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Index m
mɑ˧pʰv˧
mɑ˧tsɑ˥
mɑ˩dzɑ˩
mɑ˩ɳɯ˧-do˥bv˩

mæ˧
mæ˧
mæ˧
mæ˧ a
mæ˧pæ˧
-mæ˧qo˩
mæ˧qo˩
mæ˧qv˩
mæ˧ɻæ˩
mæ˧ɻ̃#˥
mæ˩
mæ˩ a
mæ˩ a
mæ˩ a
mæ˩ɖʐo˥
mæ˩ko˥
mæ˧˥
mɤ˧‑
mɤ˧-dɑ˩
mɤ˧-dɑ˩mi˩
mɤ˧-dɑ˩qʰwɤ˩
mɤ˧-ni˩~ni˩
mɤ˧ʈʂʰɤ˧
mɤ˩
mɤ˩ a
mɤ˩ b
mɤ˩ɬi˩
mɤ˩mv˩
mɤ˩tʰɑ˧
mi˧
mi˧kʰwɤ#˥
mi˧ɬo#˥
mi˧mi˧
mi˧pɤ#˥
mi˧tʰv#˥
mi˩ a
mi˩ b
mi˩hwɑ˧
mi˩ɬi˩
mi˩ɬi˩-ʁo˩bv˥
mi˩mo˩
mi˩pʰv˩
mi˩zɯ˩
mi˧˥
mi˩˧
mje˧˥
mo˥ a
mo˧
mo˧ a
mo˧ɖʐv˥
mo˧jo˩-mi˩
mo˧jo˩mi˩-pʰv˩
mo˧jo˩mi˩-zo˩
mo˧kɤ˩
mo˧ɬɑ˥
mo˧mo˥
mo˧nɑ˥
mo˧qʰwɤ˥
mo˧qʰwɤ˧˥
mo˩
mo˩ a
mo˩ a
mo˩kv#˥
mo˩ɻ#˥
mo˩zo#˥
mo˧˥
mo˧˥ a
mv˥
mv˥
mv˥
mv˧‑
mv˧
mv˧ a
mv˧bɤ#˥
mv˧bv˧ʐv˥
mv˧ɕi˥
mv˧ɕi˥dʑɯ˩ʈʰɯ˩
mv˧di˧˥
mv˧dze˧
mv˧dze˧-tɕʰi#˥
mv˧gɤ˥gɤ˩
mv˧-gɤ˧lɑ˥
mv˧gv#˥
mv˧-gv˧dv˧
mv˧gv˧-kʰv˩
mv˧kʰv˧˥
mv˧ɭɯ˩
mv˧mi˧
mv˧~mv#˥
mv˧~mv˥-di˩
mv˧ɲi˧
mv˧qo˩
mv˧qʰwæ˩
mv˧ʁo˥$
mv˧tʰv˧˥
mv˧tsɯ˧˥
mv˧tsʰi#˥
mv˧ʈʰæ#˥
mv˧ʈʰɯ˧
mv˧ʈʂæ˧˥
mv˧ʈʂo˩-ti˩-bv˩
mv˧ʈʂv˥
mv˧ʈʂv˥
mv˧ʈʂv˩
mv˧ʈʂv˩-nv˩mi˩
mv˧ʈʂʰɤ˩
mv˧ʐe#˥
mv˧ʐe˧-ʈʂʰæ˧ɣɯ#˥
mv˧ʐe˧˥
mv˧ʑi˩
mv˩ a
mv˩ a
mv˩ a
mv˩ a
mv˩-bæ˧mi˩
mv˩do˩
mv˩dzɤ˧
mv˩ɖæ˧
mv˩ɖɯ˩
mv˩kʰv˧˥
mv˩ɬi˥
mv˩pʰæ˧
mv˩pʰæ˧˥
mv˩ʁwɤ˧
mv˩ʁwɤ˧
mv˩si˧-njɤ˧˥
mv˩si˧˥
mv˩tɑ#˥
mv˩tv˩
mv˩tʰi˩
mv˩tɕi˥
mv˩tɕo˧
mv˩tsʰo˩
mv˩ʈʂæ˧˥
mv˩zo˩
mv˩zo˩-ə˩mi˥
mv˩zɯ˩
mv˩zɯ˩
mv˩zɯ˩-ni˥mi˩
mv˩ʐɤ˩
mv˩˥
mɑ˧pʰv˧ noun Tone: M.
butter. 酥油. food.
mɑ˧tsɑ˥ noun Tone: H#.
classifier: kʰwɤ˥ origin/cause. 来历. abstract.

mɑ˧tsɑ˥ | ʈʂʰɯ˧-qo˧ le˧-tsʰɯ˩-ɲi˩! |
(Of an event:) It comes from afar! / It does not take place simply by chance: there is a long story behind it!
这(件事情)出处很远! / 有它的来龙去脉(=不是突然一下子出现的)!

mɑ˧tsɑ˥ ʈʂʰɯ˩-kʰwɤ˩ |
n + dem + clf : this cause, this origin
这个来历
mɑ˩dzɑ˩ noun Tone: L.
classifier: qʰwɤ˧˥ classifier: bol ink. 墨. object.
mɑ˩ɳɯ˧-do˥bv˩ noun Tone: LM+#H-.
chorten. 佛塔. religion.
particle Tone: ?.
particle_conveying_obviousness. 句尾助词.显然. morphosyntax.

ho˧mi˧-ʈʂʰæ˧ɣɯ˧ | le˧-ʈʰɯ˩, | le˧-qʰwɤ˧-ze˧-mæ˧! |
[Nowadays] one simply takes medicines for the stomach, and one is healed! [unlike in the old times, when there were no hospitals] (from the narrative "Healing")
吃了胃药,就好了呗!
mæ˧ verb Tone: M.
to_succeed. ……成. morphosyntax.

njɤ˧ ɖʐɤ˧˥ | tʰi˧-mɤ˧-mæ˧!
I can't fetch it!
我够不着!(例如:够不着树枝上的果子)
mæ˧ verb Tone: M.
to_have_the_time_to. (有)空. verb.

njɤ˧ | mɤ˧-mæ˧.
I do not have the time; I am busy
我忙、我没有空

njɤ˧ | mæ˧-mɤ˧-ho˩.
I won't have the time.
我不会有时间。
mæ˧ verb Tone: M.
to_manage. 能够. morphosyntax.

ɖɯ˩-hĩ˩ qʰɑ˥ mæ˩~mæ˩! | tɕi˩-hĩ˩ lə˥-mɤ˩-mæ˩! / ɖɯ˩-hĩ˩˥, | qʰɑ˧ mæ˥~mæ˩! | tɕi˩-hĩ˩˥, | le˧-mɤ˧-mæ˧!
"Adults can manage all sorts of things, (whereas) children can't manage (that much) yet!" This saying is used when someone puts high demands on children or adolescents: Let the children play! To each age its occupations: children should play, not work. Adults' tasks are not their business!
“大人管干活,小孩管玩耍!”这个谚语的意思是:不要让孩子干活,每个年龄有自己的事,孩子的事就是玩。成年人的活儿,不是他们的事!
mæ˧ a verb Tone: Ma.
to_catch_hold_of. 钩住. verb.

tʰi˧-mæ˧-ze˧
dur _ pfv
钩住了

to_catch_up_with. 跟上. verb.
mæ˧pæ˧ noun Tone: M.
classifier: nɑ˧ large_sifter. 大筛子. object.
-mæ˧qo˩ postposition Tone: L#.
behind. 下面/后面. space. See: mæ˧qo˩
mæ˧qo˩ adverb Tone: L#.
at_the_end/bottom. 在后面. space. See: -mæ˧qo˩
mæ˧qv˩ noun Tone: L#.
classifier: ɭɯ˧ tail. 尾巴. animal.

ʝi˧-mæ˧qv˥
cow's tail
牛尾巴
mæ˧ɻæ˩ noun Tone: L#.
vegetable_oil. 植物油. food.
mæ˧ɻ̃#˥ noun Tone: #H.
classifier: ɭɯ˧ coccyx. 尾椎骨. body.
mæ˩ verb Tone: L.
to_water. 灌溉. verb.

dʑɯ˩ mæ˩˥
to irrigate, to water
浇灌

dʑɯ˧ | le˧-mæ˩
accomp : to water, to irrigate
浇灌
mæ˩ a verb Tone: La.
to_aim_at/to_point_at. 瞄准/指. verb.

tʰi˧-mæ˩-ze˩, | qʰæ˧-bi˥-ze˩.
[(S)he] has aimed; [(s)he] will now shoot.
瞄准了,要开枪了。

lo˧ɲi˥ mæ˩
to point at with the finger
用手指出

tso˧~tso˧ mæ˥
to point at things
指东西
mæ˩ a classifier Tone: La.
clf .monetary_unit . 量词 .元 . classifier.

ʈʂʰɯ˧-mæ˥
dem _ (tone: H# / H$)
指示代词 _
mæ˩ a classifier Tone: La.
From: Chinese ,MC*mjonH(Baxter2000) . 10,000. 量词 .万 . classifier.

ɖɯ˧-mæ˩
10,000
一万

tsʰe˩-tv˩ mæ˥
ten thousand times 10,000, i.e. one hundred million
十千万,等于一亿

ɖɯ˧-ɕi˧ mæ˩
one hundred times 10,000, i.e. one million
一百万
mæ˩ɖʐo˥ noun Tone: LH.
classifier: kʰɯ˩ whip. 鞭子. object.

ʐwæ˧-mæ˥ɖʐo˩
horse whip
马鞭
mæ˩ko˥ noun Tone: LH.
classifier: ɭɯ˧ harness. 后鞧. object.

ʐwæ˧-mæ˥ko˩
horse harness
马后鞧
mæ˧˥ verb Tone: MH.
to_close. 闭. verb.

ɲi˧to˧ | tʰi˧-mæ˧˥
to close the mouth
闭嘴

mæ˩~mæ˧˥
red
重叠

ɲi˧to˧ | tʰi˧-mæ˩~mæ˩
to close the mouth
闭嘴

to_purse(lips). 抿.
mɤ˧‑ prefix Tone: M.
neg . 否定 . morphosyntax.
mɤ˧-dɑ˩ interjection Tone: °L.
intj .alas . 感叹词.唉呀. interjection.
mɤ˧-dɑ˩mi˩ interjection Tone: °L.
intj .alas . 感叹词.唉呀啊. interjection.
mɤ˧-dɑ˩qʰwɤ˩ interjection Tone: °L.
intj .alas . 感叹词.唉呀啊. interjection.
mɤ˧-ni˩~ni˩ adjective
different. 不一样. morphosyntax.

mɤ˧-ni˩~ni˩-hĩ˩-lɑ˩ ɲi˩-ze˩!
It's not the same!
不是一样的!不是一回事!

astounding. 很特别. morphosyntax.

mɤ˧-ni˩~ni˩-hĩ˩-lɑ˩ ɲi˩-ze˩!
It's not just the same old thing! / It's really extraordinary!
这非常特别!

ʈʂʰɯ˧ | mɤ˧-ni˩~ni˩-hĩ˩ | ɖɯ˧-v˧ ɲi˩!
(S)he is someone really exceptional!
这是很利害的一个人!
mɤ˧ʈʂʰɤ˧ noun Tone: M.
From: Chinese 马车 . 马车::cart. 马车( 借词) . object.
mɤ˩ noun Tone: L.
animal_fat. 动物油. food.

njɤ˧ | mɤ˩ mɤ˩ dzɯ˩˥!
I don't eat animal fat! (One of the investigator's peculiarities)
我不吃猪油!(这是调查者的特点之一)
mɤ˩ a classifier Tone: La.
clf .small_quantity . 量词 .一些 . classifier.

ɕi˧ɭɯ˧-ɻæ˩ | ɖɯ˧-mɤ˩
a few seeds of rice
一些稻谷种子

ɻæ˩˥ | ɖɯ˧-mɤ˩
a few seeds
一些种子

tsɑ˧bɤ˧ | ɖɯ˧-mɤ˩, | tsɑ˧bɤ˧ | ɲi˧-mɤ˩
a small quantity of flour; two small quantities of flour; etc
一小捧面粉、两小捧面粉……

ʈʂʰɯ˧-mɤ˥
dem _ (tone: H# / H$)
指示代词 _
mɤ˩ b verb Tone: Lb.
to_eat_food_in_powder_form. 吃粉状食品. verb.

tsɑ˧bɤ˧ mɤ˩
to eat dry tsamba: one takes a spoonful, pours it into the mouth, and lets it get impregnated with saliva
吃干糌粑

tsɑ˧bɤ˧ | ɖɯ˧-mɤ˧~mɤ˩-ɻ˩
to eat a little dry tsamba, to take the time to appreciate some dry tsamba
品干糌粑、慢慢享受一点干糌粑
mɤ˩ɬi˩ noun Tone: L.
classifier: qʰwɤ˧˥ butter_tea. 酥油茶. food.
mɤ˩mv˩ noun Tone: L.
classifier: qʰwɤ˧˥ candle_holder. 烛台. object.
mɤ˩tʰɑ˧ noun Tone: LM.
From: Chinese 麻糖 . 麻糖::sesame_candy. 麻糖( 借词) . food.
mi˧ noun Tone: M.
classifier: kʰwɤ˥ wound. 伤口. body.
mi˧kʰwɤ#˥ noun Tone: #H.
classifier: kʰwɤ˥ wound. 伤口. body.
ulcer. 疮.
mi˧ɬo#˥ noun Tone: #H.
classifier: kʰwɤ˥ prayer. 祈祷. religion.

mi˧ɬo˧ lɑ˩
to pray
祈祷
See: ɬo˧˥1
mi˧mi˧ noun Tone: M.
From: Chinese (dialectal) 米米 . 米米::kernel. 仁. plant.
mi˧pɤ#˥ noun Tone: #H.
classifier: kʰwɤ˥ scar. 疤. body.
mi˧tʰv#˥ noun Tone: #H.
classifier: kɤ˧˥ walking_stick. 拐棍. object.
mi˩ a verb Tone: La.
to_ask_for. 要/讨饭. verb.

hɑ˧ mi˥
to beg (literally: 'to ask for food')
讨饭

hɑ˧ | ɖɯ˧-mi˧~mi˥-ɻ˩
to beg a little, to ask around for some food
讨点饭
mi˩ b classifier Tone: Lb.
clf .small_animals . 量词 .只 . classifier.

ʈʂʰɯ˧-mi˧˥
this animal
这只
mi˩hwɑ˧ noun Tone: LM.
From: fn:棉花 . cotton. 棉花( 借词) . plant.

mi˩hwɑ˧-bɑ˩lɑ˩
cotton clothes
棉布衣服
mi˩ɬi˩ noun Tone: L.
classifier: dzi˩ large_bamboo. 大竹子. plant.

mi˩ɬi˩-bæ˩ʈʂo˥
bamboo broom
竹扫帚

mi˩ɬi˩-ʈʂæ˥do˩
bamboo bucket to carry water (on one's back)
竹桶,用来背水
mi˩ɬi˩-ʁo˩bv˥ noun Tone: L+H#.
classifier: kɤ˧˥ bamboo_shoot. 竹笋. plant.
mi˩mo˩ noun Tone: L.
classifier: nɑ˧ sifter. 小筛子. object.
mi˩pʰv˩ noun Tone: L.
classifier: dzi˩ nettle. 荨麻. plant.
mi˩zɯ˩ noun Tone: L.
classifier: woman. 女人. society.
mi˧˥ verb Tone: MH.
to_push. 推. verb.

le˧-mi˧-ze˥
accomp _ pfv
推开了

le˧-mi˧˥
accomp

tʰi˧-mi˧˥
dur

tso˧~tso˧ mi˩
to push something
推开一个东西

mi˩~mi˧˥
red : to push and squeeze
重叠:推、拥挤

mi˩~mi˧-ɻ˥
red inceptive
重叠:推、拥挤
mi˩˧ noun Tone: LM.
classifier: female. 母的. animal.

ʈʂʰɯ˧, | mi˩˥! / ʈʂʰɯ˧, | mi˩ ɲi˥!
It's a female!
是母的!
mje˧˥ noun
From: Chinese . noodles. 面条. food.

mjæ˧˥ | dzɯ˧-bi˧! ~ mjæ˧ dzɯ˧-bi˧! ~ mjæ˧ dzɯ˥-bi˩!
Let's eat noodles!
吃面吧!

mjæ˧˥ | ɖɯ˧-qʰwɤ˧ tɕɤ˥
to boil a bowl of noodles, to cook a bowl of noodles
煮一碗面

mjæ˧ hwæ˥-bi˩
(we) will buy noodles
要买面
mo˥ a classifier Tone: Ha.
From: Chinese . 亩:: clf .acres . 量词 .亩(地)(°借词) . classifier.
mo˧ adjective
greedy. 贪心. adjective.

hɑ˧ mo˧
as above: greedy; refers specifically to food
贪吃

hɑ˧ mo˧ | ʐwæ˩˥
extremely greedy for food
很贪吃

mɤ˧-hɑ˧mo˧!
neg : not greedy
不贪吃

hɑ˧ | mɤ˧-mo˧!
neg : not greedy
不贪吃
mo˧ a classifier Tone: Ma.
clf .corpses . 量词 .尸体 . classifier.
mo˧ɖʐv˥ noun Tone: H#.
morel. 羊肚菌. adjective.

ʂɯ˧-ɬi˧mi˧, | mo˧ɖʐv˥!
The seventh month is the season of morels!
七月份,是羊肚菌的季节!

ʂɯ˧-ɬi˧mi˧ | mo˧ɖʐv˥-ne˩-ʝi˩-zo˩!
'[They have kids] like (=as numerous as) morels in the seventh month!', i.e. they have children in great abundance. This is a humorous comment made about people who had one child after the other. The abundance of morels in the seventh month is spectacular and proverbial.
(你们家孩子)生得像七月份的羊肚菌一样!(来形容一家有很多孩子出生,一个又一个。在永宁地区,七月份羊肚菌很多。)
mo˧jo˩-mi˩ noun Tone: L#-.
classifier: mi˩ owl. 猫头鹰. animal.
mo˧jo˩mi˩-pʰv˩ noun Tone: L#-.
classifier: mi˩ male_owl. 公猫头鹰. animal.
mo˧jo˩mi˩-zo˩ noun Tone: L#-.
classifier: ɭɯ˧ baby_owl. 小的猫头鹰. animal.
mo˧kɤ˩ noun Tone: L#.
azalea. 杜鹃花. plant.

mo˧kɤ˩-bæ˩bæ˩
azalea flowers
杜鹃花
mo˧ɬɑ˥ noun Tone: H#.
slander. 坏话. language.

mo˧ɬɑ˥ ʐwɤ˩
to slander, to speak ill of others
说人的坏话
mo˧mo˥ noun Tone: H#.
classifier: ɭɯ˧ steamed_bun. 馒头/包子. food.
mo˧nɑ˥ noun Tone: H#.
gossip. 闲话. language.

mo˧nɑ˥ ʐwɤ˩
to indulge in gossip, to speak badly of others
八卦、讲别人的坏话

ʈʂʰɯ˧ | ɖɯ˧-ɲi˥ | mo˧nɑ˥ ʐwɤ˩-dʑo˩!
(S)he gossips all day!
他一天到晚都在八卦!

mo˧nɑ˥-ɕi˩mi˩
same meaning: gossip
同上:八卦、坏话

mo˧nɑ˥-ɕi˩mi˩ ʐwɤ˩
to indulge in gossip, to speak badly of others
八卦、讲别人的坏话

hĩ˧ | ʈʂʰɯ˧-v˧, | mo˧nɑ˥-ɕi˩mi˩ | ɖɯ˧-v˧ ɲi˩!
He's a gossiper, he talks badly of other people
他爱八卦、爱说别人坏话
mo˧qʰwɤ˥ noun Tone: H#.
classifier: ɭɯ˧ shuttle_of_zip_line. 溜索梭. object.
mo˧qʰwɤ˧˥ adjective Tone: MH.
voracious. 胃口好/贪吃. adjective.
mo˩ particle Tone: L.
invitation . 句尾助词.请. morphosyntax.

no˧ | ɖɯ˧-ʈʰɯ˩-ɻ˩ mo˩!
Please drink a little! / Do have a sip!
请你喝一点!
mo˩ a adjective Tone: La.
old. 年老. adjective.

mo˩ hĩ˩˥
old person
老人

si˧ mo˥
old wood; dead wood
老干柴、老木头

le˧-mo˩-ze˩
accomp _ pfv : (he/she) has become old / has aged. (he/she) has become old / has aged.
accomp _ pfv

le˧-mo˩-hĩ˩
Old person, person who has become old
老了的人

hĩ˧ mo˥, | õ˧-di˧ fv˥! | ʐwæ˧ mo˥, | to˩do˩ ɖwæ˥!
Old folk like their own place (=their own home); old horses are afraid to climb slopes! (Proverb.)
老人爱自家,老马怕山坡!(谚语,描写不爱到处跑的老年人)

lv˧ mo˥ F | dʑɯ˧ | le˧-qv˩; | si˧ mo˥ F | le˧-dze˩-kv˩! | no˧ F | ə˧tse˧ | le˧-ʂɯ˧-mɤ˧-tʰɑ˧˥ | -di˩!
Old stones are carried away by the stream; and old wood gets chopped down! And you, why can't you die? (Mocking an elderly person. Na tradition assigns man a lifespan of sixty years; people getting past seventy are considered to have reached the end of their lifespan.)
老石头要被河流冲走,老木头要被砍掉。你呢,怎么还不死? (嘲笑一个年龄很高的人。摩梭传统中,人的寿命是六十岁:过了七十岁的人,被认为是已经到达了命的尽头。)
mo˩ a verb Tone: La.
to_die. 死. verb.

mɤ˧-mo˩-sɯ˩!
(She/he/it) is not dead yet!
还没死!

si˧ mo˩
dead wood
老干柴(直译:死了的木头)
mo˩kv#˥ noun Tone: LM+#H.
: ɭɯ˧ From: Chinese 蘑菇 . 蘑菇::mushroom_of_fallen_trees. 蘑菇长在倒在地上的树上的一种菌子(°借词). plant.

mo˩kv˥, | si˧dzi˩-mo˩!
/mo˩kv#˥/ refers to mushrooms that grow on trees!
|fv /mo˩kv#˥/ ,指的是长在(倒在地上的)树上的菌子! /mo˩kv#˥/ ,指的是长在(倒在地上的)树上的菌子!
mo˩ɻ#˥ noun Tone: LM+#H.
: ɭɯ˧ From: Chinese 木耳 . black_mushroom. 木耳( 借词) . plant.
mo˩zo#˥ noun Tone: LM+#H.
classifier: soldier. 士兵. society.

mo˩zo˧ ʝi˧-hɯ˧ ɲi˥!
He went to the army! / He joined the army! / He became a soldier!
当兵去了!
mo˧˥ noun Tone: MH.
classifier: ɭɯ˧ classifier: mo˧˥ mushroom. 菌子. plant. See: mo˧˥a
mo˧˥ a classifier Tone: MHa.
clf .mushrooms . 量词 .蘑菇 . classifier. See: mo˧˥
mv˥ verb Tone: H.
to_hear. 听见. verb.

njɤ˧ | le˧-mv˥-ze˩
I have heard
我听见了

to_understand. 懂. verb.

njɤ˧ | le˧-mv˥-ze˩
I have understood
我懂了
mv˥ noun Tone: #H.
classifier: ɭɯ˧ sky. 天. natural environment.

mv˧tʰv˧(-ze˩)
the day is bright, the sky is clear
天晴,天色亮

hĩ˧-ɳɯ˩ mɤ˩-do˩, | mv˧-ɳɯ˩ | do˩˥!
"What humans do not see, the Heavens see it!" (Meaning: a good deed earns one happiness in future; and a count of bad deeds, even those that go unseen by humans, is also kept in the Heavens.)
“人看不见的,老天能看见!”
mv˥ noun Tone: #H.
classifier: æ˩ fire. 火. natural environment.

mv˧ kʰɯ˩
to light a fire, to do a fire
点火
mv˧‑ prefix Tone: M.
imminence . 即将. morphosyntax.

ʈʂʰɯ˧ | mv˧-dzɯ˧-kwɤ˩-tɕɯ˩!
Come on, eat it up! / Come on, finish your bowl!
你吃完吧!

tʰi˧-mv˧-dzɯ˧-kwɤ˩-tɕɯ˩!
Same as previous example, with the durative
同上

ʈʂʰɯ˧ mv˧-ʂɯ˧ bi˩-ni˩gv˩! njɤ˧ | gv˩dʑɯ˩˥ | ʐwæ˩˥! |
(S)he is going to die! I am devastated!
他要死了!我很伤心!

hĩ˧ ʈʂʰɯ˧-v˧ tʰv˧ mv˧-ʂɯ˧-kwɤ˧tɕɯ˥-lɑ˩...
as this person is going to die soon...
因为这个人快要去世……

mv˧-dzɯ˧-bi˩-ze˩!
[We are] about to eat! / We are going to eat right now!
马上要吃了!

mv˧-hwæ˧
about to buy
即将买

mv˧-tɕʰi˧
about to sell
即将卖

mv˧-dzɯ˧-kwɤ˧tɕɯ˥-lɑ˩...
since (she/he) is about to eat...
因为马上要吃……

mv˧-lɑ˩-kwɤ˩tɕɯ˩-lɑ˩...
since (she/he) is about to strike...
因为要打……
mv˧ noun Tone: M.
name. 姓名. ethnic groups.

ɑ˩ʁo˧-bv˧ | mv˧ (+ɲi˩)
This is the family name! / This is my family name!
这是家里的姓! / 这是我家的姓!

njɤ˧ | mv˧ ɖɯ˧-kʰwɤ˥ | ʂe˧-zo˧-ho˩!
I have to go and get a name (from the monks at the monastery) (for a newborn child)
我得去(向大寺里的和尚)求一个名字(给刚出生的孩子起名)
mv˧ a verb Tone: Ma.
to_put_on. 穿. verb.

bɑ˩lɑ˩ mv˥
to put on a shirt/jacket
穿衣服

bɑ˩lɑ˩˥ | tʰi˧-mv˧
to put on a shirt/jacket
穿衣服

dʑi˧hṽ˧ mv˩
to put on clothes
穿衣服
See: ki˩a
mv˧bɤ#˥ noun Tone: #H.
classifier: kʰwɤ˥ sole_of_the_foot. 脚底. body.
mv˧bv˧ʐv˥ noun Tone: H#.
classifier: mi˩ dragon. 龙. animal.
mv˧ɕi˥ noun Tone: H#.
classifier: æ˩ spark. 火花. natural environment.
mv˧ɕi˥dʑɯ˩ʈʰɯ˩ noun Tone: H#-L.
classifier: kʰɯ˩ classifier: on peut également dire simplement: mv˧ɕi˥ rainbow. 彩虹. natural environment.
mv˧di˧˥ noun Tone: MH#.
classifier: kɤ˧˥ field. 田地. natural environment.
Earth. 天下.
mv˧dze˧ noun Tone: M.
classifier: kɤ˧˥ barley. 大麦. plant.
mv˧dze˧-tɕʰi#˥ noun Tone: #H.
highland_barley_beard. 青稞芒. plant.
mv˧gɤ˥gɤ˩ noun
descendants. 后裔. society.
mv˧-gɤ˧lɑ˥ noun Tone: H#.
classifier: sky_spirit. 天宫菩萨. religion.
mv˧gv#˥ noun Tone: #H.
classifier: ɭɯ˧ clap_of_thunder. 雷声. natural environment.

mv˧gv˧ | gv˧-ze˩
there is a clap of thunder
打雷了

mv˧gv˧ lɑ˩
there is a clap of thunder
打雷了
mv˧-gv˧dv˧ noun Tone: M.
classifier: ɭɯ˧ instep. 脚背. body.
mv˧gv˧-kʰv˩ noun Tone: L#.
year_of_the_dragon. 龙年. time.
mv˧kʰv˧˥ noun Tone: MH#.
classifier: æ˩ smoke. 烟. natural environment.

mv˧kʰv˧ lv˥
there is a lot of smoke
烟很多
mv˧ɭɯ˩ noun Tone: L#.
Muli. 木里. place name.
mv˧mi˧ noun Tone: M.
classifier: woman. 女人. society.

mv˧mi˧ so˩tsʰi˩-kʰv˩, | qʰo˧mo˥ gi˩ le˩-ʈɤ˩! | ʝi˧=ɻæ˧ qʰv˧tsʰi˧-kʰv˩, | bɤ˧di˩ lɑ˩ hṽ˩ ɖʐæ˩!
"A woman of thirty must be pulled along like an old cow; a man of sixty stills rides tigers bareback in the land of the Pumi!" This proverb is about ageing in both sexes, with special emphasis on the appeal that they exert on the opposite sex: at thirty, a woman is old; at sixty, a man is still ready for the greatest exploits. The proverb is reported to be used by women, as an ironic (covertly mocking) comment about an ageing man.
“女人,到三十岁就算是得拉着的老牛。男人,到六十岁还能在普米山上骑老虎!”这个谚语讲男人与女人老化过程,特别描写相互吸引的程度:三十岁女人算是老了,六十岁男人还认为自己有伟大的威力。女人可以用这个谚语隐蔽地嘲弄一个老男人。
mv˧~mv#˥ adjective
Etym: mv˥. clear. 清楚. adjective.

ʐwɤ˧ mv˧~mv˧
to speak clearly; clear speech
讲清楚

le˧-mv˧~mv˧-kʰɯ˩
to clarify, to explain
弄明白、讲清楚
mv˧~mv˥-di˩ noun Tone: H#-.
classifier: ɭɯ˧ bellows. 风箱. object.
mv˧ɲi˧ noun Tone: M.
classifier: ɭɯ˧ toe. 脚趾. body.
mv˧qo˩ noun Tone: L#.
classifier: ɭɯ˧ papaya. 木瓜. plant.

mv˧qo˩-dʑɯ˩
a liquid prepared from the papaya, which served as an equivalent of vinegar (vinegar was introduced late: it was bought in Chinese areas)
用木瓜做的一种汁,用法类似于醋。过去,永宁没有醋,醋是从内地(汉族地区)买来的。
mv˧qʰwæ˩ noun Tone: L#.
village_name. 木垮(村落名). place name.

ɬi˧ki˧, | ɲi˧se˩, | tɑ˧dzi˩, | mv˧qʰwæ˩, | lɑ˧tʰɑ˧-di˧˥
Villages that one passes when moving away from the Yongning plain, towards Lugu lake. These villages do not count as part of Yongning proper. The last, /lɑ˧tʰɑ˧-di˧˥/ , is not a village name like the preceding four: it refers to the entire Na area beyond the fourth village.
永宁到泸沽湖所经过的村落,依次是:里格、尼赛、大祖、木垮,然后到拉塔地(拉塔地指的是泸沽湖周边的摩梭地区,包括左所、洛水村等)
mv˧ʁo˥$ noun Tone: H$.
classifier: ɭɯ˧ heavens/sky. 天空. natural environment.
mv˧tʰv˧˥ noun Tone: MH#.
classifier: qɑ˩ torch. 火把. object.
mv˧tsɯ˧˥ noun Tone: MH#.
classifier: kʰwɤ˥ beard. 胡子. body.

mv˧tsɯ˧ ʑi˥
to have a beard
有胡子
mv˧tsʰi#˥ noun Tone: #H.
dry_season. 旱季. time.

mv˧tsʰi˧-qo˩
during the dry season
旱季的时候
mv˧ʈʰæ#˥ adverb Tone: #H.
under. 下面. space.

ʈʂʰɯ˧ | mv˧ʈʰæ˧-lɑ˩ li˩! | gɤ˧bi˧ mɤ˧-li˩!
He only looks down, he never glances up! (About someone who constantly sits at his desk, and complains about headaches and a sore neck: the speaker points out that it may be due to a bad posture while at work.)
他老低头是往下看,不往上看!(情景:有人经常脖子疼、头疼,阿妈提出,这应该跟工作姿势不对有关:那个人一直坐在办公桌前,低着头)
mv˧ʈʰɯ˧ noun Tone: M.
classifier: kʰwɤ˥ heel. 脚跟. body.
mv˧ʈʂæ˧˥ verb Tone: MH#.
to_call. 名叫. ethnic groups.

(ʈʂʰɯ˧ | ) ə˧tso˧ mv˧ʈʂæ˧˥?
What's her/his name? / What is (it/he/she) called?
他叫什么名字?

njɤ˧ | ... mv˧ʈʂæ˧˥
My name is...
我名字叫……
mv˧ʈʂo˩-ti˩-bv˩ noun
water_striders. 水黽. animal.
mv˧ʈʂv˥ adjective Tone: H#.
creased. 皱. adjective.
wrinkled. 有皱纹. adjective.

to˧kɤ˧ | mv˧ʈʂv˥ ze˩.
(His/her) forehead became wrinkled.
他的前额有了皱纹。

to˧kɤ˧ | le˧-mv˧ʈʂv˥
(His/her) forehead is wrinkled.
他的前额有皱纹。

æ˩ʂe˩˥ | le˧-mv˧ʈʂv˥
The skin is wrinkled (literally "the flesh is wrinkled")
皮肤有皱纹(直译:“肉有皱纹”)

withered. 谢. adjective.

bæ˩bæ˩˥ | le˧-mv˧ʈʂv˥-ze˩
The flower has withered.
花谢了。
See: mv˧ʈʂv˥2
mv˧ʈʂv˥ noun Tone: H#.
classifier: kʰɯ˩ wrinkle. 皱纹. body. See: mv˧ʈʂv˥1
mv˧ʈʂv˩ noun Tone: L#.
classifier: nɑ˧ mortar. 臼. object.
mv˧ʈʂv˩-nv˩mi˩ noun Tone: L#-.
classifier: nɑ˧ Etym: mv˧ʈʂv˩; nv˩mi˩. small_pestle. 杵. object.
mv˧ʈʂʰɤ˩ noun Tone: L#.
classifier: kʰwɤ˥ chin. 下巴. body.
mv˧ʐe#˥ noun Tone: #H.
classifier: kʰɯ˩ gun. 枪. object.
mv˧ʐe˧-ʈʂʰæ˧ɣɯ#˥ noun Tone: #H.
classifier: po˩ gunpowder. 火药. object.
mv˧ʐe˧˥ noun Tone: MH#.
rainy_season. 雨季. time.

mv˧ʐe˧-qo˥
during the rainy season
雨季的时候
mv˧ʑi˩ noun Tone: L.
classifier: kʰwɤ˥ news/gossip. 信息/八卦. abstract.

mv˧ʑi˩ | ɖɯ˧-kʰwɤ˥
a piece of gossip
一个八卦
mv˩ a verb Tone: La.
to_blow. 吹. verb.

mv˧~mv˥(-ze˩)
red
重叠:吹吹

ʝi˧qʰv˧ mv˥
to blow a horn
吹号角
mv˩ a verb Tone: La.
to_flush_away. 冲. verb.
mv˩ a adjective Tone: La.
ripe. 成熟. adjective.

mv˩-hĩ˩˥
rel
熟的

cooked. 熟(食物).
mv˩ a verb Tone: La.
to_burn. 燃烧. verb.
mv˩-bæ˧mi˩ noun Tone: L-L#.
classifier: idiot. 傻女人. society.
mv˩do˩ verb Tone: L.
to_ask. 问. verb.

le˧-mv˩do˩
accomp
accomp

mv˩do˩-ze˥
pfv
问了

ə˧tso˧ mv˩do˩-bi˩? |
What would [you] like to ask? / What is your question?
要问什么呢?
mv˩dzɤ˧ noun Tone: LM.
bottom_part. 下面部分. space.

mv˩dzɤ˧ dzi˧˥
to be seated in the bottom part (of the room)
坐在(房间的)下面部分

no˧ | mv˩dzɤ˧ dzi˧˥!
Go and get seated in the bottom part (of the room)!
你到下面去坐!
mv˩ɖæ˧ noun Tone: LM.
bottom_part_of_body. 下半身. space.
mv˩ɖɯ˩ noun Tone: L.
eldest_daughter. 大女儿. society.

zo˧ɖɯ˧-mv˥ɖɯ˩
eldest son and eldest daughter (i.e. eldest male and female siblings)
大儿子与大女儿
mv˩kʰv˧˥ noun Tone: LM+MH#.
evening. 晚上. time.
mv˩ɬi˥ noun Tone: LH.
second_daughter. 二女儿. society.
mv˩pʰæ˧ noun Tone: LM.
classifier: ɭɯ˧ kitchen. 备料房. house.
mv˩pʰæ˧˥ verb
to_forget. 忘记/落下. verb.

mv˩pʰæ˧-ze˥
(I) forgot!
忘记了

le˧-mv˩pʰæ˩(-ze˩)
accomp _ pfv
忘记了

ə˧tso˧-lɑ˧ ʂv˧ɖv˧, | mɤ˧-do˩! | tso˧~tso˧ mv˥pʰæ˩!
I have no idea what (s)he has in mind; (s)he keeps forgetting things!
不知道(他)在想什么呢!他(一直在)落东西!/ 他一直在丢三落四
mv˩ʁwɤ˧ noun Tone: LM.
lower_reaches. 下游. natural environment.
mv˩ʁwɤ˧ noun Tone: LM.
village_name. 下村. place name.
mv˩si˧-njɤ˧˥ adverb Tone: LM+MH#.
early_morning. 一大早. time.
mv˩si˧˥ noun Tone: LM+MH#.
morning. 早晨. time.
mv˩tɑ#˥ verb Tone: LM+#H.
to_praise. 表扬. verb.

mv˩tɑ˧ ʝi˧
to praise
表扬

hĩ˧-ɳɯ˩ | mv˩tɑ˥ F | ʝi˧ le˧-hɯ˩-ze˩.
(She/he did some good things, and) people praised him.
(他做了好事情,于是)人家大大地表扬他了。
mv˩tv˩ noun Tone: L.
only_daughter. 独生女. society.

mv˩tv˩˥ | ɖɯ˧-v˧-lɑ˧ dʑo˧˥!
(She) just has an only daughter!
她只有一个独生女!
mv˩tʰi˩ adjective Tone: L.
Etym: mv˩˥; tʰi˧. From 'girl, woman' and 'clever'. One would expect a reading as a noun; /mv˩tʰi˩/ can actually have this meaning ('clever woman'), but it is also used as an adjective (a predicate): '(to be) intelligent (said of a woman)'. intelligent. 聪明. adjective.

ʈʂʰɯ˧ | mv˩tʰi˩˥ | ʐwæ˩˥!
She is very intelligent!
她很聪明!
mv˩tɕi˥ noun Tone: LH.
youngest_daughter. 最小的女儿. society.
mv˩tɕo˧ adverb Tone: LM.
downward. 往下. space.

mv˩tɕo˧ kwɤ˩
to throw down
往下扔

mv˩tɕo˧ se˧!
Get down! Go down! (Command to the dog if it climbs onto the floorboard of the house, contrary to the rule)
下去!(命令狗从主屋的地板下去:狗不准来上面)
mv˩tsʰo˩ noun Tone: L.
classifier: kɤ˧˥ firewood_full_of_resin. 含很多树脂的木头. object.
mv˩ʈʂæ˧˥ noun Tone: LM+MH#.
lower_part_of_body. 下半(身). body.
mv˩zo˩ noun Tone: L.
classifier: ɭɯ˧ classifier: young_lady. 姑娘. society.

mv˩zo˩=ɻæ˧
young ladies
姑娘们
mv˩zo˩-ə˩mi˥ noun Tone: L+H#.
young_lady_and_her_mother. 姑娘与母亲. society.
mv˩zɯ˩ noun Tone: L.
classifier: brothers. 兄弟. society.

ʈʂʰɯ˧ | nɑ˧dʑi˧-bv˧ | mv˩zɯ˩-ʝi˥-hĩ˩ ɲi˩!
He is nɑ˧dʑi˧/'s brother!
他是|fv nɑ˧dʑi˧/ 的兄弟! nɑ˧dʑi˧/ 的兄弟!
mv˩zɯ˩ noun Tone: L.
classifier: kɤ˧˥ oats. 燕麦. plant.
mv˩zɯ˩-ni˥mi˩ noun Tone: L+#H-.
siblings. 兄弟姐妹. society.
mv˩ʐɤ˩ noun Tone: L.
adopted_daughter. 义女. society.
mv˩˥ noun Tone: LH.
classifier: daughter. 女儿. society.