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Index
dʑɤ˧bo˩
dʑɤ˧do˩
dʑɤ˩ b
dʑɤ˩bv˥
dʑɤ˩bv˥-di˩
dʑɤ˩bv˥-ʁwɤ˩
dʑɤ˩bv˧kɤ˧-sɑ˥ʁwɤ˩
dʑɤ˩ɕjɤ˩
dʑɤ˩kʰwɤ˧
dʑɤ˩pi#˥
dʑɤ˩qʰɑ˥
dʑɤ˩so˧
dʑɤ˩tsʰi#˥
dʑɤ˩tsʰi˧-ɖɯ˩mɑ˩
dʑɤ˩tsʰi˧-tsi˩mv˩
dʑɤ˩tsʰo#˥
dʑɤ˩tsʰo˧
dʑi˥
dʑi˥
dʑi˧hṽ˥$
dʑi˧mi#˥
dʑi˧zo#˥
dʑi˩wɤ˩
dʑo˧ b
dʑo˩ b
dʑɯ˧
dʑɯ˧dv˧
dʑɯ˧dze˧mi#˥
dʑɯ˧ki˥
dʑɯ˧-li˧
dʑɯ˧ɭɯ˧
dʑɯ˧mi˧
dʑɯ˧njɤ˧
dʑɯ˧qʰɑ˧
dʑɯ˧qʰv˧
dʑɯ˧qʰv˩
dʑɯ˧ʁo˩
dʑɯ˧ʈʂʰwæ#˥
dʑɯ˩
dʑɯ˩ a
dʑɯ˩-æ̃˩tsɯ˧
dʑɯ˩dze˩
dʑɯ˩gɤ˩di˩
dʑɯ˩gv˥
dʑɯ˩gv˩
dʑɯ˩hṽ˧˥
dʑɯ˩-hwæ˩tsɯ˥
dʑɯ˩kʰi˩
dʑɯ˩kʰv˩
dʑɯ˩nɑ˩hæ̃˩tʰɑ˩
dʑɯ˩nɑ˩mi˩
dʑɯ˩nɑ˩mi˩-ʁo˩
dʑɯ˩pɤ˩-kv˧hĩ˩
dʑɯ˩pɤ˩qʰv˩
dʑɯ˩pɤ˩tv˩qʰv˥
dʑɯ˩pʰæ˩
dʑɯ˩qʰæ˩
dʑɯ˩qʰwɤ˩-lv˩
dʑɯ˩ʁo˩
dʑɯ˩ʁo˩-æ̃˧
dʑɯ˩ʁo˩-bo˧
dʑɯ˩ʁo˩-dze˧
dʑɯ˩ʁo˩-hwɤ˩li˧
dʑɯ˩ʁo˩-ɬi˩bi˧
dʑɯ˩ʁo˩-zɯ˩
dʑɯ˩si˩
dʑɯ˩so˩
dʑɯ˩ʂo˥
dʑɯ˩tɤ˩ɻ˥
dʑɯ˩tɕʰɯ˩lɑ˩qʰɑ˥
dʑɯ˩tɕʰɯ˩lɑ˩qʰæ˥
dʑɯ˩tsʰi˩
dʑɯ˩tsʰi˩ʈʰɯ˩di˩
dʑɯ˩ʈv˧
dʑɯ˩zo˩
dʑɯ˩ʐv˩
dʑɯ˧˥
dʑɤ˧bo˩ noun Tone: L#.
classifier: ɭɯ˧ granary. 粮仓. house.
dʑɤ˧do˩ noun Tone: L#.
Zhongdian. 中甸. place name.

dʑɤ˧do˩-bɤ˩
the Pumi people of Zhongdian
中甸普米族
dʑɤ˩ b adjective Tone: Lb.
good(decision). 好. adjective.

mɤ˧-dʑɤ˩
bad

dʑɤ˩-hĩ˥
rel
rel

(no˧) ɖwæ˧˥ | dʑɤ˩˥!
You're great!
你很好!

dʑɤ˩-kʰɯ˥!
A benediction used on the New Year: "Let there be good (things)!", i.e. "Prosperity!", "All the best for the New Year!"
新年祝福:“祝一切好! / 万事如意!”
dʑɤ˩bv˥ verb Tone: LH.
to_play. 玩. verb.

dʑɤ˩bv˥ -bi˩/-ze˩
_ fut .imm/ pfv
要玩耍 / 玩耍了

le˧-dʑɤ˩bv˩ +ze˩
accomp _ pfv
玩耍了

tʰi˧-dʑɤ˩bv˩, | tʰi˧-dʑɤ˩bv˩, | le˧-fv˧!
They play, they play... they're happy! / (By) playing on and on, they get really happy! (About children playing together)
他们玩着玩着,很高兴!(情景:几个小孩子一起玩)
dʑɤ˩bv˥-di˩ noun Tone: LH-.
toy. 玩具. object.
dʑɤ˩bv˥-ʁwɤ˩ noun Tone: LH-.
Jiabowa. 甲波瓦村. place name.
dʑɤ˩bv˧kɤ˧-sɑ˥ʁwɤ˩ noun Tone: LM+MH#-.
village_name. 高明村. place name.

dʑɤ˩bv˧kɤ˧-sɑ˥ʁwɤ˩, | hi˩ʁwɤ˩-lo˥, | æ˩mi˧-ʁwɤ#˥, | lɑ˧lo˧-ʁwɤ˥, | lɑ˧ŋwɤ˧, | bɤ˧tsʰo˧gv˥, | ə˧lɑ˧-ʁwɤ#˥, | gæ˧ɻæ˩, | qʰæ˧tɕʰi˧, | tʰo˧ʈɯ#˥
the ten villages traditionally considered as part of Yongning
摩梭传统地理概念中,属于永宁的十个村落之一
dʑɤ˩ɕjɤ˩ noun Tone: L.
insole. 鞋垫. clothing.
dʑɤ˩kʰwɤ˧ noun Tone: LM.
distance. 距离. space.

no˧ | ʈʂʰɯ˧ | ə˩-ʐæ˥ʂæ˩? | dʑɤ˩kʰwɤ˧ ə˩-di˩? | - dʑɤ˩˥ | dʑɤ˩kʰwɤ˧ mɤ˧-di˥! | mɤ˧-ʐæ˩ʂæ˩!
Are you distant from him? Is there distance (between you)? - There is not much distance to speak of! We are not distant! (=we are close friends)
你们很熟吗?/ 你们很亲吗? - 不很熟!/ 不很亲!
dʑɤ˩pi#˥ adjective Tone: LM+#H.
plenty_of. 多. adjective.

dʑɤ˩pi˧ ʝi˧
It's very useful!
很有用、有很多用处

dʑɤ˩pi˧ dʑo˧!
(I) have plenty! / (I) have a lot! (possession)
我有很多!

dʑɤ˩pi˧ dʑo˧˥
There is plenty / there is a lot. (Note: existence, and not possession)
有很多。
dʑɤ˩qʰɑ˥ adverb Tone: LH.
with_full_might. 一个劲地. morphosyntax.

dʑɤ˩qʰɑ˥ ʈɤ˩
to pull with full might
一个劲地拉

dʑɤ˩qʰɑ˥ mi˩
to push with full might
一个劲地推

dʑɤ˩qʰɑ˥ lɑ˩
to beat with full might
一个劲地打
dʑɤ˩so˧ adjective Tone: LM.
many. 好几(个). morphosyntax.

dʑɤ˩-so˧ ɲi˧
many days; a long time
好几天
dʑɤ˩tsʰi#˥ noun Tone: LM+#H.
masculine_given_name. 男性名字. given name.
dʑɤ˩tsʰi˧-ɖɯ˩mɑ˩ noun Tone: LM-L.
feminine_given_name. 女性名字. given name.
dʑɤ˩tsʰi˧-tsi˩mv˩ noun Tone: LM-L.
classifier: dzi˩ prayer_flag. 经幡. religion.
dʑɤ˩tsʰo#˥ noun Tone: LM+#H.
housewarming_party. 乔迁庆宴. society.

ʑi˧qʰwɤ˧-ʂɯ˧-qo˧ | dʑɤ˩tsʰo˧ ʁɑ˧ ʂe˩
to throw a housewarming party in a newly built house
在新房子举办乔迁宴会
dʑɤ˩tsʰo˧ verb Tone: LM.
to_dance. 跳舞. verb.

ʈʂʰɯ˧ | dʑɤ˩tsʰo˧ mɤ˧-dʑɤ˩!
(S)he does not dance well!
他舞跳得不好!

dʑɤ˩tsʰo˧ | ɖɯ˧-hɑ̃˧ tsʰo˧
to dance all evening, to dance a whole night
跳一整夜舞
dʑi˥ noun Tone: #H.
urine. 尿. body.

dʑi˧ bæ˥
to sweep urine
扫尿

dʑi˧-lɑ˩ | qʰæ˧
excrements: urine and faeces
大小便的统称
dʑi˥ noun Tone: H.
classifier: ɭɯ˧ clothes. 衣服. clothing.

kʰv˧ʂɯ˥, | dʑi˧ qæ˧!
On New Year's Eve, one changes one's clothing / one wears new clothes!
过年,换衣服! / 过年,要穿新衣服!

dʑi˧ qæ˧-ze˩!
(He/she) has changed clothes!
换衣服了!

nɑ˩-dʑi#˥
Na clothing
摩梭服装

hæ˧-dʑi#˥
Chinese (Han) clothing
汉族服装
dʑi˧hṽ˥$ noun Tone: H$.
classifier: ɭɯ˧ clothes. 衣服. clothing.
dʑi˧mi#˥ noun Tone: #H.
classifier: pʰo˧˥ female_water_buffalo. 母水牛. animal.

dʑi˧mi˧ tʰv˧-pʰo˩
n + dem + clf
这头母水牛

dʑi˧mi˧-dʑi˧zo#˥ / dʑi˧mi˧-dʑi˥zo˩
female water buffalo and male water buffalo
母水牛与公水牛
dʑi˧zo#˥ noun Tone: #H.
classifier: ɭɯ˧ male_baby_buffalo. 小水牛. animal.

dʑi˧zo˧ tʰv˧-ɭɯ#˥
n + dem + clf
这只水牛崽子
dʑi˩wɤ˩ noun Tone: L.
classifier: dze˩ stirrup. 马镫. object.
dʑo˧ b verb Tone: Mb.
exist .to_have/to_be_there . 有/拥有. verb.

mɤ˧-dʑo˧-ze˧!
There isn't any left!
没有了!

le˧-dʑo˧-ze˧!
There is some, now!
有了!

ʈʂʰɯ˧ | ɑ˩ʁo˧ | ɖɯ˧-sɑ˥ | mɤ˧-dʑo˧!
At his home, they have nothing at all = he is needy
他家什么也没有 = 他家贫穷

njɤ˧ | mv˩zɯ˩-ni˥mi˩ | ŋi˧-kv˧ dʑo˧˥!
I have two siblings!
我有两个兄弟姐妹!

dʑo˧-tʰɑ˧˥!
There could be some! / It's possible that there will be some!
会有的!

tso˧~tso˧ dʑo˧
he has some things
他有东西

njɤ˧-ɻ˩, | ɖɯ˧-ɭɯ˧-lɑ˧ dʑo˥!
We only have one (child)!
我们只有一个(孩子)!

ɖwæ˧˥ | dʑo˧-ɲi˥!
There are lots! (For instance, when preparing to build a house, one needs large quantities of lumber; someone may comment: "There are lots!")
有很多!(如:准备建房,积累的木材有很多)
dʑo˩ b verb Tone: Lb.
exist .animated_beings . 存在动词 .有/在 . verb.

mɤ˧-dʑo˩
neg
没有、不在

ʈʂʰɯ˧ | ɑ˩ʁo˧ mɤ˧-dʑo˩!
(S)he is not at home!
他不在家!
dʑɯ˧ noun Tone: M.
moment/time(of_event). 时间. time.

ʈʂʰwɤ˩ dzɯ˩-bi˩-dʑɯ˩˥
dinner-time
吃晚餐的时间

ɑ˩pʰo˩ bi˩-dʑɯ˩˥
time to go out; the right time to go outside
出去的(合适)时间

le˧-ʑi˧-bi˧-dʑɯ˧ tʰv˧-ze˩!
It is time to go to sleep!
睡觉的时间到了!

ʐo˩ dzɯ˩-bi˩-dʑɯ˩˥
lunch-time
午饭的时间
dʑɯ˧dv˧ noun Tone: M.
classifier: kʰɯ˩ earthworm. 蚯蚓. animal.

dʑɯ˧dv˧-mi˩, | ə˩-dʑo˩˥?
Do female earthworms exist? (An artificially designed question, so as to elicit a form of 'earthworm' with the 'female' suffix, with a view to understanding the synchronically productive tone assignment rules for the gender suffixes.)
有母蚯蚓吗?

dʑɯ˧dv˧-pʰv˩, | ə˩-dʑo˩˥?
Do male earthworms exist? (An artificially designed question, so as to elicit a form of 'earthworm' with the 'male' suffix, with a view to understanding the synchronically productive tone assignment rules for the gender suffixes.)
有公蚯蚓吗?
dʑɯ˧dze˧mi#˥ noun Tone: #H.
classifier: mi˩ cicada. 蝉. animal.

dʑɯ˧dze˧-mi˧ tʰv˧-mi˧˥ / dʑɯ˧dze˧-mi˧ tʰv˧-mi˥#
n + dem + clf
这只蝉
dʑɯ˧ki˥ noun Tone: H#.
classifier: kʰɯ˩ waistband. 布带子. clothing.
dʑɯ˧-li˧ verb Tone: M.
to_irrigate. 灌溉. verb.

dʑɯ˧-li˧-ze˧
pfv
灌溉了

dʑɯ˧-mɤ˧-li˧-hĩ˧ lv˧
dry farmland, dry field: a field that is not irrigated
旱田:不灌溉的田
dʑɯ˧ɭɯ˧ noun Tone: M.
millet. 小米. plant.

dʑɯ˧ɭɯ˧-ho#˥
millet gruel
小米粥
See:
dʑɯ˧mi˧ noun Tone: M.
classifier: kʰɯ˩ large_river. 大河. natural environment.
dʑɯ˧njɤ˧ noun Tone: M.
millet. 小米. plant.

dʑɯ˧njɤ˧, | ʐɯ˧ tɕɤ˧˥!
Millet is used to make wine!
小米,用来酿酒!

dʑɯ˧njɤ˧-hɑ#˥
cooked millet
小米饭
See:
dʑɯ˧qʰɑ˧ noun Tone: M.
classifier: qɑ˩ gentian. 秦艽. plant.

dʑɯ˧qʰɑ˧-bæ˩bæ˩
gentian flowers
秦艽花
dʑɯ˧qʰv˧ noun Tone: M.
classifier: ɭɯ˧ well. 井. natural environment.

ɑ˩ʁo˥ | dʑɯ˧qʰv˧ tʰi˧-di˩.
There is a well at home / in the farm.
家里有水井。
dʑɯ˧qʰv˩ noun Tone: L#.
classifier: ɭɯ˧ wild_plant_sp. 植物名. plant.

dʑɯ˧qʰv˩-lv˩lv˩
the grains of this plant
这种植物的种子
dʑɯ˧ʁo˩ noun Tone: L#.
peach. 桃子. plant.
dʑɯ˧ʈʂʰwæ#˥ noun Tone: #H.
husked_millet. 已碾的小米. plant. See:
dʑɯ˩ noun Tone: L.
classifier: kʰɯ˩ water. 水. natural environment.

dʑɯ˧ ʈʰɯ˧
to drink water
喝水

ʈʂʰɯ˧ dʑɯ˧ ʈʰɯ˧-dʑo˧!
(S)he is drinking water
他在喝水

dʑɯ˧ | ɖɯ˧-ʈʰɤ˧ ʈʰɯ˧˥
to drink a little water (literally 'a drop of water')
喝一点水(直译:‘一滴水’)

dʑɯ˩ kʰɯ˩˥
to put water
放水

dʑɯ˩ mæ˩˥
to irrigate, to water
浇灌、灌溉

dʑɯ˩ qæ˩, hɑ˩ qæ˩˥ |
a description of the traveller's changes in environment: 'to change water, to change food'. This requires using strategies to avoid ailments: in particular, it was customary to boil in water a little earth of the place where one had arrived, and to drink this preparation.
‘换水换土’:这个短语描述旅人到他人乡的情况,带来水土不服的危险。为了预防这类不良反应,摩梭旅人习惯水煮一点当地的土,喝下去,为了适应当地的水土。

dʑɯ˧ | mv˩tɕo˧ dɑ˧˥
the water flows downwards
水往下流

waterway. 河流.
dʑɯ˩ a verb Tone: La.
to_twist_together. 搓. verb.

le˧-dʑɯ˩-ze˩
accomp _ pfv
搓了

bæ˩ dʑɯ˩˥
to twist (strings into) a rope
搓绳子

qʰv˩ɖʐæ˩ dʑɯ˥
to twist a string, a small rope
搓一根小绳子

ɖɯ˧-kʰwɤ˧ dʑɯ˥
to twist a little
搓一下
dʑɯ˩-æ̃˩tsɯ˧ noun Tone: L-LM.
classifier: ɭɯ˧ sandpiper. 鹬. animal.
dʑɯ˩dze˩ noun Tone: L.
classifier: nɑ˧ ladle_for_food. 舀汤的勺子. object.
dʑɯ˩gɤ˩di˩ noun Tone: L.
classifier: nɑ˧ shoulder_pole. 扁担. object.
dʑɯ˩gv˥ adjective Tone: LH.
stooping. 驼背. adjective.
dʑɯ˩gv˩ noun Tone: L.
classifier: ɭɯ˧ water_trough. 水槽. object.

pv˩-dʑɯ˩gv˩˥
dʑɯ˩hṽ˧˥ noun Tone: LM+MH#.
dough. 浆糊. food.
dʑɯ˩-hwæ˩tsɯ˥ noun Tone: L+H#.
shrew. 尖鼠. animal.
dʑɯ˩kʰi˩ noun Tone: L.
water_s_edge. 水边. natural environment.
dʑɯ˩kʰv˩ noun Tone: L.
moss. 青苔. plant.
dʑɯ˩nɑ˩hæ̃˩tʰɑ˩ noun Tone: L.
classifier: pɤ˩ water_mill. 水磨. object.
dʑɯ˩nɑ˩mi˩ noun Tone: L.
mountain_area. 深山老林. natural environment. See:
dʑɯ˩nɑ˩mi˩-ʁo˩ noun Tone: L.
mountain_area. 深山老林. natural environment. See:
dʑɯ˩pɤ˩-kv˧hĩ˩ noun Tone: L-L#.
spring. 水泉. natural environment.

dʑɯ˩pɤ˩-kv˧hĩ˩ | tʰi˧-di˩
there is a spring
有水泉
See:
dʑɯ˩pɤ˩qʰv˩ noun Tone: L.
spring. 水泉. natural environment. See:
dʑɯ˩pɤ˩tv˩qʰv˥ noun Tone: L+H#.
spring. 水泉. natural environment. See:
dʑɯ˩pʰæ˩ noun Tone: L.
classifier: pʰæ˧˥ ice. 冰. natural environment.
dʑɯ˩qʰæ˩ noun Tone: L.
cold_water. 凉水. food.
dʑɯ˩qʰwɤ˩-lv˩ noun Tone: L.
classifier: kɤ˧˥ marsh. 沼泽. natural environment.
dʑɯ˩ʁo˩ noun Tone: L.
mountain_area. 深山老林. natural environment. See:
dʑɯ˩ʁo˩-æ̃˧ noun Tone: L-M.
classifier: mi˩ quail. 鹌鹑. animal.
dʑɯ˩ʁo˩-bo˧ noun Tone: L-M.
classifier: mi˩ wild_boar. 野猪. animal. Syn: bo˩tv#˥
dʑɯ˩ʁo˩-dze˧ noun Tone: L-M.
wild_pepper. 野花椒. plant.
dʑɯ˩ʁo˩-hwɤ˩li˧ noun Tone: L-LM.
classifier: mi˩ wild_cat. 野猫. animal.
dʑɯ˩ʁo˩-ɬi˩bi˧ noun Tone: L-LM.
classifier: ɭɯ˧ Chinese_yam. 山药. plant.
dʑɯ˩ʁo˩-zɯ˩ noun Tone: L.
classifier: qɑ˩ classifier: po˧ classifier: botte; unité wild_herbs. 野草. plant.

ʈʂʰɯ˧ | dʑɯ˩ʁo˩-zɯ˩ ɲi˥.
dem _ cop
指示代词 _ 系词
dʑɯ˩si˩ noun Tone: L.
oriental_white_oak. 青冈树. plant. Syn: dzi˧dzi˧
dʑɯ˩so˩ noun Tone: L.
classifier: pʰæ˧˥ wave. 波浪. natural environment.

dʑɯ˩so˩ pʰv˩˥
there is a wave, a wave breaks
有波浪
dʑɯ˩ʂo˥ noun Tone: L+H#.
name_of_ritual. 仪式名. religion.

dʑɯ˩ʂo˥-tsɑ˩bɤ˩
flour used for ceremonies; it must not contain oatmeal. After the ceremony, it is thrown away (not eaten).
做仪式时所使用的面粉。这种面粉里不要含有燕麦。仪式结束后,面粉被扔掉。
dʑɯ˩tɤ˩ɻ˥ adjective Tone: L+H#.
moist. 湿. adjective.

dʑɯ˩tɤ˩ɻ˥ gv˩-ze˩
It got wet.
湿了!
dʑɯ˩tɕʰɯ˩lɑ˩qʰɑ˥ noun Tone: L+H#.
plum. 梅子. plant.
dʑɯ˩tɕʰɯ˩lɑ˩qʰæ˥ noun Tone: L+H#.
buckthorn. 沙棘. plant.
dʑɯ˩tsʰi˩ noun Tone: L.
hot_water. 热水. food.
dʑɯ˩tsʰi˩ʈʰɯ˩di˩ noun Tone: L.
classifier: ɭɯ˧ container_for_hot_water. 口杯. object.
dʑɯ˩ʈv˧ adjective Tone: LM.
to_be_a_hunchback. 驼背. adjective.

dʑɯ˩ʈv˧-ze˩
pfv
驼背了
dʑɯ˩zo˩ noun Tone: L.
classifier: kʰɯ˩ brook. 溪流. natural environment.
dʑɯ˩ʐv˩ verb Tone: L.
to_swim. 游泳. verb.
dʑɯ˧˥ adjective Tone: MH.
many/much. 多. adjective.

hĩ˧ dʑɯ˩
There are many people.
人多。