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Index k
kæ˧ʈʂe˧
kæ˧ʈʂɯ˧
kɤ˧dzi˧
kɤ˧kɤ˩
kɤ˧ljɤ˩
kɤ˧mi˧
kɤ˧mi˧
kɤ˧mv˧˥
kɤ˧ʈʂɯ˩
kɤ˧ʈʂɯ˩
kɤ˧v#˥
kɤ˧wɤ#˥
kɤ˧zo#˥
kɤ˧zo˧-tsʰɯ˩ɻ˩
kɤ˩
kɤ˩ a
kɤ˩~kɤ˧˥
kɤ˩lo˧˥
kɤ˩-nɑ˧mi˧
kɤ˩pʰv˩
kɤ˩-tjɤ˧ljɤ#˥
kɤ˩zo˩
kɤ˩zo˩
kɤ˧˥
kɤ˧˥ a
kɤ˧˥ a
kɤ˧˥tʰɑ˩
kɤ˩˧
ki˥ a
ki˧ a
ki˧li˥
ki˧zo#˥
ki˧zo˧-ɖɯ˩mɑ˩
ki˧zo˧-ɬɑ˩mv˩
ki˩ a
ki˩mi˧
ki˩tɑ#˥
ki˩ti#˥
ko˥
ko˧ a
ko˧ɖæ#˥
ko˧li#˥
ko˧no˧-ʁo#˥
ko˧sɯ#˥
ko˩ a
ko˩dze˧
ko˩dʑo˩
ko˩ɖʐo˩
ko˧˥
ko˧˥
kɯ˥
kɯ˥
kɯ˧
kɯ˧ b
kɯ˧ɭɯ˧
kɯ˧qʰæ˧ʂe˧˥
kɯ˩ a
kɯ˩ɻ˧
kv˥
kv˧dʑɯ˧˥
kv˧ʝi˥$
kv˧ʝi˥
kv˧lv˧lv˥
kv˧ɲi˥
kv˧ʁo˧bv˥
kv˧ʂe˥$
kv˧tsʰɑ˥$
kv˧tsʰɤ˩
kv˧ʈʂɯ˧˥
kv˩ a
kv˩ a
kv˩kv˩
kv˩nɑ˧˥
kv˩tɑ˩
kv˧˥
kv˧˥ b
kwɑ˧fæ˩
kwɑ˧tsʰɑ˧
kwæ˧fæ˥
kwæ˧pæ˥
kwæ˧tsɯ˧
kwɤ˧ɭɯ˩
kwɤ˧pɤ˧
kwɤ˩ a
kwɤ˩ a
kwɤ˩ a
kwɤ˩-tjɤ˧ljɤ#˥
kwɤ˩to˥
kʰɤ˧ɕjɤ˧
kʰɤ˧mi˥$
kʰɤ˧ʂɯ˧
kʰɤ˧zo˥$
kʰɤ˩njɤ˩~kʰɤ˧njɤ˧
kʰɤ˧˥
kʰɤ˧˥
kʰɤ˧˥ a
kʰi˥
kʰi˥
kʰi˥
kʰi˧bɤ#˥
kʰi˧-bv˧lv˩
-kʰi˧~kʰi˧
kʰi˧mi˧
kʰi˧-qʰwɤ˩
kʰi˧tɕʰɯ˩-mo˩
kʰi˧˥
kʰo˥
kʰo˧lo˧
kʰɯ˧di˧˥
kʰɯ˧dv#˥
kʰɯ˧dʑɯ˧˥
kʰɯ˧pi˧
kʰɯ˧pʰv˩
kʰɯ˧tʰo˧˥
kʰɯ˧tʰv#˥
kʰɯ˧tsɯ˧bæ˥
kʰɯ˧tsʰɤ˧˥
kʰɯ˧ʈʂæ˧˥
kʰɯ˧ʈʂɤ#˥
kʰɯ˧ʐɯ˥$
kʰɯ˩
kʰɯ˩ b
kʰɯ˩pv˩
kʰɯ˩ʈɯ˩
kʰɯ˧˥
kʰɯ˧˥
kʰɯ˧˥
kʰv˥
kʰv˥
kʰv˥
kʰv˥
kʰv˧bv˧˥
kʰv˧kwæ˧
kʰv˧kʰv˩
kʰv˧mæ˧
kʰv˧mv˥
kʰv˧nɑ˥
kʰv˧pʰæ˧
kʰv˧-pʰo˥
kʰv˧pʰv#˥
kʰv˧qʰwɤ˧˥
kʰv˧sɯ˧sɯ˩
kʰv˧ʂæ˧˥
kʰv˧ʂɯ˥
kʰv˧tɕʰi˥$
kʰv˧tsʰi˧-bo˥tsʰi˩
kʰv˧zo#˥
kʰv˧zo˥$
kʰv˧zo˧ | -bo˩zo˧
kʰv˩-kʰɤ˩
kʰv˩mi˩
kʰv˩tsɤ˩mi˥
kʰv˧˥
kʰv˧˥ a
kʰwæ˧hwæ˩
kʰwæ˧ɻæ#˥
kʰwɤ˥ a
kʰwɤ˧pʰv˧
kʰwɤ˧pʰv˧-mo˧˥
kæ˧ʈʂe˧ noun Tone: M.
From: Chinese:干针 . 干针::acupuncture. 针灸( 借词:干针) . medicine.

kæ˧ʈʂe˧ lɑ˧˥
to do an acupuncture session, to use acupuncture needles
扎针灸
kæ˧ʈʂɯ˧ noun Tone: M.
From: Chinese 甘蔗 . sugar_cane. 甘蔗. plant.
kɤ˧dzi˧ verb Tone: M.
to_take_a_seat. 坐下(在饭桌). verb.

ɑ˩ʁo˧-hĩ˧ | kɤ˧dzi˧-ze˧.
The members of the family took their seats / got seated.
家人入座了。
kɤ˧kɤ˩ adverb Tone: L#.
close_to. 挨着. morphosyntax.

(tso˧~tso˧) kɤ˧kɤ˩ | tʰi˧-tɕɯ˥
to arrange, to put in good order
摆整齐、使均匀,如:一排排挨着

kɤ˧kɤ˩ | tʰi˧-se˥
to walk in a line, one behind the other
并排走

kɤ˧kɤ˩ | tʰi˧-dzi˩
to sit close to one another
挨着坐
kɤ˧ljɤ˩ noun Tone: L#.
From: Chinese 高粱 . 高粱::sorghum. 高粱( 借词) . plant. See: hæ˧ɭɯ#˥
kɤ˧mi˧ noun Tone: M.
classifier: mi˩ female_falcon. 母隼. animal.

kɤ˩mi˩-kɤ˩pʰv˥
female falcon and male falcon
母隼与公隼
kɤ˧mi˧ noun Tone: M.
classifier: ɭɯ˧ large_bottle. 大坛子. object.
kɤ˧mv˧˥ noun Tone: MH#.
Gemu_mountain. 格母山. place name.

ɬi˧di˩-kɤ˩mv˩
Mount Gemu, in Yongning
永宁格姆山

kɤ˧mv˧-hæ̃˧kʰo˥
the Gemu princess: another name for Mount Gemu, considered as a female deity
格姆公主:格姆山别名(格姆山被看作女神)

kɤ˧mv˧˥, | æ˧ʂæ˧, | ŋwɤ˧hɑ̃˩, | ʂwæ˧gv#˥, | nɑ˩tsʰi˩˥ | -tɕʰɤ˧pɤ˧mi#˥, | qv˧ɻ˧-ʈʂʰɑ˧nɑ˥ |
The six mountains of Yongning that carry a name and have a definite symbolic value. The other mountains do not have comparable symbolic value, and fewer people use specific names for them.
永宁地区有固定名字的六座山。其它山,没有重要的象征意义,因此也没有固定名称。
kɤ˧ʈʂɯ˩ verb Tone: L#.
to_tell. 讲. language.

hĩ˧-ki˧ | tʰɑ˧-kɤ˧ʈʂɯ˩!
Don't tell it! / Don't tell anyone!
不要告诉人家!

kɤ˧-tʰɑ˥-ʈʂɯ˩!
Don't tell it! / Don't tell anyone!
不要告诉人家!

njɤ˧-ɳɯ˧ | kɤ˧ʈʂɯ˩-bi˩!
I'm going to (jump in and) say something!
我要说一点事情!

no˧ | kɤ˧ʈʂɯ˩ dʑo˩-ɲi˩!
You have to say something!
你得说话啊!

ʈʂʰɯ˧ | kɤ˧ʈʂɯ˩ | dʑɤ˩˥ | mɤ˧-mv˧-sɯ˥! / ʈʂʰɯ˧ | kɤ˧ʈʂɯ˩ dʑɤ˩˥ | mɤ˧-mv˧~mv˧-sɯ˥!
She does not really understand yet! (About a toddler aged 2 who does not yet speak distinctly or follow conversations)
她还不怎么听得懂话!(关于一个不会说话的两岁小孩)

tʰɑ˧-kɤ˧ʈʂɯ˩! | hĩ˧ ɳv˧ tʰɑ˧-kʰɯ˩!
Don't talk about it! Don't let people know!
不要告诉(人家)!别让人家知道!

hĩ˧-ki˧ | kɤ˧-mɤ˧-ʈʂɯ˩
not to tell people; (to do something secretly) without telling anyone
不跟人家说(自己做什么事)

kɤ˧ʈʂɯ˩ ɲi˩
well-behaved, obedient (child) (literally: who listens to what (s)he is told)
听话,乖(来形容一个孩子)
See: kɤ˧ʈʂɯ˩2
kɤ˧ʈʂɯ˩ noun Tone: L#.
classifier: kʰwɤ˥ speech. 话.

kɤ˧ʈʂɯ˩ ʝi˩
to promise; to make an oath; also: to swear before the gods: when people had a disagreement that they were unable to settle, they would go to the monastery and present their point of view before the gods, swearing that they were telling the truth; the gods would then punish the guilty one (through plagues and misfortunes).
答应,誓、发誓。两个人发生矛盾的时候,如果无法协调,他们会去大寺,在神像前讲述他们各自的观点,发誓他们自己讲的是真的。神会惩罚说谎的人(他家会有祸害)。

ʈʂʰɯ˧ | kɤ˧ʈʂɯ˩-ʝi˩
(s)he promises
他答应

ʈʂʰɯ˧ | kɤ˧ʈʂɯ˩ | mɤ˧-ʝi˥!
(s)he has not promised!
他没有答应!
See: kɤ˧ʈʂɯ˩1
kɤ˧v#˥ noun Tone: #H.
classifier: ɭɯ˧ amulet. 护符. clothing.
kɤ˧wɤ#˥ noun Tone: #H.
predestination. 缘分. abstract.

kɤ˧wɤ˧-ljɤ˧˥
to have a predestined affinity; to have a common destiny
有缘分、有共同命运
kɤ˧zo#˥ noun Tone: #H.
masculine_given_name. 男性名字. given name.
kɤ˧zo˧-tsʰɯ˩ɻ˩ noun Tone: °L.
masculine_given_name. 男性名字. given name.
kɤ˩ noun Tone: L.
classifier: ɭɯ˧ bottle. 瓶子. object.

ʐɯ˧-kɤ˩
wine bottle
酒瓶

ʐɯ˧ ɖɯ˧-kɤ˩
one bottle of wine
一瓶酒
kɤ˩ a classifier Tone: La.
clf .bottles . 量词 .瓶 . classifier.

kɤ˩zo˩˥
small bottle
一小瓶

ʈʂʰɯ˧-kɤ˥
dem _ (tone: H# / H$)
指示代词 _
kɤ˩~kɤ˧˥ verb Tone: MH.
to_tap. 敲/拍. verb.

kʰi˧ kɤ˥~kɤ˩
to knock at the door
敲门

njɤ˧-ɳɯ˧ | no˧ | kɤ˩~kɤ˧-bi˥!
I am going to slap your buttocks! (An adult threatens a child.)
我要打你屁股了!(大人对孩子说)

ʈʂo˧tsɯ˥ kɤ˩~kɤ˩ (-ze˩/-bi˩)
to tap the table, to rap on the table
拍拍桌子

gv˧dv˧ kɤ˧~kɤ˩
to tap someone's back (to relieve back pain)
敲敲背
See: kɤ˧˥
kɤ˩lo˧˥ noun Tone: LM+MH#.
classifier: kɤ˧˥ branch. 树枝. plant.

si˧dzi˩-kɤ˩lo˩
branch of tree
树枝

si˧-kɤ˥lo˩
as above
同上
kɤ˩-nɑ˧mi˧ noun Tone: L-.
classifier: mi˩ eagle. 老鹰. animal.
kɤ˩pʰv˩ noun Tone: L.
classifier: mi˩ male_falcon. 公隼. animal.

kɤ˩pʰv˩-kɤ˩mi˥
male falcon and female falcon
公隼与母隼
kɤ˩-tjɤ˧ljɤ#˥ noun Tone: L-#H.
classifier: ɭɯ˧ small_bell_hung_to_neck. 铃铛. object.
kɤ˩zo˩ noun Tone: L.
baby_falcon. 小隼. animal.
kɤ˩zo˩ noun Tone: L.
small_bottle. 小瓶子. object.
kɤ˧˥ verb Tone: MH.
to_knock. 敲门. verb.

tʰi˧-kɤ˧˥
dur
dur
See:
kɤ˧˥ a classifier Tone: MHa.
clf .sticks . 量词 .树枝 . classifier.

si˧-kɤ˧˥ | ɖɯ˧-kɤ˧˥
a branch (of a tree)
一根树枝
kɤ˧˥ a classifier Tone: MHa.
clf .tracts_of_land . 量词 .地 . classifier.
kɤ˧˥tʰɑ˩ noun Tone: MH+L.
family_name. 一个姓. given name.

kɤ˧˥tʰɑ˩=ɻ˩
the /kɤ˧˥tʰɑ˩/ clan
|fv /kɤ˧˥tʰɑ˩/ 家族 /kɤ˧˥tʰɑ˩/ 家族
kɤ˩˧ noun Tone: LM.
classifier: mi˩ falcon. 隼. animal.

kɤ˩ hwæ˧-ze˧
...bought (a) falcon
买了隼

kɤ˩ dzɯ˧-ze˩
...ate (a) falcon
吃了隼
ki˥ a classifier Tone: Ha.
together. 量词 .一起 . classifier.

ɖɯ˧-ki˥
together
一起(共事)

ɖɯ˧-ki˧ tʰv˧
to arrive together/at the same time
同时到达

ɖɯ˧-ʝi˧-ɳɯ˧ tsʰɯ˧˥, | ɖɯ˧-ki˧ tʰv˧!
Coming from the same place, we arrive together!
从一个地方,一起到!

ɖɯ˧-ki˧ dzi˧˥
to live together
住在一起
ki˧ a verb Tone: Ma.
to_give. 给. verb.

ki˧~ki˩
red
重叠

tso˧~tso˧-ki˩
to give things
给东西

tso˧~tso˧ ki˧~ki˥
to give things
给东西

hĩ˧-ki˧ ki˩
1. to give to someone. 2. to give oneself (in marriage) to someone, to marry someone (for a woman)
1.许配给人家。2.嫁给人

hĩ˧-ki˧ | ɖwæ˧˥ | tʰi˧-ki˧
to be generous, to be open-handed
大方

hĩ˧-ki˧ ki˩ fv˩
to like to make gifts, to like to give things to people
爱送礼,爱给别人送东西

pʰɤ˧bɤ˧ ki˧ (-bi˧)
to offer gifts
送礼物

hɑ˧ ki˩
to feed, to give food
喂饭
ki˧li˥ adverb Tone: H#-LM+#H.
in_a_mess. 乱七八糟. abstract.
ki˧zo#˥ noun Tone: #H.
unisex_given_name. 男女通用名. given name.
ki˧zo˧-ɖɯ˩mɑ˩ noun Tone: °L.
feminine_given_name. 女性名字. given name.
ki˧zo˧-ɬɑ˩mv˩ noun Tone: °L.
feminine_given_name. 女性名字. given name.
ki˩ a verb Tone: La.
to_put_on. 穿上. verb.

ɬi˧qʰwɤ˩ | ɖɯ˧-ɭɯ˧ ki˩
to put on trousers
穿上裤子

dzɑ˩qʰwɤ˩˥ | ɖɯ˧-dzi˧ ki˩
to put on a pair of shoes
穿上一双鞋

ʈʰæ˩ ki˩˥
'to put on a skirt'; this is the name of the ritual of entry into adulthood, after a girl has reached age 13
“穿裙”:这是成年礼的名称(穿裙礼:女孩满13岁,即为成人)

ɬi˧ ki˥
'to put on trousers'; this is the name of the ritual of entry into adulthood, after a boy has reached age 13
“穿裤”:这是成年礼的名称(穿裤礼:男孩满了13岁,即为成人)
ki˩mi˧ noun Tone: LM.
classifier: mi˩ large_fly. 绿头苍蝇. animal.
ki˩tɑ#˥ noun Tone: LM+#H.
treasure_bag. 财物皮袋. object.

æ˧-tse˥pʰæ˩ | ɖɯ˧-ki˩tɑ˩
a bag of bronze coins
一袋铜币
ki˩ti#˥ noun Tone: LM+#H.
classifier: kʰɯ˩ leather_belt. 皮腰带. clothing.
ko˥ noun Tone: #H.
classifier: ɭɯ˧ hill. 小山. natural environment.
ko˧ a classifier Tone: Ma.
clf .small_object . 量词 .小东西 . classifier.
ko˧ɖæ#˥ noun Tone: #H.
classifier: ɭɯ˧ From: Tibetan sku-vdra(sku-'dra). sculpture_of_Buddha. 佛像. religion.

ko˧ɖæ˧-zo˧
small statue of Buddha
小佛像
ko˧li#˥ noun Tone: #H.
classifier: ɭɯ˧ blow_tube. 吹火筒. object.
ko˧no˧-ʁo#˥ noun Tone: #H.
classifier: kʰwɤ˥ mountain_ridge. 山梁. natural environment.
ko˧sɯ#˥ noun Tone: #H.
From: Chinese 公司 . 公司::shop. 商店、小卖部(°借词:公司). society.
ko˩ a verb Tone: La.
to_warm_oneself. 取暖. verb.

mv˧ ko˥
to warm oneself at a fire
烤火取暖

le˧-ko˩-ze˩
accomp _ pfv
烤火了

ɲi˧mi˧ ko˩
to bask in the sun
晒太阳

ɲi˧mi˧ ɖɯ˧-ko˩-ɻ˩
to bask in the sun for a while
晒晒太阳

ɲi˧mi˧ ɖɯ˧-ko˧~ko˥-ɻ˩
to bask in the sun for a while
晒晒太阳
ko˩dze˧ noun Tone: LM.
classifier: mi˩ dove. 鸽子. animal.
ko˩dʑo˩ noun
peacock. 孔雀. animal.
ko˩ɖʐo˩ noun Tone: L.
classifier: nɑ˧ flail. 连枷. object.
ko˧˥ adverb Tone: MH.
From: Chinese . 过::too_much. 过[于]( 借词) . morphosyntax.
ko˧˥ verb Tone: MH.
From: Chinese . 过::to_happen. 过( 借词) . verb.
kɯ˥ noun Tone: #H.
classifier: ɭɯ˧ gallbladder. 胆. body.
gall. 胆汁.
kɯ˥ adjective Tone: H.
tight/tense. 紧. adjective.

le˧-tsɯ˥ | le˧-kɯ˥-kʰɯ˩
to attach tightly, to attach so that it will be quite tight
绑紧

le˧-kɯ˥-se˩
accomp _ pfv
紧了
kɯ˧ noun Tone: M.
classifier: ɭɯ˧, kɯ˧ classifier: objets ronds star. 星星. natural environment.

mv˧ʁo˥ | kɯ˧
there are stars in the sky, one can see stars
天上有星星、天上看得见星星

nɑ˩-ʈʂʰɯ˥, | kɯ˧ mɤ˧-li˧! | di˧mi˧-lɑ˧ li˥!
The Na do not look at the stars! They only look at the plain (=at the plain of Yongning)! (A comment by the consultant about her lack of knowledge of the names of stars and constellations.)
摩梭呢,不看星星,只看平坝(=永宁坝子)!(合作人说明为什么她不知道星星、星座的名字:摩梭人本来对天文不太感兴趣。)
kɯ˧ b classifier Tone: Mb.
clf .stars . 量词 .星星 . classifier.
kɯ˧ɭɯ˧ noun Tone: M.
classifier: dze˩ spirit. 神. society.

kɯ˧ɭɯ˧ | ɖɯ˧-dze˩
a pair of (good) spirits, two (good) spirits
两个(好)神
kɯ˧qʰæ˧ʂe˧˥ noun Tone: MH#.
classifier: ʂɯ˩ classifier: fois comet. 流星. natural environment.
kɯ˩ a verb Tone: La.
to_ignore_someone_who_needs_help. 不理需要帮忙的人. verb.

hĩ˧ kɯ˥
same meaning
同上

hĩ˧-ɳɯ˩ | kɯ˩-kv˥!
People will sometimes ignore you when you are in need! / (You will realize that, in cases where you need help) people will sometimes ignore you and leave you alone with your difficulties!
人家在你需要帮忙的时候就会不理你的!(如果处不好关系,人家对你没有什么好感,到时候你需要帮忙他们就不理你了。)

kɯ˩-mɤ˩-kv˥!
(They) are not going to help you! / You're not going to get any help (from them)!
人家在你需要帮忙的时候就会不理你的!

hĩ˧-ɳɯ˩ | kɯ˩-tʰɑ˩-kʰɯ˥!
Don't (behave in such a way as to) let people ignore you when you are in need! (Explanation: one should build trust for oneself, making others feel real trust and gratitude, so that they will help as a matter of course when the need for it arises; otherwise they will ignore us when we are in need of help.)
别让人家(在你需要帮忙的时候)不理你!

njɤ˧ | no˩ kɯ˩-hĩ˥ mɤ˩-ɲi˩! | njɤ˧ | no˧-ki˧ | dʑɤ˩-so˥-ɲi˩!
I am not neglecting you at all! (On the contrary) I am teaching you good things / I am doing my best to teach you! (Context: a student considers himself neglected by a teacher; the teacher realizes that the student is dissatisfied, and provides a clarification.)
我不是不重视你!(刚好相反:)我是用心教你的 / 我努力教你最好的!(情景:一名学生认为老师忽视他,老师发现学生不高兴,就说明。)
kɯ˩ɻ˧ noun Tone: LM.
classifier: nɑ˧ erhu. 胡琴. music.

kɯ˩ɻ˧ ʈɤ˧
to play erhu
拉二胡
kv˥ noun Tone: #H.
classifier: ɭɯ˧ classifier: tsʰɤ˧˥ classifier: gousse; tête garlic. 大蒜. plant.
kv˧dʑɯ˧˥ noun Tone: MH.
classifier: nɑ˧ tent. 帐篷. house.

kv˧dʑɯ˧ lɑ˥
to put up a tent, to set up a tent
安装帐篷、搭建帐篷
kv˧ʝi˥$ noun Tone: H$.
lifetime. 生命. abstract.
kv˧ʝi˥ adverb Tone: H#.
really. 真的. morphosyntax.
kv˧lv˧lv˥ noun Tone: H#.
classifier: ɭɯ˧ garlic_braid. 蒜瓣. plant.
kv˧ɲi˥ adjective Tone: H#.
empty. 空. adjective.

bi˩ʁo˧ | kv˧ɲi˥-kʰɯ˩
to empty (someone's) purse, i.e. to take someone's money
(把一个人的)钱包弄空

tɕʰɯ˩ di˩-hɯ˩˥, | mɤ˧-ɖɯ˧, | kv˧ɲi˥ | le˧-tsʰɯ˩!
He went to hunt the muntjac, but did not kill any, and came back empty-handed!
他去狩猎,没得(任何猎物),空手回来!
kv˧ʁo˧bv˥ noun Tone: H#.
classifier: kɤ˧˥ garlic_sprouts. 蒜苗. plant.
kv˧ʂe˥$ noun Tone: H$.
classifier: mi˩ flea. 跳蚤. animal.
kv˧tsʰɑ˥$ noun Tone: H$.
family_name. 一个姓. given name.

kv˧tsʰɑ˧=ɻ˥$
the /kv˧tsʰɑ˥$/ clan, the /kv˧tsʰɑ˥$/ family
|fv /kv˧tsʰɑ˥$/ 家族 /kv˧tsʰɑ˥$/ 家族

kv˧tsʰɑ˧=ɻ˧ pi˥-zo˩!
They were called "the /kv˧tsʰɑ˥$/ family"!
人家把他们称作“|fv /kv˧tsʰɑ˥$/ 家族”! /kv˧tsʰɑ˥$/ 家族”!
kv˧tsʰɤ˩ noun Tone: L#.
classifier: tsʰɤ˧˥ garlic_head. 蒜头. plant.
kv˧ʈʂɯ˧˥ noun Tone: MH#.
classifier: ɭɯ˧ nail. 指甲. body.
kv˩ a verb Tone: La.
to_gather. 捡起来/拾. verb.

kv˧~kv˥
red
重叠

gɤ˩-kv˧~kv˥
to pick up (something that was on the ground)
捡起来(地上的东西)

le˧-kv˧~kv˥
to pick up (something that was on the ground)
捡起来(地上的东西)

to_fish. 钓鱼. verb.

ɲi˧zo˧ kv˥
to fish
钓鱼
kv˩ a verb Tone: La.
to_cross. 过. verb.

ʈʂʰwæ˩ kv˥
to cross (a river) in a boat
坐船过(河)
kv˩kv˩ noun Tone: L.
classifier: ɭɯ˧ cheekbone. 颧骨. body. See: njɤ˧kv˩
kv˩nɑ˧˥ noun Tone: LM+MH#.
classifier: tsʰi˥ silk. 丝绸. clothing.

kv˩nɑ˧-bɑ˧lɑ˥
silk garment
丝绸衣服
kv˩tɑ˩ verb Tone: L.
to_group. 集中. verb.
kv˧˥ verb Tone: MH.
to_be_able_to. 会. verb.
kv˧˥ b classifier Tone: MHb.
clf .persons . 量词 .人 . classifier.
kwɑ˧fæ˩ noun Tone: L#.
From: Chinese 官房 . 官方::hotel_name. 官房( 借词) . society.

kwɑ˧fæ˩
the abridged name of a five-star hotel where one of the main consultant's daughters works
丽江官房大酒店的简称。注:发音合作人的女儿在丽江官房大酒店工作。
kwɑ˧tsʰɑ˧ noun Tone: M.
classifier: ɭɯ˧ From: Chinese 棺材 . 棺材::coffin. 棺材( 借词) . object.

kwɑ˧tsʰɑ˧, | hĩ˧-mo˩-kʰɯ˩-di˩ ɲi˩!
The coffin is the thing in which the corpse is put! / The coffin is the thing to put the corpse!
棺材,是装尸体的! / 棺材,是用来装尸体的!
kwæ˧fæ˥ noun Tone: H#.
classifier: pʰæ˧˥ medium_sized_beam. 中等大小的梁. house.
kwæ˧pæ˥ noun Tone: H#.
classifier: nɑ˧ harrow. 耙. object.
kwæ˧tsɯ˧ noun Tone: M.
From: Chinese 瓜子 . 瓜子::sunflower_seed. 葵花瓜籽( 借词) . plant.
kwɤ˧ɭɯ˩ noun Tone: L#.
classifier: ɭɯ˧ jug/treasure. 坛子/宝贝. object.

ʈʂʰɯ˧ | njɤ˧ kwɤ˧ɭɯ˩ ɲi˩!
(S)he is my treasure! (About a child)
他是我宝贝!(母亲说孩子是她的宝贝)
kwɤ˧pɤ˧ noun Tone: M.
classifier: kʰwɤ˥ explanation. 解释. abstract.

kwɤ˧pɤ˧ ɖɯ˧-kʰwɤ˥ lɑ˩
to provide an explanation, to teach something
解释一个道理、教一件事

kwɤ˧pɤ˧ ɖɯ˧-kʰwɤ˥ | tʰi˧-lɑ˩-ɻ˩
As above: to provide an explanation, to teach something
同上:解释一个道理、教一件事

kwɤ˧pɤ˧ lɑ˧˥
to teach
教、解释
kwɤ˩ a classifier Tone: La.
clf .clusters/strings . 量词 .串 . classifier.

kv˧ | ɖɯ˧-kwɤ˩
a braid of garlic
一辫大蒜

lɑ˧tsɯ˥ | ɖɯ˧-kwɤ˩
a braid of hot peppers
一辫辣椒

ʈʂʰɯ˧-kwɤ˥
dem _ (tone: H# / H$)
指示代词 _
kwɤ˩ a verb Tone: La.
to_throw_away. 扔. verb.

mv˩tɕo˧ kwɤ˩
to throw away (rubbish)
扔掉(垃圾)

tso˧~tso˧ kwɤ˥
to throw stuff away
扔东西
kwɤ˩ a verb Tone: La.
to_manage. 管( 借词) . verb.

ɖɯ˧-kʰwɤ˧ kwɤ˥
to supervise a bit
管一些
kwɤ˩-tjɤ˧ljɤ#˥ noun Tone: L-#H.
classifier: ɭɯ˧ small_bell. 铃铛. object.
kwɤ˩to˥ noun Tone: LH.
classifier: ɭɯ˧ jawbone. 颌骨. body.
kʰɤ˧ɕjɤ˧ verb
to_spend. 花掉. verb.

kʰɤ˧ɕjɤ˧-ze˩!
pfv
花掉了!

le˧-kʰɤ˧ɕjɤ˧ | le˧-se˩-kʰɯ˩
to spend all the money, to spend all the money up
全部都花完

mɤ˧-dʑo˧, | ɖwæ˩-mɤ˧-zo˧! | tʰi˧-ʂe˧ tʰi˧-kʰɤ˧ɕjɤ˧-tsæ˥-ɲi˩!
If we have nothing/if we are poor, we should not worry! Go ahead: earn some money and spend it! (This is one of the teachings of the elders: money is something that circulates, not something to be accumulated for its own sake.)
如果没有(钱),不用担心!要赚也要花!(这是长辈的一个教诲:钱赚了又花、花了又赚,不是来积累的。)
kʰɤ˧mi˥$ noun Tone: $H.
classifier: kʰɤ˧˥ large_basket_carried_on_the_back. 大背篓. object.
kʰɤ˧ʂɯ˧ verb Tone: M.
From: Chinese 开始 . 开始::to_begin. 开始( 借词) . verb.
kʰɤ˧zo˥$ noun Tone: $H.
classifier: kʰɤ˧˥ small_basket_carried_on_the_back. 小背篓. object.
kʰɤ˩njɤ˩~kʰɤ˧njɤ˧ adjective Tone: L-.
supple(movement). 柔软(动作). adjective.
kʰɤ˧˥ verb Tone: MH.
to_put_out. 灭(火). verb. See: hɑ̃˧˥1
kʰɤ˧˥ noun Tone: MH.
classifier: kʰɤ˧˥ basket_carried_on_back. 背篓. object.
kʰɤ˧˥ a classifier Tone: MHa.
clf .baskets . 量词 .筐 . classifier.
kʰi˥ verb Tone: H.
to_separate. 拆开/分离. verb.

sɑ˧ | le˧-kʰi˥
to separate linen fibres (to make thread)
拆开粗麻(为了纺出细麻线)
kʰi˥ noun Tone: #H.
classifier: ̩pɤ˩ door. 门. house.

kʰi˧-zo#˥
small door
小门
kʰi˥ noun Tone: #H.
edge. 边. natural environment.
kʰi˧bɤ#˥ noun Tone: #H.
classifier: ɭɯ˧ threshold. 门槛. house.
kʰi˧-bv˧lv˩ noun Tone: °L#.
classifier: ɭɯ˧ hinge. 合页. house. See:
-kʰi˧~kʰi˧ postposition Tone: #H.
near. 周围. space.

ʑi˧qʰwɤ˧-kʰi˧~kʰi˧
near the house, in the vicinity of the house
房子周围

njɤ˧-bv˧ | kʰi˧~kʰi˧
near me, around me
我的周围

ʐɤ˩mi˩-kʰi˩~kʰi˩ se˩˥
to walk on the roadside, to walk by the side of the road
走在马路边
kʰi˧mi˧ noun Tone: M.
classifier: pɤ˩ main_door. 大门. house.
kʰi˧-qʰwɤ˩ noun Tone: L#.
classifier: ɭɯ˧ hinge. 门的合页. house. Syn: kʰi˧-bv˧lv˩
kʰi˧tɕʰɯ˩-mo˩ noun Tone: L#-.
poisonous_mushroom_sp. 一种有毒的菌子. plant.

ʈʂæ˧mo˧-kʰi˧tɕʰɯ˩-mo˩
same meaning
同上
Syn: ʈʂæ˧mo#˥
kʰi˧˥ verb Tone: MH.
to_leave. pst . 走.°过去式. verb.

ʈʂʰɯ˧ | zo˩qo˧ kʰi˧?
Where has (s)he gone to? / Where has (s)he left for?
他到哪里去了?

no˧ | tsʰi˧ɲi˧ | ɑ˩pʰo˩˥ | ə˩-kʰi˩˥?
Did you go outside today? / Did you take a stroll today?
你今天出去了吗?
kʰo˥ verb Tone: H.
to_spread. 铺. verb.

kʰwæ˧ɻæ˧ kʰo˧
to spread a mat
铺垫子
kʰo˧lo˧ noun Tone: M.
classifier: ɭɯ˧ prayer_wheel. 转经筒. religion.
kʰɯ˧di˧˥ noun Tone: MH#.
classifier: ɭɯ˧ container. 容器. object.
kʰɯ˧dv#˥ noun Tone: #H.
classifier: cripple. 跛. society.

kʰɯ˧dv˧-hĩ˧
cripple

kʰɯ˧dv˧-tsʰo˧qʰwɤ˧
lame demon
跛鬼
kʰɯ˧dʑɯ˧˥ noun Tone: MH#.
classifier: dzi˧ classifier: paire puttee. 裹腿. clothing.
kʰɯ˧pi˧ verb
to_stumble. 绊. verb.

njɤ˧ kʰɯ˧pi˧-ze˧!
I have stumbled!
我绊了一跤!
kʰɯ˧pʰv˩ noun Tone: L#.
classifier: Chinese, Han. 汉族. ethnic groups.
kʰɯ˧tʰo˧˥ noun Tone: H#.
: dze˩ chains. 脚链. object.

kʰɯ˧tʰo˧ kʰɯ˥
to put chains (on someone's feet)
戴上脚链(在一个人的脚上)
kʰɯ˧tʰv#˥ noun Tone: #H.
classifier: dze˩ pedal_of_loom. 织布机的踏板. object.
kʰɯ˧tsɯ˧bæ˥ noun Tone: H#.
calfband. 绑腿布. clothing.
kʰɯ˧tsʰɤ˧˥ noun Tone: MH#.
classifier: pʰo˧˥ leg. 腿/脚. body.
kʰɯ˧ʈʂæ˧˥ noun Tone: MH#.
classifier: ʈʂæ˧˥ ankle. 踝关节. body.
kʰɯ˧ʈʂɤ#˥ noun Tone: #H.
classifier: ʈv˩ / ɭɯ˧ chicken_feet. 鸡爪. animal.

kʰɯ˧ʈʂɤ˧ tʰv˧-ɭɯ#˥
n + dem + clf
这只鸡爪

kʰɯ˧ʈʂɤ˧ tʰv˧-ʈv˥#
n + dem + clf
这只鸡爪
kʰɯ˧ʐɯ˥$ noun Tone: H$.
classifier: qʰwɤ˧˥ classifier: bol light_rice_wine. 黄酒. food.
kʰɯ˩ noun Tone: L.
classifier: kʰɯ˩ classifier: objets longs thread. 线. clothing.
kʰɯ˩ b classifier Tone: Lb.
clf .threads . 量词 .根/条 . classifier.

kʰɯ˧ | ɖɯ˧-kʰɯ˩
a thread of string
一根线

zɯ˧ | ɖɯ˧-kʰɯ˩
a blade of grass
一根草

bæ˩ ɖɯ˥-kʰɯ˩
a thread of rope
一条绳子

kʰɯ˧ | ʈʂʰɯ˧-kʰɯ˧˥
this thread (note: irregular tone pattern)
这根线
kʰɯ˩pv˩ noun Tone: L.
classifier: ɭɯ˧ shuttle. 梭子. clothing. See: pv˧qʰwɤ˥
kʰɯ˩ʈɯ˩ noun Tone: L.
classifier: ʈv˩ root. 根. plant.

si˧dzi˩-kʰɯ˩ʈɯ˩
tree root
树根
kʰɯ˧˥ verb Tone: MH.
put_into. 放. verb.

kʰɯ˩~kʰɯ˧˥
red
red

qwɤ˧-qo˧ | si˧ tʰi˧-kʰɯ˧˥
to add wood into the fire
放木头在火中

to_allow/ caus . 让/ 使动 . verb.

kʰv˩mi˩-zɯ˩~zɯ˩˥, | le˧-ɖæ˥-kʰɯ˩! | hĩ˧-zɯ˧~zɯ˥, | le˧-ʂæ˧-kʰɯ˥!
Dog's lifespan was made shorter, and man's lifespan was made longer! (A summary of the legend "How dog and man exchanged their lifespans".)
够的寿命,变短了/使得变短!(而)人的寿命,变长了/使得变长!(《狗和人交换寿命》故事的一个提要)

hwæ˧ kʰɯ˧ ə˥-bi˩? | - hwæ˧ kʰɯ˧-bi˥!
Do you agree to buy? - Yes!
(你)让买吗? - 让买!

tɕʰi˧ kʰɯ˧ ə˥-bi˩?
Do you agree to sell?
(你)让卖吗?

dzɯ˧ kʰɯ˩ ə˩-bi˩?
Do you agree to eat?
(你)让吃吗?

tɕi˩ kʰɯ˥ ə˩-bi˩?
Do you agree to write?
(你)让写吗?

ʈʰɯ˩ kʰɯ˩ ə˥-bi˩?
Do you agree to drink?
(你)让喝吗?

ʐv˧ kʰɯ˥ ə˩-bi˩?
Do you agree to sew?
(你)让缝吗?
kʰɯ˧˥ verb Tone: MH.
to_throw. 甩/扔. verb.

le˧-kʰɯ˧-ze˥
accomp _ pfv
甩了

lv˧mi˧ kʰɯ˧˥
to throw a stone
扔石头
kʰɯ˧˥ verb Tone: MH.
to_wear. 戴(手镯). verb.

le˧-kʰɯ˧-ze˥
accomp _ pfv
戴了

lo˩dʑo˧ kʰɯ˩
to wear a bracelet
戴手镯
kʰv˥ verb Tone: H.
to_cut/to_harvest. 割(草). verb.

le˧-kʰv˥-ze˩
accomp _ pfv
割了

zɯ˧-kʰv˧
to cut grass
割草
kʰv˥ noun Tone: #H.
classifier: ɭɯ˧ nest. 巢. animal.

kʰv˧ ʈʂʰɯ˧-ɭɯ#˥
n + dem + clf
这只鸟巢
kʰv˥ verb Tone: H.
to_steal. 偷. verb.

hĩ˧-bv˧ tso˧~tso˧ kʰv˧
to steal someone's stuff, to steal someone else's property
偷别人的东西
kʰv˥ noun Tone: #H.
classifier: mi˩ classifier: classifier: jɤ˧˥ dog. 狗. animal.

kʰv˧-ʂe˧ dzɯ˧
to eat dog meat (a practice which is strongly antagonistic to Na culture, which considers dog as man's benefactor)
吃狗肉

kʰv˧-zɯ˧~zɯ˥
dog's existence, dog's life (which dog exchanged with man, according to the legend)
狗的生命(传说狗与人交换了生命)

kʰv˧ tʰv˧-mi˥#
n + dem + clf
那条狗

kʰv˧-gɤ˥ljɤ˩
roving dog
流浪狗
kʰv˧bv˧˥ noun Tone: MH#.
classifier: ɭɯ˧ doghouse. 狗窝. house.
kʰv˧kwæ˧ noun Tone: M.
classifier: ɭɯ˧ From: Chinese 苦瓜 . 苦瓜::bitter_melon. 苦瓜. plant.
kʰv˧kʰv˩ noun Tone: L#.
year_of_the_dog. 狗年. time.
kʰv˧mæ˧ noun Tone: M.
classifier: robber. 强盗. society.

kʰv˧mæ˧ ʝi˧-hĩ˧-hĩ˧
person who robs, robber
当强盗的人=强盗

kʰv˧mæ˧-ni˩-zo˩! | hĩ˧ lɑ˩-ho˩!
He's like a bandit! He may hit people!
他像强盗似的!会打人的!

kʰv˧mæ˧-ʑi˩
prison: literally "house for thieves"
监狱。直译:“贼家”

kʰv˧mæ˧-ʝi˧-hĩ˧, | lo˧ʑi˥bv˩-qo˩ ʈæ˩!
Thieves are tied up in prisons / are sent to prison!
贼,被关在监狱!

no˧ | kʰv˧mæ˧-pʰæ˧qʰwɤ˩-ne˩-ʝi˩-zo˩!
You have the face of a thief! / You really look like a thief! (An accusation about someone one thinks is a thief)
你有一张贼脸!(控告一个人)
kʰv˧mv˥ noun Tone: H#.
classifier: female_puppy. 小母狗. animal.
kʰv˧nɑ˥ noun Tone: H#.
classifier: mi˩ dog. 狗. animal.
kʰv˧pʰæ˧ noun Tone: M.
age. 年龄. société.

kʰv˧pʰæ˧ tɕi˩
young
年轻

kʰv˧pʰæ˧ | tɕi˩-hĩ˩˥
young
年轻的
kʰv˧-pʰo˥ noun Tone: H#.
half_a_year. 半年. time.

ɖɯ˧-kʰv˧-kʰv˥-pʰo˩
one year and a half
一年半
kʰv˧pʰv#˥ noun Tone: #H.
classifier: v˧ / mi˩ / ɭɯ˧ he-dog. 公狗. animal.

kʰv˧pʰv˧ ʈʂʰɯ˧-ɭɯ#˥
n + dem + clf
这只公狗

kʰv˧pʰv˧ tʰv˧-mi˧˥
n + dem + clf
这只公狗

kʰv˧pʰv˧ tʰv˧-v#˥
n + dem + clf
这个公狗
kʰv˧qʰwɤ˧˥ noun Tone: MH#.
bad_year. 收成不好的一年. time.

kʰv˧qʰwɤ˧ tʰv˧˥
the year is bad; crops are bad this year; a bad year has come
今年,收成不好。
kʰv˧sɯ˧sɯ˩ noun Tone: L#.
classifier: kɤ˧˥ Flemingia_strobilifera. 球穗千斤拔. plant.
kʰv˧ʂæ˧˥ verb Tone: MH.
to_hunt. 打猎. verb.

kʰv˧ʂæ˧ hɯ˧˥
(He/she) has gone hunting
狩猎去了
kʰv˧ʂɯ˥ verb
to_celebrate_the_New_Year. 过年. time.
kʰv˧tɕʰi˥$ noun Tone: H$.
solution. 办法. abstract.

kʰv˧tɕʰi˥ | mɤ˧-dʑo˧-ze˧! | ɻ̃˧-ɻ˧ tʰo˩!
There is nothing we can do anymore! It's a catastrophe!
没有办法了!糟糕了!
kʰv˧tsʰi˧-bo˥tsʰi˩ noun Tone: #H-.
classifier: pʰo˧˥ classifier: mole_shrew. 鼹鼠. animal.
kʰv˧zo#˥ noun Tone: #H.
classifier: v˧ / mi˩ / ɭɯ˧ 公狗. animal.

kʰv˧zo˧ ʈʂʰɯ˧-ɭɯ#˥
n + dem + clf
这只公狗

kʰv˧zo˧ tʰv˧-mi˧˥
n + dem + clf
这只公狗

kʰv˧zo˧ tʰv˧-v#˥
n + dem + clf
这只公狗

kʰv˧zo˥-kʰv˩mv˩
puppy and she-dog
小狗与母狗
kʰv˧zo˥$ noun Tone: H$.
family_name. 一个姓. given name.

kʰv˧zo˧=ɻ˥$
the /kʰv˧zo˥$/ clan, the /kʰv˧zo˥$/ family
|fv /kʰv˧zo˥$/ 家族 /kʰv˧zo˥$/ 家族

kʰv˧zo˥-tsʰɯ˩ɻ˩
the name of a person, containing both a family name: fv:/kʰv˧zo˥$/, and a given name: fv:/tsʰɯ˧ɻ#˥/
一个人的名字:姓为|fv /kʰv˧zo˥$/ ,名为|fv /tsʰɯ˧ɻ#˥/ /kʰv˧zo˥$/ ,名为 /tsʰɯ˧ɻ#˥/
kʰv˧zo˧ | -bo˩zo˧ noun Tone: °LM+#H.
classifier: doggy_piggy. 小畜生. animal.
kʰv˩-kʰɤ˩ noun Tone: L.
classifier: ɭɯ˧ chicken_nest. 鸡窝. house.
kʰv˩mi˩ noun Tone: L.
classifier: v˧, terme respectueux (le même que pour les humains) classifier: on peut aussi dire: jɤ˧˥ dog. 狗. animal.

kʰv˩mi˩ ʈʂʰɯ˩-jɤ˧
n + dem + clf
这条狗

di˧qo˧-kʰv˩mi˩
the dogs of the plain (which, unlike dogs in mountain hamlets, get to see lots of passers-by, and less likely to bite strangers)
平坝的狗

kʰv˩mi˩-gɤ˥ljɤ˩
roving dog
流浪的狗
kʰv˩tsɤ˩mi˥ noun Tone: L+H#.
classifier: she-dog. 母狗. animal.
kʰv˧˥ noun Tone: MH.
year. 年. time.

kʰv˧-mæ˥
end of the year
年尾

kʰv˧-mæ˥ ʂæ˩
intercalary year: a year with 13 months; this happens every 4 years or so
闰年(有13个月)

kʰv˧-mæ˥ ɖæ˩
normal year, usual year: a year that has 12 months
正常的年份,普通年:一年十二个月

astrological_sign. 生肖. time.

no˧ | ə˧tso˧ kʰv˧ ɲi˥?
What is your astrological sign?
你是属什么的?
kʰv˧˥ a classifier Tone: MHa.
clf .year . 量词 .年 . classifier.

ɖɯ˧-kʰv˧˥
one year
一年
kʰwæ˧hwæ˩ verb
to_drape_oneself_in. 披上. verb.
kʰwæ˧ɻæ#˥ noun Tone: #H.
classifier: tsʰi˥ felt. 毡子. clothing.

kʰwæ˧ɻæ˧ tʰi˧-kʰo˥
to spread a mat
铺席子
kʰwɤ˥ a classifier Tone: Ha.
clf .chunks . 量词 .块 . classifier.

ɖɯ˧-kʰwɤ˥~ɖɯ˩-kʰwɤ˩
chunk by chunk, one chunk after the other
一块一块地

kʰwɤ˧ | ɖɯ˧-ʂe˧-ɻ˩!
Go ahead and decide! / Please make a decision!
你们得要做出决定!

ɖɯ˧-kʰwɤ˧ so˧˥, | ɖɯ˧-kʰwɤ˥ fv˩!
Each new word is a new joy! (A comment by the consultant about the investigator's enjoyment of fieldwork. She takes a look at a draft dictionary, and comments that it represents a great deal of work, and that what matters is that the investigator should feel an interest in it, considering each new 'piece' – each addition to the dictionary – as a source of joy.)
学一点,就高兴一点!(评说语言调查工作:合作人看着本词典的初稿,说:这是一项很大的工程,关键的是调查者要有兴趣,欣赏每个新学的语言信息。)
kʰwɤ˧pʰv˧ noun Tone: M.
classifier: meadow. 草坪. natural environment.
kʰwɤ˧pʰv˧-mo˧˥ noun Tone: MH#.
prairie_mushroom. 一种菌子. plant.