verb.

ʑi˩ tʰv˩
to found a new home
分家、建立新家

ʈʂʰɯ˧ | ʑi˩ tʰv˩-ze˥!
(S)he founded a new home!
他建了新家!

ʈʂʰɯ˧ | ʑi˩ tʰv˩-bi˩˥!
(S)he is going to found a new home!
他要建个新家!

lo˧ mɤ˧-dʑo˧, | lo˧ tʰv˧˥! / no˧ | lo˧ mɤ˧-dʑo˧, | lo˧ tʰv˧-ɲi˥!
[(S)he] has no obligations, and yet (s)he works a lot / (s)he finds tasks to do! (A compliment to a civil servant who could be content to pocket a salary every month but who sets goals for her/himself and looks for useful tasks to accomplish. The sentence can also be used negatively, to criticize someone who takes up unnecessary tasks instead of keeping quiet.)
自找麻烦!(这句,除贬义用法,还能用来表扬,如表扬一位当官的人努力去做好事,给自己找有意义的事情干。)
tʰv˧ b verb Tone: Mb.
to_lend. 借给人. verb.

tso˧~tso˧ tʰv˧
to lend something
借东西(给人)
tʰv˧gi˧ adverb
in_that_direction. 那边. space.
tʰv˧-hɑ̃˩-ne˩-ʝi˩-zo˩ adverb
every_evening. 每天晚上. time.
tʰv˧-kʰv˩-ne˩-ʝi˩-zo˩ adverb
every_year. 每年. time.
tʰv˧-ɬi˧-ne˧-ʝi˥-zo˩ adverb
every_month. 每个月. time.
tʰv˧ne-ʝi˥ adverb Tone: MH#.
that_way. 那样. morphosyntax.
tʰv˧ɲi#˥ adverb Tone: #H.
that_day. 那天. time.
tʰv˧ɲi˧-ne˧-ʝi˥-zo˩ adverb
every_day. 每天. time.
tʰv˧qo˧ pronoun Tone: M.
there. 那里. place name.
tʰv˧-se˩-gɤ˩ adverb Tone: °L.
henceforth. 今后. time.
tʰv˧-si˥ adverb Tone: H#.
numerous. 多. morphosyntax.

mv˧ʁo˧=ɻ˥-dʑo˩, | ɻæ˩˥ | tʰv˧-si˥ | tʰv˩-jɤ˩ dʑo˩˥!
The People of the Sky had seeds in profusion! (from the narrative "Seeds")
天上的人,有许多许多种子!(故事:“种子”)
tʰv˧-sɯ˩kv˩ pronoun Tone: °L.
3pl . 他们. morphosyntax.
tʰv˧-ʂɯ˥-ne˩-ʝi˩-zo˩ adverb
every_time. 每次. time.
tʰv˩ b classifier Tone: Lb.
clf .sets_of_ten . 量词 .一套(十个) . classifier.

qʰwɤ˩˥ | ɖɯ˧-tʰv˩
a set of ten bowls
一套十个碗

ɖʐɯ˧ʂɯ˥ | ɖɯ˧-tʰv˩
a set of ten (pairs of) chopsticks
一套十(双)筷子
tʰv˧˥ verb Tone: MH.
to_step_on. 踩. verb.

tʰi˧-tʰo˩
dur
dur

tʰi˧-tʰo˩-ɻ˩
dur _ inceptive
dur _ inceptive

ɖɯ˧-tʰo˩-ɻ˩
delimitative _ inceptive
delimitative _ inceptive

tʰv˩~tʰv˧˥
red
重叠

ɖɯ˧-tʰv˧ tʰi˥-tʰv˩
to give a kick, to stamp the ground
踢一脚

kʰɯ˧tsʰɤ˧ tʰv˥-tsʰɯ˩
to give a kick, to stamp the ground
踢一脚

kʰɯ˧tsʰɤ˧ tʰv˥~tʰv˩
to give a kick, to stamp the ground
踢一脚

kʰɯ˧tsʰɤ˧ tʰɑ˧-tʰv˧˥!
Do not stamp the ground! / Do not kick/tread on something!
别踢!
tʰv˧˥ verb Tone: MH.
to_take_charge_of. 负担(费用). verb.
tʰv˧˥ a classifier Tone: MHa.
clf .steps . 量词 .步 . classifier.

ɖɯ˧-tʰv˧~ɖɯ˥-tʰv˩
step by step, one step after the other
一步一步

ɖɯ˧-tʰv˧˥, | ɖɯ˧-tʰv˧˥
step by step, one step after the other; same as above, but detaching the two parts of the phrase; this is closer to repetition than to reduplication
一步又一步