Titre de la page
 
na
Index q
qɑ˩ c
qɑ˩ a
qɑ˧˥
qæ˥
qæ˥
qæ˥
qæ˧do˧
qæ˧dzɯ˩
qæ˧ɻ˧
qæ˩ a
qæ˩ b
qæ˩di˩
qæ˧˥
qæ˧˥
qæ˩˥
qæ˩˥
qi˧qi˧
qo˥
qo˥
-qo˧
qo˧lo˧ʂv˥
-qo˧lo˩
qo˧lo˩
qo˧pv˧
qo˧pv˩
qo˧pv˩-ʐwæ˩ɖʐæ˩
qo˧tv˩
qo˩ a
qo˩ho˧˥
qo˩qɑ˩
qo˩tv˩-lv˥
qv˧dzi˩
qv˧ɻ#˥
qv˧tɕi˥
qv˧ʈʂæ˧˥
qv˩ a
qv˧˥
qv˩˥
qwɑ˧mæ#˥
qwæ˧
qwæ˧lo˧˥
qwæ˧ʁo#˥
qwæ˧ʂe#˥
qwæ˧ʂe˧lɑ˧bv˥
qwæ˧zo˧zo˩
qwæ˩ɖʐæ˩
qwæ˩~qwæ˧˥
qwæ˩ʂv˧˥
qwæ˧˥
qwæ˧˥
qwæ˩˥
qwɤ˧
qwɤ˧ a
qwɤ˧ɭɯ#˥
qwɤ˩ a
qwɤ˩pi˩
qʰɑ˥
qʰɑ˧-
qʰɑ˧
qʰɑ˧
qʰɑ˧dze˧
qʰɑ˧dze˧-hwæ˩-di˩
qʰɑ˧dze˧-lv˧
qʰɑ˧tɑ˧
qʰɑ˧-ʈʂʰɤ˧~ʈʂʰɤ˥
qʰɑ˩jɤ˩
qʰɑ˩ne˩
qʰæ˥
qʰæ˥
qʰæ˥
qʰæ˥
qʰæ˧
qʰæ˧ b
qʰæ˧kʰwɤ#˥
qʰæ˧lo˧˥
qʰæ˧mi˧
qʰæ˧mo˩
qʰæ˧tv˧
qʰæ˧tɕʰi˧
qʰæ˧tɕʰi˧-ɬi˧dʑɯ˩
qʰæ˧ʈæ˧˥
qʰæ˧zo#˥
qʰæ˩
qʰæ˩ a
qʰæ˩ a
qʰæ˩bæ˩
qʰæ˩ʈv˩ɻæ˥
qʰæ˧˥
qʰæ˧˥
qʰæ˧˥
qʰæ˧˥
qʰæ˧˥
qʰæ˧˥
qʰo˧ a
qʰo˧lo˧
qʰo˧mo˥
qʰo˩ b
qʰo˩dv˧˥
qʰo˩mv˩
qʰo˩tv˧˥
qʰo˧˥
qʰo˧˥
qʰv˥
qʰv˥ a
qʰv˧
qʰv˧
qʰv˧dʑɯ˥$
qʰv˧ɬi˧mi#˥
qʰv˧tʰv#˥
qʰv˩ɖɯ˩
qʰv˩ɖʐæ˩
qʰv˩~qʰv˧˥
qʰv˩tsʰi˧˥
qʰv˧˥
qʰv˧˥
qʰwæ˧
qʰwæ˧kʰwɤ#˥
qʰwæ˧ɭɯ˧
qʰwæ˧mi#˥
qʰwæ˧ʈɯ˥
qʰwæ˩
qʰwæ˩ a
qʰwæ˧˥
qʰwæ˧˥
qʰwæ˧˥ a
qʰwɤ˧
qʰwɤ˧ a
qʰwɤ˧bi˩
qʰwɤ˧mi˥$
qʰwɤ˧pɤ˥$
qʰwɤ˧ʂe˩
qʰwɤ˧to˩
qʰwɤ˧tʰv#˥
qʰwɤ˧tsʰi˩
qʰwɤ˧zo˥$
qʰwɤ˩ a
qʰwɤ˩ a
qʰwɤ˩ɖɯ˩
qʰwɤ˧˥
qʰwɤ˧˥
qʰwɤ˧˥ a
qɑ˩ c classifier Tone: Lc.
clf .armfuls . 量词 .抱 . classifier.

ʈʂʰɯ˧-qɑ˥
this armful
这一抱

clf .bundles_of_cereals . 量词 .垛(粮食、干草) .

dze˧ɭɯ˧ ɖɯ˧-qɑ˩
a bundle of corn (cut cereals)
一垛小麦(收割时,将十束绑在一起成一垛)
qɑ˩ a verb Tone: La.
to cover. 盖. verb.

le˧-qɑ˩-ze˩
accomp _ pfv
盖了

tʰi˧-qɑ˩-ze˩
dur _ pfv
dur _ pfv

ɖɯ˧-kʰwɤ˥ | tʰi˧-qɑ˥
to cover (a television set) with a piece of fabric (to protect it from dust)
用一块(布料)来盖(电视机,为了防灰)

hæ̃˧qʰv˥ | tʰi˧-qɑ˩!
At night, we cover (the television set with a piece of fabric)!
晚上,(要)盖上! / 我们晚上盖电视机(为了防灰)!

tso˧~tso˧ qɑ˥
to cover things
覆盖东西

to_hide_from_view. 遮. verb.
qɑ˧˥ verb Tone: MH.
to_help. 帮助. verb.

tʰi˧-qɑ˧˥
dur
dur

qɑ˩~qɑ˧˥
red
重叠:帮帮忙

hĩ˧ qɑ˩~qɑ˩
to help people; to go and work at someone else's place (e.g. during the harvest)
帮人,到别人家去工作(例如收庄稼的时候)

njɤ˧ no˧ qɑ˧~qɑ˥
I help you
我帮你
qæ˥ verb Tone: H.
to_displace. 搬. verb.

le˧-qæ˥
accomp
accomp
qæ˥ verb Tone: H.
to_exchange. 换. verb.

le˧-qæ˥-ze˩
accomp _ pfv
换了

dʑi˧hṽ˧ qæ˧
to change clothes
换衣服

bɑ˩lɑ˩˥ | tʰi˧-qæ˥
to change clothes
换衣服

qæ˧~qæ˧
red
重叠:交换

qæ˧~qæ˧-ɻ˥
red inceptive
red inceptive

qæ˧~qæ˧-ɻ˧-ze˥
red inceptive pfv
red inceptive pfv

tso˧~tso˧ qæ˧~qæ˧
to exchange things
交换东西

le˧-qæ˧~qæ˧(-ze˩)
accomp red ( pfv )
accomp red ( pfv )
qæ˥ verb Tone: H.
to_sculpt. 雕. verb.

le˧-qæ˥-ze˩
accomp _ pfv
雕了

bæ˩bæ˩ qæ˥
to sculpt a flower
雕花
qæ˧do˧ noun Tone: M.
classifier: kɤ˧˥ lumber. 木材. house.

ʑi˧mi˧-qæ˩do˩
lumber for the construction of the main building of a Na farm
建主房的木材

ʑi˧qʰwɤ˧-qæ˧do#˥
lumber for the construction of a building
建房子的木材
Syn: qæ˧ɻ˧
qæ˧dzɯ˩ noun Tone: L#.
family_name. 一个姓. given name.

qæ˧dzɯ˩-ɻ˩
the /qæ˧dzɯ˩/ clan, the /qæ˧dzɯ˩/ family
|fv /qæ˧dzɯ˩/ 家族 /qæ˧dzɯ˩/ 家族

qæ˧dzɯ˩ | -tsʰɯ˧ɻ˧
the name of a person, containing both a family name: fv:/lqæ˧dzɯ˩/, and a given name: fv:/tsʰɯ˧ɻ#˥/
一个人的名字:姓为|fv /qæ˧dzɯ˩/ ,名为|fv /tsʰɯ˧ɻ#˥/ /qæ˧dzɯ˩/ ,名为 /tsʰɯ˧ɻ#˥/
qæ˧ɻ˧ noun Tone: M.
classifier: kɤ˧˥ lumber. 木材. house. Syn: qæ˧do˧
qæ˩ a verb Tone: La.
to_coax. 哄. verb.

zo˧ qæ˥
to coax a child
哄孩子

le˧-qæ˧~qæ˥ | le˧-ʑi˧-kʰɯ˥
to put asleep by coaxing, to coax asleep
哄睡着
qæ˩ b verb Tone: Lb.
to_cheat. 欺骗. verb.

hĩ˧ qæ˥-kv˩
sly, who is good at deceiving people
狡猾、很能骗人的

hĩ˧ qæ˥ | ʐwæ˩˥
sly, who is good at deceiving people
狡猾、很能骗人的

hĩ˧ qæ˥ mɤ˩-ɖo˩!
One must not cheat others! / One must not deceive people! (A precept taught by the main consultant's grandmother)
不要骗人!(这个信条,是发音合作人的祖母教的)

qæ˩-mɤ˩-ɖo˩˥!
One must not cheat (others)! / One must not deceive people! (A precept taught by the main consultant's grandmother)
不要骗人!(这个信条,是发音合作人的祖母教的)

mɤ˧-qæ˩
neg
不骗

hĩ˧ qæ˥-tso˩~tso˩!
Shoddy stuff! (Literally: 'deceitful stuff!') (Context: a comment about thread of poor quality, bought at the market)
骗人的东西!(关于买来的一团线,质量不好)
qæ˩di˩ verb Tone: L.
to_flick. 弹. verb.
qæ˧˥ verb Tone: MH.
to_burn.vt. 燃烧. verb.

mv˧ qæ˩-ze˩
the fire has started, the fire is blazing; a fire has caught
火烧着了 / 着火了

mv˧ le˧-qæ˧˥ / mv˧ le˧-qæ˧-ze˥
the fire is burning; a fire has caught
火在烧 / 着火了

mv˧ qæ˥-ɻ˩
the fire is burning
火在烧 / 火烧着了

mv˧ qæ˥-ɻ˩ kʰɯ˩
to start a fire (as an act of destruction/war), to commit arson
(有人)放火

mv˧qæ˥-ɻ˩-hɯ˩
a fire has started
(有人)放火了!
qæ˧˥ verb Tone: MH.
to_suffer. 疼. verb.

bi˧mi˧ qæ˧˥
to have a stomach-ache
肚子疼

ɬo˧kʰv˧ qæ˧˥
the waist hurts, the lower back hurts
腰疼

ʁo˧qʰwɤ˩ qæ˩
to have a headache
头疼
qæ˩˥ noun Tone: LH.
oil. 油. food.
qæ˩˥ noun Tone: LH.
classifier: kʰwɤ˥ glue. 胶. object.
qi˧qi˧ adverb Tone: M.
originally. 一开始. morphosyntax.
qo˥ verb Tone: H.
to_kneel. 跪下. verb.
qo˥ verb Tone: H.
to_love. 爱. verb.

mɤ˧-qo˧
neg
不爱

zo˧mv˥zo˩ qo˩
to love (one's) children
爱孩子

õ˧-hĩ˥ qo˩
to love one's family
爱自己家人
-qo˧ postposition Tone: M.
in. 里. space. See: -qo˧lo˩
qo˧lo˧ʂv˥ adjective
well_behaved. 乖. adjective.
-qo˧lo˩ postposition Tone: L#.
in. 里面. space.

ʈʂʰɯ˧ | ɑ˩ʁo˧-qo˧lo˩ dʑo˩
(S)he is in the house. / (S)he is inside.
他在家里。
See: qo˧lo˩
qo˧lo˩ adverb Tone: L#.
inside. 里面. space. See: -qo˧lo˩
qo˧pv˧ adjective
thirsty. 渴. verb.

qo˧pv˧-ze˧
pfv
渴了

qo˧pv˧ mɤ˧-tʰɑ˧-ze˥
terribly thirsty
渴得不行
qo˧pv˩ noun Tone: L#.
classifier: mi˩ cuckoo. 布谷鸟. animal.

qo˧pv˩-ɻwæ˩ | ɖɯ˧-ɲi˥
Ancestors' Day, Tomb-Sweeping Day, on the first day of the fifth month; literally: 'the day when the cuckoo sings'
清明节。直译:“布谷鸟叫的那天”
qo˧pv˩-ʐwæ˩ɖʐæ˩ noun Tone: LM-.
jay. 松鸦. animal.
qo˧tv˩ noun Tone: L#/LM.
classifier: ɭɯ˧ fruit_stone. 果核. plant.

dʑi˧ʁo˩-qo˩tv˩
peach kernel
桃子果核
qo˩ a verb Tone: La.
to_put_away. 放/储存. verb.
qo˩ho˧˥ noun Tone: LM+MH#.
classifier: ɭɯ˧ gift_box. 礼盒. object.
qo˩qɑ˩ noun Tone: L.
classifier: ɭɯ˧ mountain_pass. 垭口. natural environment.
qo˩tv˩-lv˥ noun Tone: L+H#.
classifier: ɭɯ˧ ball/lump. 团. object.

li˩-qo˩tv˥-lv˩
tea leaves compressed in bowl shape
沱茶

li˩-qo˩tv˥-lv˩ | ɖɯ˧-qʰwɤ˧ tɕɤ˥
to make a bowl of tea, using tea leaves compressed in bowl shape
煮一碗沱茶
qv˧dzi˩ noun Tone: L#.
classifier: dzi˩, ʝi˧ Masson_pine. 马尾松. plant.

qv˧dzi˩-lv˩~lv˩, | dzɯ˧ mɤ˧-ɖo˧!
One must not eat the seeds of Masson's pine! (It is poisonous)
马松树的果子,不要吃!(有毒)
qv˧ɻ#˥ noun Tone: #H.
mountain_name. 永宁的一座山. place name.

qv˧ɻ˧-ʁo˧-qʰwɤ˥
the top of the /qv˧ɻ˧/ mountain
|fv /qv˧ɻ˧/ 山的山顶 /qv˧ɻ˧/ 山的山顶
qv˧tɕi˥ noun Tone: H#.
spittle. 痰. body.
qv˧ʈʂæ˧˥ noun Tone: MH#.
classifier: ɭɯ˧ throat. 喉咙. body.
voice. 声音.

ʈʂʰɯ˧ | qv˧ʈʂæ˧ dʑɤ˥!
(S)he has a beautiful voice.
他嗓子好。

ʈʂʰɯ˧ | qv˧ʈʂæ˧˥ | ɖwæ˧˥ | dʑɤ˩˥!
(S)he has a really beautiful voice.
他嗓子很好。
qv˩ a verb Tone: La.
to_wash_along. 冲走. verb.

le˧-qv˩ | le˧-po˧-tsʰɯ˧˥
to carry to a certain place, to wash along all the way to a certain place
冲到某个地方

lv˧mi˧ | ɬi˧dʑɯ˩-ɳɯ˩ | qv˩˥.
The stones are carried (down into the plain) by (the strong current of) the river of Yongning.
石头被永宁河水冲(到坝子)

dʑɯ˧-ɳɯ˧ | le˧-qv˩ | le˧-po˧-tsʰɯ˧-hĩ˥ | lv˧mi˧
stones carried over (to this place) by the stream
水流冲下来的石头
qv˧˥ verb Tone: MH.
to_frighten. 吓. verb.

hĩ˧ qv˩
to frighten people
吓人

no˧ | hĩ˧ qv˩-zo˩! / ʈʂʰɯ˧-ɳɯ˧ | hĩ˧ qv˩-zo˩!
You frighten people! / He frightens people!
你吓人! / 他吓人!

ʈʂʰɯ˧ | njæ˩ qv˩-tsʰɯ˩˥!
He frightens people!
他吓人!

njɤ˧ɳɯ˧ | ʈʂʰɯ˧ qv˩-bi˩!
I am going to frighten her/him!
我要吓唬他一下!

tʰɑ˧-qv˧˥!
prohib
别吓唬(人家)!
qv˩˥ noun Tone: LH.
classifier: kʰwɤ˥ handle. 把手. object.
qwɑ˧mæ#˥ noun Tone: #H.
classifier: kʰwɤ˥ middle_part_of_main_room. 主屋的中庭. house.
qwæ˧ noun Tone: M.
classifier: nɑ˧ mat. 床垫子. object.

qwæ˧mi#˥
large mat
大床垫子
qwæ˧lo˧˥ noun Tone: MH#.
classifier: kʰɯ˩ passageway. 小道. natural environment.

qwæ˧lo˧-qo˥ | gɤ˩tɕo˧ le˧-jo˩
to come by the small lane
抄小道
qwæ˧ʁo#˥ noun Tone: #H.
classifier: ɭɯ˧ bench_of_main_room. 主屋长凳. house.
qwæ˧ʂe#˥ noun Tone: #H.
classifier: mi˩ bedbug. 臭虫. animal.
qwæ˧ʂe˧lɑ˧bv˥ noun Tone: H#.
classifier: mi˩ worm_sp.. 一种蠕虫. animal.
qwæ˧zo˧zo˩ noun Tone: L#.
classifier: pɤ˩ bench_of_main_room. 主屋的长凳. object.
qwæ˩ɖʐæ˩ noun Tone: L.
classifier: ɭɯ˧ jaw. 颚. body.

qwæ˩ɖʐæ˩-qo˥-ɳɯ˩ | ʈʰæ˧˥
to masticate, to gnaw
咬在嘴里
qwæ˩~qwæ˧˥ verb
to_scratch. 抠痒. verb.

le˧-qwæ˧~qwæ˩-ze˩
accomp _ red pfv
accomp _ red pfv
qwæ˩ʂv˧˥ noun Tone: LM+MH#.
classifier: nɑ˧ bit_of_bridle. 马嚼子. object.

ʐwæ˧-kwæ˥ʂv˩
bit of a horse's bridle
马嚼子
qwæ˧˥ verb Tone: MH.
to_dig. 挖. verb.

tv˧qʰv˧ qwæ˧˥
to dig a hole
挖洞

ʈʂe˧ qwæ˩
to dig out the soil
挖土

qʰæ˧lo˧ qwæ˥
to dig a ditch
挖水沟

jɤ˩jo˥ qwæ˩
to dig out potatoes, to harvest potatoes
挖洋芋

to_scoop. 舀. verb.

dʑɯ˩ qwæ˩˥
to scoop water
舀水
qwæ˧˥ verb Tone: MH.
to_engrave. 雕刻. verb.

bæ˩bæ˩ qwæ˥
to engrave a flower
刻花

qwæ˩~qwæ˧˥
red
重叠

bæ˩bæ˩ qwæ˥~qwæ˩
to engrave flowers
刻一朵花
qwæ˩˥ noun Tone: LH.
classifier: ɭɯ˧ jaw. 嘴巴. body.
qwɤ˧ noun Tone: M.
classifier: ɭɯ˧ fire_pit. 火塘. object.

qwɤ˧, | mv˧ kʰɯ˩-di˩!
The fire pit is the place where one puts fire / where one does a fire!
火塘,就是升火的地方!
qwɤ˧ a verb Tone: Ma.
to_accuse. 告状. verb.

mɤ˧-qwɤ˧
neg
不告状

hĩ˧ qwɤ˩
to accuse someone, to denounce someone
告一个人

njɤ˧-ɳɯ˧ | qwɤ˧-bi˧!
I am going to denounce/accuse
我要告状!

no˧ | le˧-qwɤ˧-hõ˧!
Go and denounce (him/her)!
你去告状吧!

qwɤ˧~qwɤ˩
red
重叠
qwɤ˧ɭɯ#˥ noun Tone: #H.
campfire. 营火. house.

qwɤ˧ɭɯ˧-pʰɤ˧bɤ˥
the gifts offered to the ancestors, at the fireplace: even when building a campfire for one day only on the mountain, one offers a little food to the ancestors before beginning the meal (in the same way as is done at home)
敬给祖先的礼物:即使在山上升起篝火野餐,还是要像在家里一样,用餐前先敬给祖先一些饭。
qwɤ˩ a verb Tone: La.
to_grow. 生长. verb.

gɤ˩-qwɤ˥
to grow
长大,生长

ʈʂʰɯ˧ | gɤ˩-qwɤ˥-ze˩!
(S)he has grown up! / (S)he has grown a lot! (About a child)
他长大了!(关于一个小孩)
qwɤ˩pi˩ noun Tone: L.
classifier: ɭɯ˧ mouth. 嘴巴. body.

qwɤ˩pi˩-qo˩lo˥
inside the mouth
嘴巴里

ko˩pi˩-ko˩lo˧
inside the mouth
嘴巴里
qʰɑ˥ adjective Tone: H.
bitter. 苦. adjective.
qʰɑ˧- adverb
extremely. 多么/非常. morphosyntax.

qʰɑ˧-ɖɯ˧-hĩ˧
extremely big
非常大

qʰɑ˧-ɖɯ˧-gv˧
extremely large; how large!
非常大

qʰɑ˧-ʂwæ˧-gv˧
extremely tall; how tall!
很高、非常高

qʰɑ˧-ʂwæ˧-mi˧zo˥
extremely tall
很高

qʰɑ˧-ɖɯ˧-mi˧zo˥
extremely big
很大
See: qʰɑ˧1
qʰɑ˧ pronoun Tone: M.
how_many. 几、多少. morphosyntax.

hĩ˧ | qʰɑ˧-kv˧˥?
how many people?
几个人?

bæ˩bæ˩˥ | qʰɑ˧-bæ˩?
how many flowers?
几朵花?

qʰɑ˧-ʑi˩?
how many families?
几家?

hɑ˧ | qʰɑ˧-tɕʰi˩?
how many meals?
几顿饭?

qʰɑ˧-ɲi˧?
how many days?
几天?

qʰɑ˧-kʰv˧ gv˧-ze˩?
How old are you / is (s)he?
几岁了?

qʰɑ˧-kʰv˧˥?
how many years?
几年?

qʰɑ˧-kʰwɤ˧˥?
how many pieces?
几块?

qʰɑ˧-nɑ˧?
how many (tools...)?
几把?

sɯ˩tʰi˩˥ | qʰɑ˧-nɑ˧ dʑo˧?
How many knives are there?
有几把刀?

qʰɑ˧-kʰɯ˩
how many (long objects)
几条

qʰɑ˧-kʰɯ˩ dʑo˩?
How many (long objects) are there?
有几条?

qʰɑ˧-mæ˩ dʑo˩?
How much money do (you) have?
有几块(钱)?

si˧dzi˩ | qʰɑ˧-dzi˩?
how many trees?
几棵树?

si˧kɤ˧˥ | qʰɑ˧-kɤ˧˥?
how many branches?
几枝树枝?

qʰɑ˧-kʰɤ˧˥?
how many baskets?
几筐?
See: qʰɑ˧2
qʰɑ˧ adverb Tone: M.
some. 几. morphosyntax.

tsʰe˩-qʰɑ˩˥
ten and a few more (i.e. between ten and twenty)
十几个、十来个

tsʰe˩-qʰɑ˩-kv˩˥
ten and a few more (i.e. between ten and twenty)
十几个、十来个
See: qʰɑ˧1
qʰɑ˧dze˧ noun Tone: M.
classifier: kɤ˧˥ sweet_corn. 玉米. plant.

qʰɑ˧dze˧-kʰɯ˩ʈɯ˩
the roots of the sweetcorn plant
玉米的根

qʰɑ˧dze˧ qʰæ˩
to cut ears of sweetcorn, to snap off ears of sweetcorn
采玉米:折断玉米棒子

qʰɑ˧dze˧ ɖʐɤ˧˥
to harvest sweetcorn, to pick sweetcorn
采玉米

qʰɑ˧dze˧-tsɑ˩bɤ˩ | ɖɯ˧-mɤ˩
a little sweetcorn flour
一点玉米粉

qʰɑ˧dze˧-hɑ˧bɤ˥, | qʰɑ˧dze˧-hɑ˧ɭɯ#˥, | qʰɑ˧dze˧-tsɑ˩bɤ˩
three forms of sweetcorn: sweetcorn ear; sweetcorn grains; sweetcorn flour
玉米的三种形态:玉米棒子,玉米粒,玉米粉
qʰɑ˧dze˧-hwæ˩-di˩ noun Tone: °L.
classifier: kɤ˧˥ beams_of_rack. 粮架的横梁. house.
qʰɑ˧dze˧-lv˧ noun Tone: M.
classifier: pʰv˩ maize field, sweetcorn field. 包谷田. natural environment.
qʰɑ˧tɑ˧ pronoun Tone: M.
when. 什么时候. morphosyntax.

qʰɑ˧tɑ˧ bi˧?
When will you go?
你什么时候去?
qʰɑ˧-ʈʂʰɤ˧~ʈʂʰɤ˥ adjective
completely_dry. 充分干燥. verb.

qʰɑ˧-ʈʂʰɤ˧~ʈʂʰɤ˥-gv˩
completely dry
充分干燥

le˧-pv˧-zo˩, | qʰɑ˧ʈʂʰɤ˧ʈʂʰɤ˥-gv˩-ze˩!
Now it is dry: completely dry!
现在,干了:全干了!
qʰɑ˩jɤ˩ pronoun Tone: L.
how_many. 多少. morphosyntax.

qʰɑ˩jɤ˩ tʰi˥-ki˩?
How much does it cost?
要给多少? = 多少钱?

qʰɑ˩jɤ˩ ɲi˧?
How much do (you) need?
要多少?

ɖʐe˧ | qʰɑ˩jɤ˩ ɲi˧?
How much money does it cost?
要多少钱?
qʰɑ˩ne˩ pronoun Tone: L.
how. 怎么样. morphosyntax.

qʰɑ˩ne˩ ʝi˥?
how to do / how is it done?
怎么做?

qʰɑ˩ne˩ ʝi˥-tso˩-ɲi˩?
how must one do / how is it done?
要怎么做?

qʰɑ˩ne˩ gv˩˥?
how to do / how is it done?
怎么做?

qʰɑ˩ne˩ gv˩-ho˥-ze˩?
What happened?
怎么样了?发展到什么程度?
qʰæ˥ noun Tone: #H.
classifier: pɤ˥ excrements. 屎. body.

qʰæ˧ ɖɯ˧-pɤ˧ ʂe˧˥
to defecate
拉一泡屎

qʰæ˧ kv˥
to pick up dung
捡(马……)屎

qʰæ˧-pi˩ kv˩
to pick up a little dung (to fertilize the fields)
捡一点(马……)屎

qʰæ˧ ɖɯ˧-pi˧ kv˥
as above: to pick up a little dung (to fertilize the fields)
同上:捡一点(马……)屎

classifier: pɤ˥ fart. 屁. body.

qʰæ˧ kʰɯ˩
to fart
放屁

qʰæ˧ | ɖɯ˧-pɤ˥ kʰɯ˩
to fart, to make a fart
放一个屁

garbage. 垃圾.
qʰæ˥ verb Tone: H.
to_gnaw. 啃. verb.
qʰæ˥ adjective Tone: H.
cold. 冷. adjective.

dʑɯ˩ qʰæ˩˥
cold water
凉水

qʰæ˧-ɕjæ˧-gv˧
very cold
冷得很
qʰæ˥ noun Tone: #H.
classifier: kʰɯ˩ classifier: objets longs trench. 水沟. natural environment.
qʰæ˧ verb
to_fart. 放屁. verb.
qʰæ˧ b verb Tone: Mb.
to_break. 断. verb.

le˧-qʰæ˧-ze˧
accomp _ pfv
断了

si˧ qʰæ˩
to break wood
砸木头
qʰæ˧kʰwɤ#˥ noun Tone: #H.
classifier: ɭɯ˧ small_dam. 小水坝. natural environment.

qʰæ˧kʰwɤ˧ ɖɯ˧-ɭɯ˧
a small dam
一个小水坝
qʰæ˧lo˧˥ noun Tone: MH#.
classifier: kʰɯ˩ small_trench. 小水渠. natural environment. See: qʰæ˧zo#˥
qʰæ˧mi˧ noun Tone: M.
classifier: kʰɯ˩ classifier: objets longs large_trench. 大水渠. natural environment.
qʰæ˧mo˩ noun Tone: L#.
poisonous_mushroom. 有毒的一种菌子. plant.
qʰæ˧tv˧ noun Tone: M.
classifier: ɭɯ˧ anus. 肛门. body.
qʰæ˧tɕʰi˧ noun Tone: M.
village_name. 开基村. place name.

ʈʂʰɯ˧ | qʰæ˧tɕʰi˧-hĩ˧ ɲi˥!
(S)he is from the village of Kaiji!
他是开基村人!

dʑɤ˩bv˧kɤ˧-sɑ˥ʁwɤ˩, | hi˩ʁwɤ˩-lo˥, | æ˩mi˧-ʁwɤ#˥, | lɑ˧lo˧-ʁwɤ˥, | lɑ˧ŋwɤ˧, | bɤ˧tsʰo˧gv˥, | ə˧lɑ˧-ʁwɤ#˥, | gæ˧ɻæ˩, | qʰæ˧tɕʰi˧, | tʰo˧ʈɯ#˥
the ten villages traditionally considered as part of Yongning
摩梭传统地理概念中,属于永宁的十个村落之一
qʰæ˧tɕʰi˧-ɬi˧dʑɯ˩ noun Tone: °L#.
river_of_Yongning. 永宁坝的河流. place name.
qʰæ˧ʈæ˧˥ adjective Tone: MH#.
Etym: qʰæ˩a 1. quiet. 安静. adjective.

qʰæ˧ʈæ˧˥ | tʰi˧-dzi˩
to sit quietly, free from toil and care
安静地坐着

qʰæ˧ʈæ˧˥ | tʰi˧-ʝi˧
to work quietly
安静地工作
qʰæ˧zo#˥ noun Tone: #H.
classifier: kʰɯ˩ classifier: objets longs small_canal. 小水渠. natural environment. See: qʰæ˧lo˧˥
qʰæ˩ verb Tone: La.
to_harvest. 采(玉米). verb.

qʰɑ˧dze˧ qʰæ˩
to harvest sweet corn
采玉米

qʰɑ˧dze˧ | le˧-qʰæ˩-ze˩
The sweetcorn has been harvested.
玉米收好了。

qʰɑ˧dze˧ | ɖɯ˧-qʰæ˧~qʰæ˥-ɻ˩
to harvest some sweet corn
去采些玉米
qʰæ˩ a adjective Tone: La.
fake. 假. adjective.

qʰæ˩-hĩ˩˥, | tʰɑ˧-ʐwɤ˩!
Do not tell lies! / Do not tell things that are false!
假话,不要说! =不要撒谎!

qʰæ˧ ʐwɤ˧
to tell lies
撒谎、说谎
qʰæ˩ a adjective Tone: La.
well/quiet. 安乐. adjective.

hĩ˧ | ə˩-qʰæ˩˥?
How are you?
你好吗? / 一切好吗?

njɤ˧ | mɤ˧-qʰæ˩.
I don't feel well.
我不舒服。

easy. 轻松.

qʰæ˩-hĩ˩˥
rel
轻松的
qʰæ˩bæ˩ noun Tone: L.
classifier: nɑ˧ spoon. 调羹. object.
qʰæ˩ʈv˩ɻæ˥ adjective Tone: L+H#.
quiet. 安宁. adjective.

qʰæ˩ʈv˩ɻæ˥ | ɖɯ˧-dzi˩-ɻ˩
to sit quietly for a while
安静地坐一会

qʰæ˩ʈv˩ɻæ˥-gv˩
peacefully
安宁地
qʰæ˧˥ verb Tone: MH.
to_come_out. 出来. verb.

tʰi˧-qʰæ˧-ze˥
dur _ pfv
dur _ pfv
qʰæ˧˥ verb Tone: MH.
to_pull_down. 拆. verb.

ʑi˧qʰwɤ˧ qʰæ˧˥
to demolish a house
拆房子
qʰæ˧˥ verb Tone: MH.
to_share. 分. verb.
qʰæ˧˥ verb Tone: MH.
to_shoot. 开枪. verb.

le˧-qʰæ˧-ze˥
accomp _ pfv
开枪了

mv˧ʐe˧ qʰæ˩(-ze˩)
to shoot with a gun
开枪
qʰæ˧˥ adjective Tone: MH.
happy. 幸福. adjective.

le˧-qʰæ˧-ze˥
accomp _ pfv
accomp _ pfv

lo˧ qʰæ˩
to work in a quiet, relaxed manner
轻松工作
qʰæ˧˥ verb Tone: MH.
to_go_brown. 变黑. verb.

le˧-qʰæ˧-ze˥
accomp _ pfv
accomp _ pfv

mɤ˧ | le˧-qʰæ˧-ze˥
The oil has burned / has reached boiling point / has gone black!
油焦了!

hɑ˧ | le˧-qʰæ˧-ze˥
The rice has burned / is overcooked.
饭糊了。

v˩tsʰɤ˩˥ | hṽ˧~hṽ˧ F | le˧-qʰæ˧-ze˥!
The vegetables are going brown / are overcooked / are getting burnt from frying!
菜都炒糊了!

ʂe˧ | hṽ˧~hṽ˧ F | le˧-qʰæ˧-ze˥!
The meat is going brown / is overcooked / is getting burnt from frying!
肉都炒焦了!
qʰo˧ a verb Tone: Ma.
to_pile. 堆起来. verb.

lv˧mi˧ tʰi˧-qʰo˧
to pile up stones
石头堆起来
qʰo˧lo˧ noun Tone: M.
classifier: ɭɯ˧ wheel. 轮子. object.
qʰo˧mo˥ noun Tone: H#.
classifier: pʰo˧˥ old_cow. 老牛. animal.
qʰo˩ b verb Tone: Lb.
to_invite. 邀请. verb.

hĩ˧ qʰo˧˥
to invite someone
邀请人

hĩ˧bæ˧ qʰo˧˥
to invite a guest
邀请客人

hĩ˧bæ˧ | qʰo˧-zo˧-ho˥
We should invite guests!
需要请一下客人!

hĩ˧bæ˧ qʰo˧-di˧˥
Euphemism for 'rat poison'. This phrase is intended not to attract the mice's attention to these preparations.
‘待客的东西’(老鼠药的委婉语。如果说出来要买老鼠药,老鼠会知道,就不会吃的。)

ɖɯ˧-qʰo˥~qʰo˩-ɻ˩
delimitative red inceptive
delimitative red inceptive:请一下

qʰo˩-mɤ˥-qʰo˩
to invite or not
请不请

qʰo˩-mɤ˩-ho˥
...will not invite
不请了 / 不要请了
qʰo˩dv˧˥ noun Tone: LM+MH#.
classifier: ɭɯ˧ hammer. 大锤子. object.

ʂe˩-qʰo˩dv˧˥
iron hammer
铁锤子
qʰo˩mv˩ noun Tone: L.
classifier: ɭɯ˧ straw_hat. 斗笠. clothing.
qʰo˩tv˧˥ noun Tone: LM+MH#.
classifier: ɭɯ˧ tree_stump. 树墩. plant.
qʰo˧˥ verb Tone: MH.
to_peck. 啄. verb.

hɑ˧ qʰo˩(-ze˩)
to peck cereals
啄粮食

hɑ˧ qʰo˥~qʰo˩ (-dʑo˩)
to peck cereals
啄粮食

æ˩-ɳɯ˥ | hɑ˧ qʰo˩
the chicken is pecking cereals
鸡在啄粮食
qʰo˧˥ verb Tone: MH.
to_kill. 杀. verb.

bo˩ qʰo˧˥ / bo˩ qʰo˧-ze˥
to slaughter a pig
杀猪

bo˩˥ | le˧-qʰo˧-ze˥
the pig has been slaughtered
杀了猪

æ˩ qʰo˧˥
to kill a chicken
杀鸡

ʝi˧ qʰo˩
to kill a cow
杀牛
qʰv˥ noun Tone: #H.
classifier: kʰwɤ˥ sound. 声音. abstract.

ʈʂʰɯ˧ | ə˧tso˧ qʰv˧ ɲi˥?
What is this sound?
这是什么声音?
qʰv˥ a classifier Tone: Ha.
clf .hamlets . 量词 .村落 . classifier.

ŋwɤ˧-qʰv˧, | tsʰe˧ɲi˧-ʑi˩
Five hamlets, twelve families! (This formula summarizes the statistics of the village of /ə˧lɑ˧-ʁwɤ#˥/)
五个村落,十二个家庭!(描写阿拉瓦村的情况)
qʰv˧ noun Tone: M.
classifier: ɭɯ˧ hole. 洞. natural environment.
burrow. 野兽的洞穴.

ɖɤ˧-qʰv˧ (ton M)
fox burrow
狐狸的窝

ʂwæ˧ qʰv˧ (ton M)
otter's burrow
水獭的窝
qʰv˧ noun Tone: M.
classifier: ɭɯ˧ classifier: dze˩ classifier: paire horn. 犄角. animal.

ʝi˧-qʰv#˥
Ox horn. Ox horns are used as containers for drinking.
牛角(过去,用牛角来当饮料容器)

ʈʂʰæ˧-qʰv˥
stag horn
鹿角
qʰv˧dʑɯ˥$ noun Tone: H$.
classifier: ɭɯ˧ hole. 窟窿. natural environment.

hwæ˧tsɯ˥-qʰv˩dʑi˩
mousehole
耗子洞

qʰv˧dʑɯ˧ tsʰi˧ (-ze˩)
to bore a hole
挖一个洞
qʰv˧ɬi˧mi#˥ noun Tone: #H.
6th_month. 六月. time.
qʰv˧tʰv#˥ classifier Tone: #H.
clf .hornful . 量词 .角 . classifier.

ɖɯ˧-qʰv˧tʰv#˥, | ɲi˧-qʰv˧tʰv#˥, | so˩-qʰv˩tʰv˩˥, | ʐv˧-qʰv˧tʰv#˥, | ŋwɤ˧-qʰv˧tʰv#˥, | qʰv˧-qʰv˧tʰv#˥, | ʂɯ˧-qʰv˧tʰv#˥, | hõ˧-qʰv˧tʰv#˥, | gv˧-qʰv˧tʰv#˥, | tsʰe˩-qʰv˩tʰv˩˥
association with numerals from 1 to 10
与数词结合,一至十
qʰv˩ɖɯ˩ noun Tone: L.
attachment. 关心. abstract.

qʰv˩ɖɯ˩ pʰv˥
to care for someone, to respect, to feel attachment to someone
关心(一个人),重视(如:孩子重视父母)
qʰv˩ɖʐæ˩ noun Tone: L.
classifier: kʰɯ˩ string. 小绳子. agriculture.

qʰv˩ɖʐæ˩ ʈʂʰɯ˩-kʰɯ˥
n + dem + clf
一条细的绳子
qʰv˩~qʰv˧˥ verb Tone: MH.
to_fold. 折叠. verb.

qʰv˩~qʰv˧-ze˥
pfv
折起来了

le˧-qʰv˩~qʰv˩
accomp
accomp
qʰv˩tsʰi˧˥ numeral Tone: LM+MH#.
60. 60. number.
qʰv˧˥ verb Tone: MH.
to_huddle_up. 蜷缩. verb.

ɲi˧-qʰv˧˥ | tʰi˧-dzi˩
to be seated, leaning forward, torso bent towards the thighs
坐着身体缩成一团

ɲi˧-qʰv˧-ʝi˥ | tʰi˧-dzi˩
to be seated, leaning forward, torso bent towards the thighs
坐着身体缩成一团
qʰv˧˥ numeral Tone: MH.
6. 6. number.
qʰwæ˧ noun Tone: M.
classifier: kʰwɤ˥ message. 信息. object.

qʰwæ˧ po˧˥
to carry a letter; to convey a message
带信息、传信息,传一封信

qʰwæ˧ kʰwɤ˧˥
to be in touch (with someone)
互相通信息、有联系(两个人互相通信息)

dɑ˧pɤ˧-qʰwæ#˥
the tales of the /dɑ˧pɤ˧/ priests
达巴的故事
qʰwæ˧kʰwɤ#˥ noun Tone: #H.
classifier: kʰwɤ˥ gossip. 蜚语. abstract.

ɖɯ˧-zɯ˧ qʰwæ˧kʰwɤ˧
to tell a piece of gossip
讲一点八卦
qʰwæ˧ɭɯ˧ noun Tone: M.
classifier: kɤ˧˥ vegetable_garden. 菜园. house.
qʰwæ˧mi#˥ noun Tone: #H.
classifier: kʰwɤ˥ message/information. 口信/信息. object.

qʰwæ˧mi˧ ʝi˧
to carry a message
带一个口信
qʰwæ˧ʈɯ˥ noun Tone: H#.
classifier: bɤ˧˥ kerchief. 头帕. clothing.
qʰwæ˩ noun Tone: L.
classifier: kɤ˧˥ fence. 篱笆. house.
qʰwæ˩ a verb Tone: La.
to_block. 挡住. verb.
qʰwæ˧˥ verb Tone: MH.
to_break/to_crack. 弄碎. verb.

ʁo˧do˧ qʰwæ˧˥
to crack walnuts
敲开坚果(在永宁,不用夹子:用锤子敲开)
qʰwæ˧˥ verb Tone: MH.
to_slap. 掴. verb.

le˧-qʰwæ˧-ze˥
accomp _ pfv
掴了

zɯ˧ɻ˧ qʰwæ˩
to slap/smack someone's cheek
打嘴巴

zɯ˧ɻ˧ | ɖɯ˧-ɭɯ˧ | tʰi˧-qʰwæ˧-bi˥!
I'm going to slap your cheek! (Said by an adult to a child)
我要打嘴巴了!(对孩子说)
qʰwæ˧˥ a classifier Tone: MHa.
clf .filaments . 量词 .丝 . classifier.
qʰwɤ˧ noun Tone: M.
classifier: pʰo˧˥ traces. 痕迹. body.
qʰwɤ˧ a verb Tone: Ma.
to_heal. 治好. verb.

le˧-qʰwɤ˧-ɲi˥!
It is healed! / It has healed!
治好了!
qʰwɤ˧bi˩ noun Tone: L#.
classifier: bi˩ classifier: tʰv˧˥ hoof/foot. 马蹄. animal.

ʐwæ˧-qʰwɤ˧bi˥#
horse hoof
马蹄、(马、狗……的)脚

kʰv˩-qʰwɤ˩bi˥#
dog's foot
狗脚

footprints/track. 痕迹.
qʰwɤ˧mi˥$ noun Tone: H$.
large_bowl. 大碗. object. See: qʰwɤ˧pɤ˥$
qʰwɤ˧pɤ˥$ noun Tone: H$.
large_bowl. 大碗. object. See: qʰwɤ˧mi˥$
qʰwɤ˧ʂe˩ noun Tone: L#.
classifier: nɑ˧ classifier: pʰo˧˥ horseshoe. 马蹄铁. object.

ʐwæ˧-qʰwɤ˧ʂe˥ (+ɲi˩)
horseshoe
马蹄铁
qʰwɤ˧to˩ noun Tone: L#.
classifier: ɭɯ˧ tip_of_the_shoulder. 肩膀的末端. body.

hĩ˧ ʈʂʰɯ˧-v˧, | qʰwɤ˧to˩ | ɖɯ˧-pi˧˥ | ʂwæ˧-hṽ˩-di˩!
This person's shoulders are not quite straight! / His/her shoulders don't align!
这个人的肩膀不正,一高一低!
qʰwɤ˧tʰv#˥ noun Tone: #H.
classifier: ɭɯ˧ bamboo_basket_for_water. 竹篓. object.
qʰwɤ˧tsʰi˩ noun Tone: L#.
classifier: ɭɯ˧ shoulder. 肩膀. body.

qʰwɤ˧tsʰi˩-ʁo˩ | hwæ˧pʰæ˩ | ɖɯ˧-nɑ˧-ʈʂʰɯ˧ gɤ˧˥
to carry a hoe on the shoulder
肩上扛一把锄头
qʰwɤ˧zo˥$ noun Tone: H$.
small_bowl. 小碗. object.
qʰwɤ˩ a adjective Tone: La.
intelligent. 聪明. adjective.

qʰwɤ˩-hĩ˩˥
rel / nmlz
聪明的

qʰwɤ˩-le˥!
(You are/(s)he is) clever! (A comment when someone says/does something clever)
很聪明! / 太聪明了!

ɖwæ˧˥ | qʰwɤ˩˥!
intensive .very _
很聪明!
qʰwɤ˩ a adjective Tone: La.
bad. 坏. adjective.

kʰv˧ | qʰwɤ˩-hĩ˩˥
a bad year (a year when crops are not good)
(收成)不好的一年

kʰv˧ qʰwɤ˧˥
a bad year (a year when crops are not good)
(收成)不好的一年

tsʰi˧-ʝi˧, | kʰv˧qʰwɤ˧ tʰv˧˥!
This year is a bad year! (=a year when crops are not good)
今年,年景不好!(收成不好)

ʈʂʰɯ˧ | nv˩mi˩˥ | ɖwæ˧˥ | qʰwɤ˩˥!
He has a really bad heart! / He is a really bad man!
他心很坏!

qʰwɤ˩-ʝi˩˥
to do bad things: to damage stuff; to annoy people...
干坏事:损坏东西,干扰人家……

ʈʂʰɯ˧-ɳɯ˧ | njɤ˧-bv˧ tso˧~tso˧ | le˧-qʰwɤ˩-ʝi˩-ze˩!
(S)he has damaged my stuff!
他弄坏了我的东西!

hĩ˧ qʰwɤ˧-ʝi˥
to annoy people
干扰人家、麻烦人

ʈʂʰɯ˧ | to˩to˧mi˥ hĩ˩ qʰwɤ˩-ʝi˩!
(S)he purposedly annoys people! / (S)he annoys people on purpose!
他故意麻烦人!
qʰwɤ˩ɖɯ˩ noun Tone: L.
classifier: relatives. 亲戚. society.

ə˧zɯ˩ | qʰwɤ˩ɖɯ˩ ɲi˥
We two belong to the same family.
咱们两个是一家人。

qʰwɤ˩ɖɯ˩˥, | v˩dze˩˥
family and friends, extended family circle
亲人:泛指亲戚与亲密朋友们

qʰwɤ˩ɖɯ˩ to˥
to establish family ties between two families (through marriage)
建立起两个家庭之间的联系(通过婚姻)
qʰwɤ˧˥ noun Tone: MH.
classifier: ɭɯ˧ bowl. 碗. object.
qʰwɤ˧˥ noun Tone: MH.
classifier: kʰwɤ˥ tale. 故事. abstract.

æ˧ʂæ˧-qʰwɤ˧˥
tale, folk tale
老故事
qʰwɤ˧˥ a classifier Tone: MHa.
clf .bowlfuls . 量词 .碗 . classifier.