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Index g
gæ˧ɻæ˩
gæ˩ɖæ˧
gæ˩pʰæ˧
-gɤ˧
gɤ˧ b
gɤ˧bɤ˧
-gɤ˧bi#˥
gɤ˧lɑ˧
gɤ˧lɑ˧-pɤ#˥
gɤ˧lɑ˧-ʑi˩
gɤ˧qo˥
gɤ˩‑
gɤ˩
gɤ˩ a
gɤ˩ a
gɤ˩ a
gɤ˩bv˧
gɤ˩dzɤ˧
gɤ˩-qo˧
gɤ˩qwɤ˧
gɤ˩ʁwɤ#˥
gɤ˩ʁwɤ˧
gɤ˩-tʰv˧-gi#˥
gɤ˩-tʰv˧qo˧
gɤ˩ʈʂæ˧˥
gɤ˩ʈʂʰæ˧-hĩ˧˥
gɤ˩-ʈʂʰɯ˧-gi#˥
gɤ˩-ʈʂʰɯ˧qo˧
gɤ˧˥
gi˥
gi˥
gi˥ a
gi˧dʑɯ˧
gi˧-nɑ˧mi#˥
gi˧-nɑ˧mi˧-pʰv#˥
gi˧-nɑ˧mi˧-zo#˥
gi˧zɯ#˥
gi˧zɯ˧-go˧mi#˥
gi˩
gi˩
gi˩ a
gi˩kɯ˩
go˧bɤ˩
go˧mi˧
go˩ a
go˩bi˧
go˩bo˥
gɯ˩ a
gɯ˩ a
gɯ˩ɭɯ˧˥
gv˥
gv˥
gv˧
gv˧
gv˧
gv˧dv˧
gv˧dv˧-gv˧mi˧
gv˧kv˩
gv˧mɑ˧
gv˧mi˧
gv˧sɯ˥-pv˩
gv˧tɕʰɯ˧˥
gv˧tsʰi˩
gv˩ a
gv˩ a
gv˩ a
gv˩dʑɯ˩
gv˩ɬi˩mi˩
gv˩pʰæ˩
gwɤ˩ a
gwɤ˩~gwɤ˧˥
gwɤ˩ʝi˧
gæ˧ɻæ˩ noun Tone: L#.
village_name. 嘎尔村. place name.

dʑɤ˩bv˧kɤ˧-sɑ˥ʁwɤ˩, | hi˩ʁwɤ˩-lo˥, | æ˩mi˧-ʁwɤ#˥, | lɑ˧lo˧-ʁwɤ˥, | lɑ˧ŋwɤ˧, | bɤ˧tsʰo˧gv˥, | ə˧lɑ˧-ʁwɤ#˥, | gæ˧ɻæ˩, | qʰæ˧tɕʰi˧, | tʰo˧ʈɯ#˥
the ten villages traditionally considered as part of Yongning
摩梭传统地理概念中,属于永宁的十个村落
gæ˩ɖæ˧ noun Tone: LM.
top_part_of_body. 上半身. space.
gæ˩pʰæ˧ noun Tone: LM.
classifier: tso˩ storeroom/larder. 储藏室. house.
-gɤ˧ noun Tone: M.
place. 地方. morphosyntax.

njɤ˧ | ɖɯ˧-ʝi˧ (-gɤ˧) bi˧-zo˧-ho˩!
I have to go somewhere! / I have to make a trip! / I'm off!
我要去一个别的地方! / 我要换一个地方了! / 我要走了!

ze˩ gɤ˧
which place
什么地方

ʈʂʰɯ˧-gɤ˧
this place
这个地方

tʰv˧-gɤ˧
that place
那个地方

moment. 时候. morphosyntax.

ʂɯ˧-ɬi˧mi˧-qo˧-gɤ˧ tʰv˧
when the seventh month has come, when one is in the seventh month
七月到了的时候

ʂɯ˧-ɬi˧mi˧-qo˧-gɤ˧-dʑo˥
in the seventh month, during the seventh month
七月的时候
gɤ˧ b verb Tone: Mb.
to_lack. 缺乏. verb.

mɤ˧-gɤ˧
neg : not to lack
不缺乏
gɤ˧bɤ˧ noun Tone: M.
classifier: shadow. 影子. natural environment.

gɤ˧bɤ˧ li˧
to watch television (coinage to avoid the loanword 'television')
看电视
-gɤ˧bi#˥ postposition Tone: #H.
on_top_of. 上面. space.

ʑi˧qʰwɤ˧-gɤ˧bi˧
on the (roof of) the house = on the roof
在房頂上
gɤ˧lɑ˧ noun Tone: M.
classifier: From: Tibetan lha. bodhisattva. 菩萨. religion.
gɤ˧lɑ˧-pɤ#˥ noun Tone: #H.
classifier: pɤ˥ image_of_Buddha. 佛像. religion.
gɤ˧lɑ˧-ʑi˩ noun Tone: °L.
classifier: ɭɯ˧ room_for_worship. 经堂. religion.

gɤ˧lɑ˧-ʑi˩-di˩
same meaning
同上
gɤ˧qo˥ noun Tone: MH.
classifier: ɭɯ˧ higher_part_of_main_room. 主屋的高处. house.
gɤ˩‑ adverb Tone: L.
upward. 向上. morphosyntax. See:
gɤ˩ adjective Tone: L.
quarrelsome. 爱吵架. adjective.

kʰv˧ gɤ˧˥
"quarrelsome year": a year whose astrological sign is a quarrelsome animal. Astrological signs such as the Tiger and the Monkey are considered as quarrelsome; people born during one of these years are said to be tough and quarrelsome.
爱打架的年份/生肖:十二个生肖中,虎、猴……被认为是爱打架的。

kʰv˧ gɤ˧-hĩ˥
person whose astrological sign is a quarrelsome animal. Astrological signs such as the Tiger and the Monkey are considered as quarrelsome.
属一个爱打架的年份/生肖的人。十二个生肖中,虎、猴……被认为是爱打架的。

ʑi˩hṽ˥, | lɑ˧ : | kʰv˧ gɤ˧˥!
The Monkey and the Ape are quarrelsome birth signs!
属猴和属虎的人很爱吵架!

ʑi˩˥, | lɑ˧, | kʰv˧ gɤ˧˥!
Same meaning as above; the investigator substituted the colloquial term for 'ape, monkey'.
同上
gɤ˩ a verb Tone: La.
to_go_out(fire). 灭. verb.

mv˧ | le˧-gɤ˩(-ze˩)
The fire has gone out. / The fire went out.
火灭了。
gɤ˩ a verb Tone: La.
satisfied. 满意. verb.

hɤ˩-zo˥, | le˧-gɤ˩-ze˩!
(S)he has made a good job of it; (s)he is satisfied/happy!
很成功,真高兴! / 他成功了,很满意!

ʈʂʰɯ˧ | ɖwæ˧˥ | le˧-gɤ˩-ze˩!
(S)he is very satisfied/happy!
他很满意!

no˩-se˥, | ɖwæ˧˥ | le˧-gɤ˩-ze˩: | zo˧mv˥ hɤ˩-zo˩!
You have grounds for satisfaction: your children are really bright!
你呢,(应该)很满意:(你的)孩子很成功!

mɤ˧-gɤ˩
to be dissatisfied, not resigned, recalcitrant
不满意、不甘心、不服气
gɤ˩ a verb Tone: La.
to_be_afraid. 害怕. verb.

le˧-gɤ˩-ze˩
accomp _ pfv
害怕了

no˧ | hĩ˧ gɤ˧-kʰɯ˥!
You frighten people! / People are afraid of you!
你让人害怕!
gɤ˩bv˧ verb Tone: LM.
to_overflow. 溢出来. verb.

gɤ˩bv˧-ze˩
pfv
溢出来了
gɤ˩dzɤ˧ adverb Tone: LM.
at_the_top_part. 在上部分. space.

gɤ˩dzɤ˧ dzi˧˥
to sit at a place of honour, to sit at the superior part (of a table, a room...)
坐上座

no˧ | gɤ˩dzɤ˧ dzi˧˥!
Please be seated at the place of honour!
请您坐在上座!
See:
gɤ˩-qo˧ adverb Tone: M.
way up there. 那上面. space. See:
gɤ˩qwɤ˧ noun Tone: LM.
classifier: ɭɯ˧ altar_above_the_hearth. 火炉旁边的祭坛. house.
gɤ˩ʁwɤ#˥ noun Tone: LM+#H.
village_name. 格瓦村. place name.
gɤ˩ʁwɤ˧ noun Tone: LM.
upper_reaches. 上游. natural environment.
gɤ˩-tʰv˧-gi#˥ adverb Tone: L-#H.
way_up_there. 那里(指高处). morphosyntax. See:
gɤ˩-tʰv˧qo˧ adverb Tone: L-#H.
way_up_there. 那里(指高处). morphosyntax. See:
gɤ˩ʈʂæ˧˥ noun Tone: LM+MH#.
top_part(of_body). 上半(身). body.
gɤ˩ʈʂʰæ˧-hĩ˧˥ noun Tone: LM+MH#.
ancestors. 祖先. society.
gɤ˩-ʈʂʰɯ˧-gi#˥ adverb Tone: L-#H.
way_up_there. 那里(指高处). morphosyntax. See:
gɤ˩-ʈʂʰɯ˧qo˧ adverb Tone: L-#H.
way_up_there. 那里(指高处). morphosyntax. See:
gɤ˧˥ verb Tone: MH.
to_carry_on_the_shoulder. 扛. verb.

tʰi˧-gɤ˧˥
dur
dur

tʰi˧-gɤ˧-ze˥
dur _ pfv
dur _ pfv

le˧-gɤ˧-ze˥
accomp _ pfv
扛了

tso˧~tso˧ gɤ˩
to carry something on the shoulder
扛东西

njɤ˧(-ɳɯ˧) | gɤ˧-bi˥!
Let me carry it!
我来扛吧!
gi˥ verb Tone: H.
to_fall(snow/rain). 下(雨/雪). verb.

bi˧ gi˧. / bi˧ gi˧-ze˩.
It snows. / It has snowed.
下雪。 / 下雪了。

hi˩ gi˩˥. / hi˩ gi˩-ze˥.
It rains. / It has rained.
下雨。 / 下雨了。

tsʰi˧-ɲi˧-dʑo˩, | hi˩ gi˩-ze˥, | le˧-gɤ˩-ze˩!
Today, it is raining; that's good! / it's a good thing! (A comment made at the beginning of the rainy season, after a long drought.)
今天,下雨了,真好!(情景:大旱灾过后,雨季终于来了,这对庄稼很好。)
gi˥ verb Tone: H.
to_owe. 欠. verb.

ɖʐe˧ | tʰi˧-gi˥
to owe money
欠钱
gi˥ a classifier Tone: Ha.
clf .halves . 量词 .半 . classifier.

ɖɯ˧-gi˥
one half
一半

tsʰe˩ʐv˩-gi˥
fourteen halves (combination elicited to determine the tonal category of the classifier)
十四个半(注:这是为了确定调类而问的短语)

tv˧tsʰɯ˧ | ɖɯ˧-gi˥
half the time, half the duration
一半的时间

clf .sides . 量词 .面 . classifier.

ɖɯ˧-gi˧ hõ˧
to go in a certain direction, to go one's way
往一个方向走、走自己的方向

ɖɯ˧-v˧ | ɖɯ˧-gi˧ hɯ˧
to go each one's separate way; to go each in a different direction
分开:每个人去自己的方向
gi˧dʑɯ˧ noun Tone: M.
Yangtze_river. 金沙江. place name.

gi˧dʑɯ˧-kʰi#˥
the banks of the Yangtze river: Fengke, Labai...
金沙江边:奉科,拉伯……

gi˧dʑɯ˧-kʰi˧-hĩ#˥
inhabitants of the banks of the Yangtze: people of Labai, Fengke...
金沙江边的人:奉科人,拉伯人……
gi˧-nɑ˧mi#˥ noun Tone: #H.
classifier: pʰo˧˥ bear. 熊. animal.

gi˧-nɑ˧mi˧ tʰv˧-pʰo˩
n + dem + clf
这只熊
gi˧-nɑ˧mi˧-pʰv#˥ noun Tone: #H.
classifier: pʰo˧˥ male_bear. 公熊. animal.

gi˧-nɑ˧mi˧-pʰv˧ tʰv˧-pʰo˩
n + dem + clf
这只公熊
gi˧-nɑ˧mi˧-zo#˥ noun Tone: #H.
classifier: ɭɯ˧ little_bear. 小熊. animal.

gi˧-nɑ˧mi˧-zo˧ tʰv˧-ɭɯ#˥
n + dem + clf
这只小熊
gi˧zɯ#˥ noun Tone: #H.
classifier: younger_brother. 弟弟. society.

gi˧zɯ˧=ɻæ˥
associative : younger brothers, cousins...
联想复数:弟弟们,表弟们
gi˧zɯ˧-go˧mi#˥ noun Tone: #H.
younger_siblings. 弟弟妹妹. society.
gi˩ noun Tone: L.
bear. 大熊. animal.
gi˩ noun Tone: L.
classifier: ɭɯ˧ granary. 粮仓. house.

gi˧mi˧
large granary
大粮仓

gi˩zo˩˥
small granary
小粮仓

njɤ˧ | gi˩ gv˩-zo˩-ho˥
I shall have to repair the granary!
我应该修粮仓!
gi˩ a adjective Tone: La.
Etym: /gɯ˩a 2/; /ʝi˥/. 真的. adjective.

mɤ˧-gi˩!
(It) is not true!
不是的! / 不是真的!

ə˩-gi˩˥?
Right? / Is that true? / It is true, isn't it?
对吧? / 对吗?

ə˩-gi˩˥ ? – gi˩˥!
Is that right? - Yes, it is! (One speaker asks for confirmation; the other provides confirmation.)
对吧? -对的!

gi˩-hĩ˩ ʐwɤ˥
to speak the truth, to tell the truth
说实话,老实说

gi˩˥ | -gɯ˩˥
truly, veritably
真的,真正的
gi˩kɯ˩ noun Tone: L.
musk. 麝香. animal.
go˧bɤ˩ noun Tone: L#.
classifier: ɭɯ˧ From: Tibetan dgonpa. monaster. 寺. religion.
go˧mi˧ noun Tone: M.
classifier: younger_sister. 妹妹. society.

go˧mi˧=ɻæ˩
associative : younger sisters, younger cousins
联想复数:妹妹们,表妹们
go˩ a verb Tone: La.
to_suffer. 痛. verb.

njɤ˧ | go˩˥!
I am suffering! / It hurts!
我痛!

njɤ˧ | go˩˥ | ʐwæ˩˥!
I am suffering a lot! / It hurts a lot!
我好疼!

go˩-hĩ˩˥
nmlz : patient, sick person
病人,病的(人)

hĩ˧ | go˩-hĩ˩˥
sick person, person who is ill, patient
病人

bi˧mi˧ go˩
to have stomach-ache
肚子疼
go˩bi˧ noun Tone: LM.
Lijiang. 丽江城. place name.

go˩bi˧-ɖʐɯ˧qo˩
the city of Lijiang
丽江城
go˩bo˥ noun Tone: LH.
classifier: pʰo˧˥ livestock. 牲畜. animal.
gɯ˩ a verb Tone: La.
to_believe. 相信. verb.

ʈʂʰɯ˧-ɳɯ˧ ʐwɤ˩-hĩ˩, | njɤ˧ | mɤ˧-gɯ˩!
I do not believe what (s)he says!
他说的话,我不相信!
gɯ˩ a adjective Tone: La.
true. 真. adjective.

mɤ˧-gɯ˩
not true
不是真的

gɯ˩-hĩ˩˥
nmlz
真的

ə˩-gɯ˩˥?
Is that true?
真的吗?

gɯ˩ wɤ˩-ɻ˥!
It's really like that! / Yes, it is indeed true!
就是真的啊! / 的确是这样啊!

gɯ˩-ʝi˥?
Really?
原来是这样吗?

gɯ˩ ʂv˩ɖv˩˥
to believe in (something); literally: 'to think (that something is) true'
相信

gɯ˧ ʐwɤ˧
to say the truth
说实话
gɯ˩ɭɯ˧˥ verb Tone: LM+MH#.
to_rub. 揉. verb.

gɯ˩ɭɯ˧-ze˥
pfv
揉了

le˧-gɯ˩ɭɯ˩+ze˩
accomp _ pfv
揉了

le˧-gɯ˩ɭɯ˩~le˧-gɯ˩ɭɯ˩
accomp red pfv
揉一揉
gv˥ noun Tone: #H.
classifier: ɭɯ˧ manger. 马槽. object.

ʐwæ˧gv#˥
horse's manger
马槽
gv˥ verb Tone: H.
to_cross. 过(河). verb.

dʑɯ˩ gv˩˥
to cross a river
过河
gv˧ verb Tone: M' intrans.
to_go_by. 过去. verb.

le˧-gv˩-ze˩
accomp _ pfv
已经过去了

ɖɯ˧-ɭɯ˧ gv˧
an hour goes by
一个小时过去了

tsʰe˩-ɲi˩ gv˩-ze˥!
Ten days have gone by/ten days have elapsed
十天过去了

mɤ˧-gv˧-ze˧!
It won't do! / It won't work! / It's no good!
不好了! / 不行了!

ʈʂʰɯ˧ne˧-ʝi˥ | gv˧, -tsɯ˩-mv˩!
They say that's how it happened!
据说是这样发生的!
gv˧ adjective Tone: M.
good(heart). 好(心好). adjective.

ɖwæ˧˥ | gv˧!
intensive .very
很好!

mɤ˧-gv˧!
neg
不好
gv˧ numeral Tone: M? H#? (pas L).
9. 9. number.
gv˧dv˧ noun Tone: M.
classifier: ʈv˩ back. 脊背. body.
gv˧dv˧-gv˧mi˧ noun Tone: M.
classifier: ɭɯ˧ Etym: gv˧dv˧; gv˧mi˧. body. 身体. body.
gv˧kv˩ noun Tone: L#.
intonation. 语调. abstract.

gv˧kv˩-gv˩li˩ | ʐwɤ˩˥
to speak with a pleasant style, to deliver one's speech with elegance
说话说得好听、有口才、口若悬河、能言善辩
gv˧mɑ˧ noun Tone: M.
masculine_given_name. 男性名字. given name.

hĩ˧ | ʈʂʰɯ˧-v˧, | gv˧mɑ˧ mv˧ʈʂæ˧˥!
This person is called /gv˧mɑ˧/!
这个人,名叫|fv /gv˧mɑ˧//gv˧mɑ˧/
gv˧mi˧ noun Tone: M.
classifier: ɭɯ˧ body. 身体. body.
gv˧sɯ˥-pv˩ noun Tone: H#-L.
classifier: kʰwɤ˥ shoulderblade. 肩胛骨. body.
gv˧tɕʰɯ˧˥ verb Tone: MH#.
to_catch_a_cold. 着凉. verb.
gv˧tsʰi˩ numeral Tone: L#.
90. 90. number.
gv˩ a verb Tone: La.
to_cook/to_prepare. 做(饭). verb.

hɑ˧ gv˥
to cook, to prepare a meal
做饭

le˧-gv˩-ze˩
accomp _ pfv
做(饭)了

njɤ˧ | hɑ˧ gv˥-bi˩!
Let me do the cooking! / I'm doing the cooking!
我来做饭吧!

to_build. 建. verb.

ʑi˧qʰwɤ˧ gv˩
to build a house
建房

to_repair/to_make. 修理/做出来. verb.

le˧-gv˧~gv˥
red : to repair
重叠:修理

le˧-gv˩ | le˧-tʰv˧-ze˧!
It's repaired! / It's done! / I have finished doing it!
修理好了!/ 修理出来了!
gv˩ a verb Tone: La.
to_tidy_up. 收拾. verb.

tʰi˧-gv˧~gv˥
dur
dur

ɖɯ˧-gv˧~gv˥-ɻ˩
to clear up a little
收拾一下

le˧-gv˧~gv˥ | tʰi˧-tɕɯ˥
to tidy up and put (everything) into place
收拾,摆好
gv˩ a verb Tone: La.
to_set(of_sun). 落下. verb.

ɲi˧mi˧ gv˩-se˩
after the sun has set, after sunset
在太阳落山之后,在太阳落山了以后

ɲi˧mi˧ | le˧-gv˩-ze˩.
The sun has set.
太阳落山了。

ɲi˧mi˧ | mɤ˧-gv˩-sɯ˩.
The sun has not set yet.
太阳还没有落。
gv˩dʑɯ˩ adjective Tone: L.
angry. 生气. adjective.
gv˩ɬi˩mi˩ noun Tone: L.
9th_month. 九月. time.
gv˩pʰæ˩ noun Tone: L.
classifier: pʰæ˧˥ thin_plank. 细的木板. object.
gwɤ˩ a verb Tone: La.
to_sing. 唱. verb.

njɤ˧ | ɖɯ˧-ɖʐo˩ | gwɤ˩-ze˥!
I have sung a song!
我唱了一首歌!

no˧ | ɖɯ˧-ɖʐo˩ gwɤ˩!
Please sing a song! / Go ahead and sing us a song!
你唱一首吧!

ɖɯ˧-kʰwɤ˧ gwɤ˥
to sing a song
唱一下

ɖɯ˧-kʰwɤ˧ gwɤ˥-ɻ˩
to sing a song
唱一下

nɑ˩-gwɤ˥
Na songs
摩梭民歌

ʈʂʰɯ˧ | nɑ˩-gwɤ˥ F | kv˧˥! | hæ˧-gwɤ˩ F | kv˧˥! | ʁo˧dzi˩-gwɤ˩ F | kv˧-ʝi˥! |
He can sing (lots of different styles:) Na songs! and also Chinese (Han) songs! and also Tibetan songs!
他会唱很多种风格的歌曲:摩梭的,会唱!汉族的,会唱!藏族的,会唱!
gwɤ˩~gwɤ˧˥ verb Tone: L.
to_stroll. 游. verb.

le˧-gwɤ˩~gwɤ˩ | le˧-tsʰɯ˩-ze˩!
So you are back from a stroll! / You are back from your little walk, eh?
你已经散步回来了!

ʈʂʰɯ˧ | gwɤ˩~gwɤ˩-hɯ˩-ze˥!
(S)he has gone out for a walk!
他散步去了!

æ˧ʂæ˧ gwɤ˩; | qv˧ɻ˧ gwɤ˥; | nɑ˩tsʰi˩ gwɤ˥
"to walk around Mount /æ˧ʂæ˧/; to walk around Mount /qv˧ɻ#˥/; to walk around Mount /nɑ˩tsʰi˩/": i.e. to do rituals on these mountains, in particular to obtain fertility, or to obtain a cure for a child who did not learn to speak.
/æ˧ʂæ˧/山,绕fv:/qv˧ɻ#˥/山,绕fv:/nɑ˩tsʰi˩/山(做“绕山”仪式,为了求生子等)
gwɤ˩ʝi˧ adverb Tone: LM.
in_good_order. 整齐. morphosyntax.

tso˧~tso˧ | gwɤ˩ʝi˧ tʰi˧-tɕɯ˥ |
to put things in good order
把东西摆整齐