Titre de la page
 
na
Index d
dɑ˧ʝi˩
dɑ˧pɤ˧
dɑ˧pv#˥
dɑ˧pʰo˥
dɑ˧ʁwɤ#˥
dɑ˩
dɑ˩ b
dɑ˩kʰɤ˩
dɑ˩to#˥
dɑ˩to˩
dɑ˧˥
dɑ˧˥
dɑ˧˥
dɑ˧˥ b
dɤ˧-qo˧
dɤ˧-tʰv˧-gi#˥
dɤ˧-tʰv˧qo˧
dɤ˧-ʈʂʰɯ˧qo˧
di˧mi˧
di˧qo˧
di˧ɻæ˧
di˩ c
di˩ a
di˩-gɤ˩lɑ˥
di˩li˩
di˧˥
di˧˥
di˩˥
do˥
do˥
do˥ a
do˧
do˧
do˧bæ˧
do˧bv˧
do˩
do˩ b
do˩kv#˥
dv˥
dv˩
dv˩
dv˩ a
dv˩ b
dv˩bi˩
dv˩mi#˥
dv˩pʰæ˧
dv˩pʰv#˥
dv˩zo#˥
dv˩˧
dv˩˧
dzɑ˥
dzɑ˧ʈʂɤ#˥
dzɑ˩qʰwɤ˩
dze˥
dze˧bɤ˩
dze˧bo˧
dze˧dv˩
dze˧hi˧
dze˧kʰɤ˧˥
dze˧ɭɯ˧
dze˧ɭɯ˧-ɻ̃#˥
dze˧-ɻ̃#˥
dze˧-tɕʰi#˥
dze˧-ʈʂæ˥
dze˧ʈʂɯ˧
dze˧ʈʂʰɤ$˥
dze˩
dze˩ a
dze˩ a
dze˩ a
dze˩dʑɯ˧˥
dze˩mi˧
dze˩mi˧-bæ˩bæ˩
dze˩mi˧-dze#˥
dze˩mi˧-kʰv˩
dze˩mi˧-pv˥ɻ˩
dze˩˧
dzɤ˥ b
dzɤ˩ a
dzi˥
dzi˧ b
dzi˧dzi˧
dzi˧dzi˧-mo˧˥
dzi˧ɖæ˧
dzi˩
dzi˩
dzi˩ a
dzi˩ a
dzi˩ a
dzi˩ b
dzi˩ʁo˩
dzi˩tsʰɤ˩
dzi˧˥
dzo˥
dzo˧-lv˧~lv˥
dzo˧mi˧
dzo˧zo#˥
dzo˩
dzo˩~dzo˧˥
dzo˩mi#˥
dzo˩pʰv˩
dzo˩zo#˥
dzo˩˧
dzɯ˥
dzɯ˧tsɯ˧˥
dʑɤ˧bo˩
dʑɤ˧do˩
dʑɤ˩ b
dʑɤ˩bv˥
dʑɤ˩bv˥-di˩
dʑɤ˩bv˥-ʁwɤ˩
dʑɤ˩bv˧kɤ˧-sɑ˥ʁwɤ˩
dʑɤ˩ɕjɤ˩
dʑɤ˩kʰwɤ˧
dʑɤ˩pi#˥
dʑɤ˩qʰɑ˥
dʑɤ˩so˧
dʑɤ˩tsʰi#˥
dʑɤ˩tsʰi˧-ɖɯ˩mɑ˩
dʑɤ˩tsʰi˧-tsi˩mv˩
dʑɤ˩tsʰo#˥
dʑɤ˩tsʰo˧
dʑi˥
dʑi˥
dʑi˧hṽ˥$
dʑi˧mi#˥
dʑi˧zo#˥
dʑi˩wɤ˩
dʑo˧ b
dʑo˩ b
dʑɯ˧
dʑɯ˧dv˧
dʑɯ˧dze˧mi#˥
dʑɯ˧ki˥
dʑɯ˧-li˧
dʑɯ˧ɭɯ˧
dʑɯ˧mi˧
dʑɯ˧njɤ˧
dʑɯ˧qʰɑ˧
dʑɯ˧qʰv˧
dʑɯ˧qʰv˩
dʑɯ˧ʁo˩
dʑɯ˧ʈʂʰwæ#˥
dʑɯ˩
dʑɯ˩ a
dʑɯ˩-æ̃˩tsɯ˧
dʑɯ˩dze˩
dʑɯ˩gɤ˩di˩
dʑɯ˩gv˥
dʑɯ˩gv˩
dʑɯ˩hṽ˧˥
dʑɯ˩-hwæ˩tsɯ˥
dʑɯ˩kʰi˩
dʑɯ˩kʰv˩
dʑɯ˩nɑ˩hæ̃˩tʰɑ˩
dʑɯ˩nɑ˩mi˩
dʑɯ˩nɑ˩mi˩-ʁo˩
dʑɯ˩pɤ˩-kv˧hĩ˩
dʑɯ˩pɤ˩qʰv˩
dʑɯ˩pɤ˩tv˩qʰv˥
dʑɯ˩pʰæ˩
dʑɯ˩qʰæ˩
dʑɯ˩qʰwɤ˩-lv˩
dʑɯ˩ʁo˩
dʑɯ˩ʁo˩-æ̃˧
dʑɯ˩ʁo˩-bo˧
dʑɯ˩ʁo˩-dze˧
dʑɯ˩ʁo˩-hwɤ˩li˧
dʑɯ˩ʁo˩-ɬi˩bi˧
dʑɯ˩ʁo˩-zɯ˩
dʑɯ˩si˩
dʑɯ˩so˩
dʑɯ˩ʂo˥
dʑɯ˩tɤ˩ɻ˥
dʑɯ˩tɕʰɯ˩lɑ˩qʰɑ˥
dʑɯ˩tɕʰɯ˩lɑ˩qʰæ˥
dʑɯ˩tsʰi˩
dʑɯ˩tsʰi˩ʈʰɯ˩di˩
dʑɯ˩ʈv˧
dʑɯ˩zo˩
dʑɯ˩ʐv˩
dʑɯ˧˥
dɑ˧ʝi˩ noun Tone: L#.
classifier: mule. 骡子. animal.

dɑ˧ʝi˩-dʑo˩, | ɖɯ˩mi˧ dʑo˧-kv˥-mæ˩! | ɖɯ˩zo˧ dʑo˧-kv˥-mæ˩!
As for mules, there exist female mules, (and) male mules! / Among mules, there is a distinction between females and males! (Explanation provided to a city dweller on a visit, who knew precious little about animal breeding.)
骡子呢,有母骡子!(也)有公骡子! / 骡子,分母的和公的!(这个说明是给一个不懂畜牧业的城里人听)
dɑ˧pɤ˧ noun Tone: M.
classifier: priest_of_local_religion. 宗教礼师. society.

dɑ˧pɤ˧ ʝi˧-hĩ˧ hĩ˧
priest, person who performs the function of priest
当达巴的人
dɑ˧pv#˥ noun Tone: #H.
classifier: host. 主人. society.

ʑi˧dv˧ dɑ˧pv˧
the family host, the member of the family who has the role of host
家的主人

ʑi˧dv˧-ʝi˧-hĩ˧ dɑ˧pv˧
ditto
同上
dɑ˧pʰo˥ noun Tone: LH.
Dapo_village. 达坡村. place name.

ɖæ˩ʂɯ#˥, | ʈʂo˧ʂɯ#˥, | bɤ˩tɕʰɯ˩˥, | dɑ˧pʰo˥, | bɤ˧dzi˩, | dze˧bo˧
the six villages of the plain of Yongning, in traditional order: by order of increasing distance from the Lake
永宁坝的六个村落,按传统排序:从距离泸沽湖最近的村落说起。
dɑ˧ʁwɤ#˥ noun Tone: #H.
village_name. 一个村落. place name.
dɑ˩ adjective Tone: L.
happy. 安好. abstract.

mɤ˧-dɑ˩-qʰwɤ˩
Melancholy song; song telling of one's unhappiness. This is one of the genres of singing, lamenting one's hardships.
悲情歌,讲述自己日子痛苦

mɤ˧-dɑ˩!
Introductory formula for melancholy songs, and sometimes at the beginning of stories. (The same formula is also used in the Laze language.)
悲情歌的开头词

mɤ˧-dɑ˩-mi˩
As above: same meaning as the form without a fn:/-mi/ suffix.
同上

ɖwæ˧˥ | hɤ˩-dɑ˥! | ɖwæ˧˥ | hɤ˩˥!
Good job! / Well done! (Context: compliment to a toddler who has climbed on a piece of furniture.)
很了不起啊!(情景:表扬一个小孩子成功地爬上了一个家具)

ɖʐɯ˩dɑ˥-kʰɤ˩dɑ˩-ɻ˩
All is well. / All is for the best. (Used for instance to describe a period without food shortage, earthquake, epidemic, war or other catastrophe)
一切都安好。(如:来指一段时间没有饥荒、地震、流行病、战争等灾难)
dɑ˩ b verb Tone: Lb.
to_weave. 织. verb.

ɣɯ˧ dɑ˩
to weave fabric
织布

ɣɯ˧ | le˧-dɑ˩
to weave fabric
织布

tso˧~tso˧ dɑ˩
to weave things
织东西

ɖɯ˧-dɑ˧~dɑ˩-ɻ˩
delimitative _ red inceptive
织一下
dɑ˩kʰɤ˩ noun Tone: L.
classifier: ɭɯ˧ drum. 鼓. music.

dɑ˩kʰɤ˩ lɑ˥(-ze˩)
to play a drum
打鼓
dɑ˩to#˥ adverb Tone: LM+#H.
politely. 客气地. abstract.

dɑ˩to˧ ʐwɤ˧˥
to say some polite things
说客气话

dɑ˩to˧ ʐwɤ˧-hĩ˥-lɑ˩ ɲi˩!
It's just polite words! (Comment about an invitation by a neighbour, which was intended to be declined: it was not a true invitation.)
这只是客气话而已!
dɑ˩to˩ adverb Tone: L.
at_bottom. 归根结底. morphosyntax.
dɑ˧˥ noun Tone: MH.
misfortune. 苦、不幸、悲戚. abstract.

dɑ˧-ʐwɤ˧˥
to complain, to tell one's misfortunes
诉苦

ɻ̃˧-ʐwɤ˧ | dɑ˧-ʐwɤ˧-ɻ˥
to bemoan one's misfortunes
讲自己的不幸

ʈʂʰɯ˧ | mɑ˧dɑ˩-qʰwɤ˩, | ɻ̃˧-ʐwɤ˧ | dɑ˧-ʐwɤ˧-ɻ˥!
(S)he is unhappy; (s)he is constantly complaining!
他不幸福,他一直在诉苦!
dɑ˧˥ verb Tone: MH.
to_build. 建. verb.

ʑi˧mi˧ dɑ˧˥
to build a house
建房
dɑ˧˥ verb Tone: MH.
to_fell/to_cut. 砍/宰. verb.

le˧-dɑ˧-ze˥
accomp _ pfv
砍了(树),割了(肉)

ɖɯ˧-dɑ˧ tʰi˥-dɑ˩
to hit a blow
砍一下

dɑ˩~dɑ˧˥
red
重叠

le˧-dɑ˩~dɑ˩(-ze˩)
(I) have cut (e.g. a chicken) into pieces
(我把一只鸡)割成块了

ʂe˧ dɑ˥~dɑ˩
to cut meat to pieces, to mince meat
把肉剁碎
dɑ˧˥ b classifier Tone: MHb.
clf .blows . 量词 .下(打一下) . classifier.

ɖɯ˧-dɑ˧˥
a blow
当头一棒

ɖɯ˧-dɑ˧ tʰi˥-dɑ˩
to strike a blow, to give a blow
打一下
dɤ˧-qo˧ adverb Tone: M.
way over there. 那里(远指). space.
dɤ˧-tʰv˧-gi#˥ adverb Tone: #H.
way_over_there. 那边(远指). space.
dɤ˧-tʰv˧qo˧ adverb Tone: M.
way_over_there. 那边(远指). space. See: dɤ˧-ʈʂʰɯ˧qo˧
dɤ˧-ʈʂʰɯ˧qo˧ adverb Tone: M.
way_over_there. 那边(远指). space. See: dɤ˧-tʰv˧qo˧
di˧mi˧ noun Tone: M.
classifier: di˩ large_plain. 平坝. natural environment.

ɬi˧di˩-di˩mi˩
the plain of Yongning
永宁坝
di˧qo˧ noun Tone: M.
classifier: di˩ plain. 平坝. natural environment.
di˧ɻæ˧ noun Tone: M.
classifier: di˩ plain. 平坝. natural environment.
di˩ c classifier Tone: Lc.
clf .plains/places . 量词 .坝子/地方 . classifier.

ɖɯ˧-v˧ | ɖɯ˧-di˩ hɯ˩
to separate, each going their separate ways
分开,每个人去不同的地方
di˩ a verb Tone: La.
exist .spatial . 存在动词 .有 . verb.

ʈʰɯ˧ ɑ˩ʁo˧ mɤ˧-di˩-hĩ˩.
(S)he does not have a home. / (S)he is homeless.
他没有家。

mɤ˧ tʰi˧-di˩
there is grease (eg there is grease around the mouth of someone who has been biting away at large slabs of meat)
有油(例如:一个人的嘴巴周围油乎乎,有油)

ɖɯ˧-kʰwɤ˧ di˥
there is something
有一块东西
di˩-gɤ˩lɑ˥ noun Tone: L+H#.
classifier: earth_spirit. 地菩萨. religion.
di˩li˩ noun Tone: L.
classifier: qɑ˩ bracken. 海菜花. plant.

di˩li˩-ʁo˩bv˥ (ton: L+H#)
dandy shoots
海菜花的萌芽

di˩li˩-ʁo˩bv˥ hwæ˩
to buy dandy shoots
买海菜花萌芽

di˩li˩-ʁo˩bv˥ tɕʰi˩
to sell dandy shoots
卖海菜花萌芽

di˩li˩-ʁo˩bv˥ dzɯ˩
to eat dandy shoots
吃海菜花萌芽

di˩li˩-ʁo˩bv˥ dze˩
to cut dandy shoots
割海菜花萌芽

di˩li˩-ʁo˩bv˥ tɕɤ˩
to boil dandy shoots
煮海菜花萌芽
di˧˥ verb Tone: MH.
to_drive_out/away. 赶. verb.

tɕʰɯ˩di˩˥
to hunt the muntjac; to hunt
赶麂子,狩猎

tɕʰɯ˩di˩-bi˩-ni˩gv˩˥
to have a habit of hunting, to have a fondness for hunting
有打猎的习惯、喜欢打猎

di˩~di˧˥ / di˩~di˧-ze˥
red : to hunt, to track
重叠:跟着、追着

tʰi˧-di˩~di˩
dur red
dur red
di˧˥ verb Tone: MH.
to_run/to_flow. 拉(肚子). verb.

bi˧mi˧ di˧˥
to have diarrhea
拉肚子
di˩˥ noun Tone: LH.
classifier: di˩ earth. 地. natural environment.

di˩ dv˩-ze˥
to dig the earth
挖土

di˩ hwæ˧-ze˩
bought some earth
买了土

ɖɯ˧-di˩ ɖɯ˩-bæ˩!
Each place is different! (In particular, each place has its own pronunciation: its own dialect of the Na language)
一个地方,一个样! = 每个地方有自己的特色(如:每个村落有自己的摩梭方言/土语)
do˥ verb Tone: H.
to_climb. 爬. verb.

ʈʂo˩bo˩ do˩˥
to climb a wall
爬墙

gɤ˩-do˧
to escalate, to climb up
爬上

ʁwɤ˩ do˩˥
to climb a mountain, to go hiking in the mountains
爬山

to˩ do˩˥
to ascend a slope, to climb a slope
爬上一个山坡
do˥ verb Tone: H.
to_mate_with. 交配. verb.

bo˩ɬɑ˥ | bo˩mi˧ do˧
The pig mates with the sow.
公猪与母猪交配。
do˥ a classifier Tone: Ha.
clf .partitions/walls . 量词:墙壁. classifier.

ʈʂʰɯ˧-do#˥
this partition/wall
这堵(墙壁)
do˧ adjective Tone: M.
stupid. 愚蠢. adjective.

zo˩ do˩˥
idiot, village idiot
傻瓜
do˧ adjective Tone: M.
sterile. 不能生育. adjective.
do˧bæ˧ noun Tone: M.
classifier: ʈv˩ thigh. 大腿. body.

do˧bæ˧ | ɖɯ˩-hĩ˩˥
thigh
大腿

do˧bæ˧ | tɕi˩-hĩ˩˥
calf
小腿
do˧bv˧ noun Tone: M.
classifier: ɭɯ˧ buttocks. 屁股. body.
do˩ adjective Tone: L.
immature. 不成熟. adjective.

ŋwɤ˩ɬi˩-mi˩˥, | ʂe˧ mɤ˧-mv˥, | ʂe˧ do˧˥! | tsʰe˩ŋwɤ˩ kʰv˥, | zo˧ mɤ˧-ti˩, | zo˧ do˧˥!
In the fifth month, if cereals are still green (=if they do not yet yield grain), the crop is immature (and may not yield any harvest). At age 15, if a boy does not become an adult (=if a boy does not visit girls), he is immature (he is not developing normally)!
五月份,谷物还是小草(还不出谷粒),算是晚熟!男人十五岁还不成熟(=还不见姑娘),算是晚熟!
do˩ b verb Tone: Lb.
to_see. 见. verb.

ɖɯ˧-do˥~do˩-ɻ˩
delimitative _ red inceptive
见一见

ɖɯ˧-kʰwɤ˧ do˧˥
to see a piece
看见一块(东西)

tso˧~tso˧ do˧˥
to see things, to see something
看见东西

do˩-mɤ˩-ho˥
_ neg desiderative
不许(看)见

bo˩mi˧ do˩ (+ze˩)
...has seen (a/the) sow
看见了母猪
do˩kv#˥ noun Tone: LM+#H.
classifier: ɭɯ˧ small_beams. 小梁子. house.
dv˥ verb Tone: H.
to_dig. 挖. verb.

ʈʂe˧ dv˧(-ze˩)
to dig the earth
挖土
dv˩ classifier Tone: L *.
clf .flocks . 量词 .群 . classifier.
dv˩ pronoun Tone: L?.
dem .dist.direction . 指示代词:那边(远指). morphosyntax.

dv˩-tɕo˧
that way
那个方向
dv˩ a verb Tone: La.
to_poison. 毒害. verb.

ʈʂʰɯ˧, | hĩ˧ dv˥-mɤ˩-kv˩! | ʈʂʰɯ˧, | hĩ˧ dv˥-kv˩!
This one is not poisonous / is edible (literally "this one does not poison people")! That one [on the other hand] is poisonous / is not edible! (About different sorts of mushrooms.)
这个,不会让人中毒!那个(反倒)会让人中毒!(情景:谈不同菌子种类。)

ʈʂʰɯ˧, | dv˩-mɤ˩-kv˥!
This one is not poisonous / is edible (literally "this one does not poison people")! (About a mushroom species.)
这个,不会让人中毒!(情景:谈不同菌子种类。)

to_hate. 讨厌. verb.

le˧-dv˩-ze˩

njɤ˧ | ʈʂʰɯ˧ dv˥ | ʐwæ˩˥!
I hate him/her!
我很讨厌他!

dv˩-zo˧-mɤ˧-tʰɑ˧˥
to hate deeply
讨厌得不行
See: dv˩˧2
dv˩ b classifier Tone: Lb.
clf .groups . 量词 .一些 . classifier.

hĩ˧ ɖɯ˧-dv˩
a few people, a group of people
一些人

hĩ˧ ʈʂʰɯ˧-dv˥
these people, this group of people
这些人
dv˩bi˩ adverb Tone: L.
opposite. 对面. space.
dv˩mi#˥ noun Tone: LM+#H.
classifier: mi˩ female_weasel. 母黄鼠狼. animal.

dv˩mi˧-dv˥pʰv˩
female weasel and male weasel
母黄鼠狼与公黄鼠狼
dv˩pʰæ˧ noun Tone: LM.
classifier: ɭɯ˧ granary. 仓廪. house.
dv˩pʰv#˥ noun Tone: LM+#H / LM.
classifier: mi˩ male_weasel. 公黄鼠狼. animal.
dv˩zo#˥ noun Tone: LM+#H / LM.
baby_weasel. 黄鼠狼的崽子. animal.
dv˩˧ noun Tone: LM.
classifier: mi˩ weasel. 黄鼠狼. animal.

dv˩ hwæ˧-ze˧
...bought (a) weasel
买了黄鼠狼

dv˩ dzɯ˧-ze˩
...ate a weasel
吃了黄鼠狼
dv˩˧ noun Tone: LM.
: ʈʰɤ˥ poison. 毒. object. See: dv˩a
dzɑ˥ adjective Tone: H.
adjective.
bad. 坏.

ʈʂʰɯ˧-ɳɯ˧ | njɤ˧-ki˧ | dzɑ˧-ʝi˧ | ʐwæ˩˥!
He really despises me!
他很瞧不起我!

hĩ˧ ʈʂʰɯ˧-v˧ dʑo˩, | õ˧-ki˥ | dzɑ˧-ʝi˧-ze˩!
This person has no self-respect! (literally: This person is doing herself harm)
这个人,不尊重自己!

mv˧ dzɑ˧.
The weather is bad.
天气很坏。

mv˧ dzɑ˧-ze˩
The weather is getting bad.
天气变坏了。

lo˧ dzɑ˧
poor (work), bad (job: e.g. someone has done a bad job)
(工作)差

poor. 穷.

dzɑ˧ | -ʐwæ˩-ze˥!
(He/she) is really poor!
他很穷!
dzɑ˧ʈʂɤ#˥ adjective Tone: #H.
destitute. 穷苦. adjective.

ɑ˩ʁo˧ | bo˩ʈʂʰæ˧ mɤ˧-dʑo˧, | dzɑ˧ʈʂɤ˧-kv˩!
If there is no fleshless preserved pork at home, it appears as if the family is really destitute!
如果家里没有猪膘,会显得很穷!

dzɑ˧ʈʂɤ˧ | ʐwæ˩˥!
It's really a shame / it's really something to be ashamed of! (Talking about a socially stigmatized situation, such as not having the required food items or pieces of clothing for important ceremonies.)
真羞耻啊!
dzɑ˩qʰwɤ˩ noun Tone: L.
classifier: dzi˧ shoe. 鞋. clothing.
dze˥ noun Tone: #H.
sugar. 糖. food.
dze˧bɤ˩ noun Tone: L#.
classifier: mi˩ bat. 蝙蝠/飞鼠. animal.

dze˧bɤ˩-zo˩ | ɖɯ˧-ɭɯ˧
a baby bat
一只小蝙蝠

dze˧bɤ˩-pʰv˩ | ɖɯ˧-mi˩
a male bat
一只公蝙蝠

dze˧bɤ˩-mi˩ | ɖɯ˧-mi˩
a female bat
一只母蝙蝠
dze˧bo˧ noun Tone: M.
family_name. 一个姓. given name.

dze˧bo˧=ɻ˩
the /dze˧bo˧/ clan, the /dze˧bo˧/ family
者波家族

village_name. 者波村.

ɖæ˩ʂɯ#˥, | ʈʂo˧ʂɯ#˥, | bɤ˩tɕʰɯ˩˥, | dɑ˧pʰo˥, | bɤ˧dzi˩, | dze˧bo˧
the six villages of the plain of Yongning, in traditional order: by order of increasing distance from the Lake
永宁坝的六个村落,按传统排序:从距离泸沽湖最近的村落说起。
dze˧dv˩ noun Tone: L#.
cake/bread. 饼. food.

dze˧dv˩-pɤ˩jɤ˩
cake of cereals
粮食饼
dze˧hi˧ noun Tone: M.
in_laws. 丈人. society.

njɤ˧ | dze˧hi˧-ki˩ bi˩!
I'm going to my in-laws' place! / I'm going to visit my in-laws!
我去我丈人(那边)!

no˧ | dze˧hi˧ | ə˩-to˩-ze˥? - le˧-to˩-ze˩!
Do you have in-laws? / Do you stand in an 'in-law' relationship? (=Are you married?) - Yes, I have entered into such a relationship! (=Yes, I am married!)
你有丈人吗?(=你结婚了吗?)-有的!(=结婚了!)

no˧ | dze˧hi˧ to˩ ə˩-bi˩?
Do you have plans to get married? (Literally: Are you going to enter an 'in-law' relationship?)
你打算结婚吗?
dze˧kʰɤ˧˥ noun Tone: MH#.
classifier: commoner. 百姓. society.
dze˧ɭɯ˧ noun Tone: M.
wheat. 小麦. plant.
dze˧ɭɯ˧-ɻ̃#˥ noun Tone: #H.
wheat_straw. 麦杆. plant.
dze˧-ɻ̃#˥ noun Tone: #H.
wheat_straw. 小麦秆. plant.
dze˧-tɕʰi#˥ noun Tone: #H.
wheat_beard. 麦芒. plant.
dze˧-ʈʂæ˥ noun Tone: H#.
classifier: ɭɯ˧ sting_organ. 蜜蜂的螫針. animal.
dze˧ʈʂɯ˧ noun Tone: M.
classifier: nɑ˧ sieve. 筛子. object.
dze˧ʈʂʰɤ$˥ noun Tone: H$.
cereals. 粮食. agriculture.
dze˩ verb Tone: L.
to_be_left_over. 剩下. morphosyntax.

dzɯ˧-dze˥-ze˩!
There are some leftovers! / The food has not been eaten up!
剩了一些饭!/ 剩了一些吃的!

gɤ˩-dze˥ +ze˩!
There are some leftovers!
有剩下的!

ʈʰɯ˩ dze˩-ze˥
Some of the drink is left over! / (The drink) has not been drunk up!
喝剩了、没喝完

le˧-se˩-ze˩! | gɤ˩-mɤ˧-dze˩!
It's completely finished (=eaten up / drunk up)! There are no leftovers!
完了!(=全部吃/喝完了!)没有剩!
dze˩ a classifier Tone: La.
clf .packs_of_two . 量词 .瓶子/锅 . classifier.

zo˧mv˥ | ɖɯ˧-dze˩
twins (literally: 'a pair of children') (F5)
双胞胎(直译:“一对孩子”)

ʈʂʰɯ˧-dze˥
dem _ (tone: H# / H$)
指示代词 _
dze˩ a verb Tone: La.
to_fly. 飞. verb.

le˧-dze˩-hɯ˩-ze˩
(The bird) has flown away.
(鸟)飞走了。

mv˧ʁo˧ dze˧˥
to fly in the sky
在天空中飞
dze˩ a verb Tone: La.
to_cut. 切. verb.

le˧-dze˩
accomp
accomp

dze˧~dze˥
red
red

le˧-dze˧~dze˥
accomp _ red
accomp _ red

v˩tsʰɤ˧ dze˧~dze˥
to cut vegetables
切菜

nv˩dʑɯ˥ dze˩~dze˩
to cut tofu
切豆腐
dze˩dʑɯ˧˥ adjective Tone: LM+MH#.
arrogant. 骄傲. adjective.

ʈʂʰɯ˧ | hĩ˧-bi˥ | mɤ˧-li˧! | dze˩dʑɯ˧˥ | ʐwæ˧˥!
He despises others! He is very arrogant!
他看不起别人!他很骄傲!
dze˩mi˧ noun Tone: LM.
classifier: mi˩ bee. 蜜蜂. animal.
dze˩mi˧-bæ˩bæ˩ noun Tone: L#.
classifier: bæ˩ Artemisia_suboligata. 茶绒蒿. plant.
dze˩mi˧-dze#˥ noun Tone: LM+#H.
classifier: kʰwɤ˥ Etym: dze˩mi˧; dze˥. honey. 蜂蜜. animal.

dze˩mi˧dze˧ dzɯ˧
to eat honey
吃蜂蜜
dze˩mi˧-kʰv˩ noun Tone: LM-L.
classifier: ɭɯ˧ beehive. 蜂窝. animal.
dze˩mi˧-pv˥ɻ˩ noun Tone: LM+#H.
straight_ladybell. 沙参. plant.

dze˩mi˧-pv˥ɻ˩-kʰɯ˩ʈɯ˩
root of straight ladybell
沙参根
dze˩˧ noun Tone: LM.
classifier: mɤ˩ classifier: un peu wild_pepper. 花椒. plant.
dzɤ˥ b classifier Tone: Hb.
clf .sides . 量词 .面 . classifier.

ʈʂʰɯ˧-dzɤ˧
this side
这面

ɖɯ˧-dzɤ˥
one side
一面
dzɤ˩ a verb Tone: La.
to_collapse. 塌毁. verb.

mv˩tɕo˧ dzɤ˩
same meaning: to collapse
同上:塌毁

le˧-dzɤ˩-ze˩
accomp _ pfv
塌毁了
dzi˥ noun Tone: #H.
classifier: ɭɯ˧ (*nɑ˧) chisel. 凿子. object.
dzi˧ b classifier Tone: Mb.
clf .pairs_as_units . 量词 .鞋 . classifier.

ɣɯ˩-dzɑ˩qʰwɤ˥ | ɖɯ˧-dzi˧
a pair of leather shoes
一双皮鞋
dzi˧dzi˧ noun Tone: M.
oriental_white_oak. 青冈树. plant.

dzi˧dzi˧, | si˧dzi˩-mv˩!
/dzi˧dzi˧/ is the name of a tree!
/dzi˧dzi˧/是一种树的名字!
Syn:
dzi˧dzi˧-mo˧˥ noun Tone: MH#.
edible_mushroom_sp. 一种可以吃的菌子. plant.
dzi˧ɖæ˧ noun Tone: M.
classifier: kʰwɤ˥ location. 位置. house.
dzi˩ verb Tone: L.
to_come(of_night). 来(晚上来了). time.

nɑ˩˥ | le˧-dzi˩-ze˩!
The night has fallen! / It has got dark!
天黑了!

nɑ˩˥ | le˧-dzi˩ | le˧-se˩-ze˩!
It has got completely dark!
天完全黑了!
dzi˩ classifier Tone: Lc.
clf .costumes . 量词 .套 . classifier.

dʑi˧hṽ˥ | ɖɯ˧-dzi˩
a full set of dress, a complete dress
一套衣服

dʑi˧hṽ˧ ɖɯ˧-dzi˩
a full set of dress, a complete dress (same as preceding example, integrated into a single tone group)
一套衣服(同上,但将短语合在一起,构成一个单一的声调短语)
dzi˩ a verb Tone: La.
to_sit. 坐. verb.

tʰi˧-dzi˩!
Sit down!
坐下!

hĩ˧bæ˧ ʈʂʰɯ˧-qo˧ dzi˩.
The guest sits here.
客人是坐在这边的。

(ʈʂʰɯ˧ | ) tʰi˧-dzi˩-kʰɯ˩-se˩.
(S)he has got seated.
他坐下了。

le˧-dzi˧~dzi˥
to remain seated; used as a euphemism to mean: to sit with others at a funeral wake, to keep a deathwatch
坐一坐。来指:居丧、守灵(委婉语)

to_dwell. 住. verb.

dzi˩-bi˩-ni˩gv˩
to be accustomed to; to get accustomed to, to feel at ease, to adapt (to an environment)
习惯(一个新的环境、一个地方的饮食……)

dzi˩-bi˩-ni˩-mɤ˩-gv˩˥
not to get accustomed; to feel awkward
不习惯

njɤ˧ | ʈʂʰɯ˧-qo˧ | dzi˩-bi˩-ni˩-mɤ˩-gv˩˥
I can't get accustomed (to this place)! / (I) can't make myself at ease here! / (I) don't like it here!
我不习惯这里! / 我不喜欢这里! / 我不想待了!
dzi˩ a verb Tone: La.
to_gather. 聚集. verb.

ɖɯ˧-ʁwɤ˧ | le˧-dzi˧~dzi˥
the whole village gathered together
全村都聚集在一起

hĩ˧ ɖɯ˧-v˧ | le˧-ʂɯ˧-ze˧! le˧-dzi˧~dzi˥ jo˩!
Someone has passed away! Come and join the gathering!
一个人去世了!来参加丧礼吧!
dzi˩ a verb Tone: La.
to_sink. 掉入. verb.

mv˩tɕo˧ dzi˩
to sink down
往下掉入、沉下去
dzi˩ b classifier Tone: Lb.
clf .trees . 量词 .树 . classifier.

si˧dzi˩ | ɖɯ˧-dzi˩
a tree
一棵树

tʰv˧-dzi˧˥
that tree
那棵树
dzi˩ʁo˩ noun Tone: L.
classifier: kʰwɤ˥ seat. 座位. house.
dzi˩tsʰɤ˩ noun Tone: L.
classifier: dzi˩ shrub_sp. 一种灌木. plant.
dzi˧˥ verb Tone: MH.
to_tremble. 颤抖. verb.

njɤ˩ dzi˧˥
the eyelid trembles (literally 'the eye trembles')
眼皮跳

njɤ˩ dzi˧-ze˥
the eyelid trembles
眼皮跳

njɤ˩ dzi˧˥ | ʐwæ˩˥
the eyelid trembles terribly
眼皮跳得很厉害

njɤ˩˥ | le˧-dzi˧-ze˥
the eyelid trembles
眼皮跳

njɤ˩˥ | mɤ˧-dzi˧˥
the eyelid does not tremble
眼皮不跳
dzo˥ noun Tone: #H.
hail. 冰雹. natural environment.

dzo˧ lɑ˩
there is some hail
下冰雹

dzo˧ gi˧-ze˩
there is some hail
下冰雹了
dzo˧-lv˧~lv˥ noun Tone: H#.
classifier: ɭɯ˧ hailstone. 冰雹. natural environment.
dzo˧mi˧ noun Tone: M.
classifier: ɭɯ˧ large_vat. 大桶. object.
dzo˧zo#˥ noun Tone: #H.
classifier: ɭɯ˧ small_vat. 小桶. object.
dzo˩ noun Tone: L.
classifier: pɤ˩ classifier: nɑ˧ bridge. 桥. object.

dzo˧ | ɖɯ˧ pɤ˩
a bridge
一辆桥

dzo˩ bæ˩˥
to sweep (a/the) bridge
扫桥

njɤ˧ | dzo˩ bæ˩-zo˩-ho˥.
I have to sweep the bridge.
我要扫桥了。

dzo˩ gv˩˥
to build (/repair) a bridge
建一辆桥

njɤ˧ | dzo˩ gv˩-zo˩-ho˥.
I have to build (/repair) a bridge.
dzo˩~dzo˧˥ verb Tone: MH.
to_laugh_at. 嘲笑. verb.

hĩ˧ dzo˧-dzo˥-ho˩-ni˩zo˩!
It looks like (he/she) is going to poke fun (at...)
他好像要开始取笑人家了!

tʰɑ˧ dzo˩~dzo˩!
Don't laugh at people!
别嘲笑(人家)!
dzo˩mi#˥ noun Tone: LM+#H.
classifier: mi˩ female_lizard. 母壁虎. animal.

dzo˧mi˧-dzo˩pʰv˩
female lizard and male lizard
母壁虎与公壁虎
dzo˩pʰv˩ noun Tone: L.
classifier: mi˩ classifier: ɭɯ˧ male_lizard. 公壁虎. animal.

dzo˩pʰv˩-dzo˩mi˥
male lizard and female lizard
公壁虎与母壁虎
dzo˩zo#˥ noun Tone: LM+#H.
classifier: mi˩ classifier: ɭɯ˧ baby_lizard. 小壁虎. animal.
dzo˩˧ noun Tone: LM.
classifier: mi˩ lizard. 壁虎. animal.

dzo˩ hwæ˧-ze˧
...bought (a) lizard
买了壁虎

dzo˩ dzɯ˧-ze˩
...ate (a) lizard
吃了壁虎
dzɯ˥ verb Tone: H.
to_eat. 吃. verb.

le˧-dzɯ˥
accomp
实施

hɑ˧ dzɯ˧
to have a meal; to take some food
吃饭

njɤ˧ | hɑ˧ le˧-dzɯ˥-ze˩
I have eaten. / I have had a meal.
我吃过饭了。

dzɯ˧-di˧˥
food, thing to eat
吃的(东西)

dzɯ˧-bi˩-ze˩!
Let's eat! / It's time to eat!
要吃饭了!
dzɯ˧tsɯ˧˥ noun Tone: MH#.
classifier: pʰæ˧˥ shrub_sp. 一种灌木. plant.
dʑɤ˧bo˩ noun Tone: L#.
classifier: ɭɯ˧ granary. 粮仓. house.
dʑɤ˧do˩ noun Tone: L#.
Zhongdian. 中甸. place name.

dʑɤ˧do˩-bɤ˩
the Pumi people of Zhongdian
中甸普米族
dʑɤ˩ b adjective Tone: Lb.
good(decision). 好. adjective.

mɤ˧-dʑɤ˩
bad

dʑɤ˩-hĩ˥
rel
rel

(no˧) ɖwæ˧˥ | dʑɤ˩˥!
You're great!
你很好!

dʑɤ˩-kʰɯ˥!
A benediction used on the New Year: "Let there be good (things)!", i.e. "Prosperity!", "All the best for the New Year!"
新年祝福:“祝一切好! / 万事如意!”
dʑɤ˩bv˥ verb Tone: LH.
to_play. 玩. verb.

dʑɤ˩bv˥ -bi˩/-ze˩
_ fut .imm/ pfv
要玩耍 / 玩耍了

le˧-dʑɤ˩bv˩ +ze˩
accomp _ pfv
玩耍了

tʰi˧-dʑɤ˩bv˩, | tʰi˧-dʑɤ˩bv˩, | le˧-fv˧!
They play, they play... they're happy! / (By) playing on and on, they get really happy! (About children playing together)
他们玩着玩着,很高兴!(情景:几个小孩子一起玩)
dʑɤ˩bv˥-di˩ noun Tone: LH-.
toy. 玩具. object.
dʑɤ˩bv˥-ʁwɤ˩ noun Tone: LH-.
Jiabowa. 甲波瓦村. place name.
dʑɤ˩bv˧kɤ˧-sɑ˥ʁwɤ˩ noun Tone: LM+MH#-.
village_name. 高明村. place name.

dʑɤ˩bv˧kɤ˧-sɑ˥ʁwɤ˩, | hi˩ʁwɤ˩-lo˥, | æ˩mi˧-ʁwɤ#˥, | lɑ˧lo˧-ʁwɤ˥, | lɑ˧ŋwɤ˧, | bɤ˧tsʰo˧gv˥, | ə˧lɑ˧-ʁwɤ#˥, | gæ˧ɻæ˩, | qʰæ˧tɕʰi˧, | tʰo˧ʈɯ#˥
the ten villages traditionally considered as part of Yongning
摩梭传统地理概念中,属于永宁的十个村落之一
dʑɤ˩ɕjɤ˩ noun Tone: L.
insole. 鞋垫. clothing.
dʑɤ˩kʰwɤ˧ noun Tone: LM.
distance. 距离. space.

no˧ | ʈʂʰɯ˧ | ə˩-ʐæ˥ʂæ˩? | dʑɤ˩kʰwɤ˧ ə˩-di˩? | - dʑɤ˩˥ | dʑɤ˩kʰwɤ˧ mɤ˧-di˥! | mɤ˧-ʐæ˩ʂæ˩!
Are you distant from him? Is there distance (between you)? - There is not much distance to speak of! We are not distant! (=we are close friends)
你们很熟吗?/ 你们很亲吗? - 不很熟!/ 不很亲!
dʑɤ˩pi#˥ adjective Tone: LM+#H.
plenty_of. 多. adjective.

dʑɤ˩pi˧ ʝi˧
It's very useful!
很有用、有很多用处

dʑɤ˩pi˧ dʑo˧!
(I) have plenty! / (I) have a lot! (possession)
我有很多!

dʑɤ˩pi˧ dʑo˧˥
There is plenty / there is a lot. (Note: existence, and not possession)
有很多。
dʑɤ˩qʰɑ˥ adverb Tone: LH.
with_full_might. 一个劲地. morphosyntax.

dʑɤ˩qʰɑ˥ ʈɤ˩
to pull with full might
一个劲地拉

dʑɤ˩qʰɑ˥ mi˩
to push with full might
一个劲地推

dʑɤ˩qʰɑ˥ lɑ˩
to beat with full might
一个劲地打
dʑɤ˩so˧ adjective Tone: LM.
many. 好几(个). morphosyntax.

dʑɤ˩-so˧ ɲi˧
many days; a long time
好几天
dʑɤ˩tsʰi#˥ noun Tone: LM+#H.
masculine_given_name. 男性名字. given name.
dʑɤ˩tsʰi˧-ɖɯ˩mɑ˩ noun Tone: LM-L.
feminine_given_name. 女性名字. given name.
dʑɤ˩tsʰi˧-tsi˩mv˩ noun Tone: LM-L.
classifier: dzi˩ prayer_flag. 经幡. religion.
dʑɤ˩tsʰo#˥ noun Tone: LM+#H.
housewarming_party. 乔迁庆宴. society.

ʑi˧qʰwɤ˧-ʂɯ˧-qo˧ | dʑɤ˩tsʰo˧ ʁɑ˧ ʂe˩
to throw a housewarming party in a newly built house
在新房子举办乔迁宴会
dʑɤ˩tsʰo˧ verb Tone: LM.
to_dance. 跳舞. verb.

ʈʂʰɯ˧ | dʑɤ˩tsʰo˧ mɤ˧-dʑɤ˩!
(S)he does not dance well!
他舞跳得不好!

dʑɤ˩tsʰo˧ | ɖɯ˧-hɑ̃˧ tsʰo˧
to dance all evening, to dance a whole night
跳一整夜舞
dʑi˥ noun Tone: #H.
urine. 尿. body.

dʑi˧ bæ˥
to sweep urine
扫尿

dʑi˧-lɑ˩ | qʰæ˧
excrements: urine and faeces
大小便的统称
dʑi˥ noun Tone: H.
classifier: ɭɯ˧ clothes. 衣服. clothing.

kʰv˧ʂɯ˥, | dʑi˧ qæ˧!
On New Year's Eve, one changes one's clothing / one wears new clothes!
过年,换衣服! / 过年,要穿新衣服!

dʑi˧ qæ˧-ze˩!
(He/she) has changed clothes!
换衣服了!

nɑ˩-dʑi#˥
Na clothing
摩梭服装

hæ˧-dʑi#˥
Chinese (Han) clothing
汉族服装
dʑi˧hṽ˥$ noun Tone: H$.
classifier: ɭɯ˧ clothes. 衣服. clothing.
dʑi˧mi#˥ noun Tone: #H.
classifier: pʰo˧˥ female_water_buffalo. 母水牛. animal.

dʑi˧mi˧ tʰv˧-pʰo˩
n + dem + clf
这头母水牛

dʑi˧mi˧-dʑi˧zo#˥ / dʑi˧mi˧-dʑi˥zo˩
female water buffalo and male water buffalo
母水牛与公水牛
dʑi˧zo#˥ noun Tone: #H.
classifier: ɭɯ˧ male_baby_buffalo. 小水牛. animal.

dʑi˧zo˧ tʰv˧-ɭɯ#˥
n + dem + clf
这只水牛崽子
dʑi˩wɤ˩ noun Tone: L.
classifier: dze˩ stirrup. 马镫. object.
dʑo˧ b verb Tone: Mb.
exist .to_have/to_be_there . 有/拥有. verb.

mɤ˧-dʑo˧-ze˧!
There isn't any left!
没有了!

le˧-dʑo˧-ze˧!
There is some, now!
有了!

ʈʂʰɯ˧ | ɑ˩ʁo˧ | ɖɯ˧-sɑ˥ | mɤ˧-dʑo˧!
At his home, they have nothing at all = he is needy
他家什么也没有 = 他家贫穷

njɤ˧ | mv˩zɯ˩-ni˥mi˩ | ŋi˧-kv˧ dʑo˧˥!
I have two siblings!
我有两个兄弟姐妹!

dʑo˧-tʰɑ˧˥!
There could be some! / It's possible that there will be some!
会有的!

tso˧~tso˧ dʑo˧
he has some things
他有东西

njɤ˧-ɻ˩, | ɖɯ˧-ɭɯ˧-lɑ˧ dʑo˥!
We only have one (child)!
我们只有一个(孩子)!

ɖwæ˧˥ | dʑo˧-ɲi˥!
There are lots! (For instance, when preparing to build a house, one needs large quantities of lumber; someone may comment: "There are lots!")
有很多!(如:准备建房,积累的木材有很多)
dʑo˩ b verb Tone: Lb.
exist .animated_beings . 存在动词 .有/在 . verb.

mɤ˧-dʑo˩
neg
没有、不在

ʈʂʰɯ˧ | ɑ˩ʁo˧ mɤ˧-dʑo˩!
(S)he is not at home!
他不在家!
dʑɯ˧ noun Tone: M.
moment/time(of_event). 时间. time.

ʈʂʰwɤ˩ dzɯ˩-bi˩-dʑɯ˩˥
dinner-time
吃晚餐的时间

ɑ˩pʰo˩ bi˩-dʑɯ˩˥
time to go out; the right time to go outside
出去的(合适)时间

le˧-ʑi˧-bi˧-dʑɯ˧ tʰv˧-ze˩!
It is time to go to sleep!
睡觉的时间到了!

ʐo˩ dzɯ˩-bi˩-dʑɯ˩˥
lunch-time
午饭的时间
dʑɯ˧dv˧ noun Tone: M.
classifier: kʰɯ˩ earthworm. 蚯蚓. animal.

dʑɯ˧dv˧-mi˩, | ə˩-dʑo˩˥?
Do female earthworms exist? (An artificially designed question, so as to elicit a form of 'earthworm' with the 'female' suffix, with a view to understanding the synchronically productive tone assignment rules for the gender suffixes.)
有母蚯蚓吗?

dʑɯ˧dv˧-pʰv˩, | ə˩-dʑo˩˥?
Do male earthworms exist? (An artificially designed question, so as to elicit a form of 'earthworm' with the 'male' suffix, with a view to understanding the synchronically productive tone assignment rules for the gender suffixes.)
有公蚯蚓吗?
dʑɯ˧dze˧mi#˥ noun Tone: #H.
classifier: mi˩ cicada. 蝉. animal.

dʑɯ˧dze˧-mi˧ tʰv˧-mi˧˥ / dʑɯ˧dze˧-mi˧ tʰv˧-mi˥#
n + dem + clf
这只蝉
dʑɯ˧ki˥ noun Tone: H#.
classifier: kʰɯ˩ waistband. 布带子. clothing.
dʑɯ˧-li˧ verb Tone: M.
to_irrigate. 灌溉. verb.

dʑɯ˧-li˧-ze˧
pfv
灌溉了

dʑɯ˧-mɤ˧-li˧-hĩ˧ lv˧
dry farmland, dry field: a field that is not irrigated
旱田:不灌溉的田
dʑɯ˧ɭɯ˧ noun Tone: M.
millet. 小米. plant.

dʑɯ˧ɭɯ˧-ho#˥
millet gruel
小米粥
See:
dʑɯ˧mi˧ noun Tone: M.
classifier: kʰɯ˩ large_river. 大河. natural environment.
dʑɯ˧njɤ˧ noun Tone: M.
millet. 小米. plant.

dʑɯ˧njɤ˧, | ʐɯ˧ tɕɤ˧˥!
Millet is used to make wine!
小米,用来酿酒!

dʑɯ˧njɤ˧-hɑ#˥
cooked millet
小米饭
See:
dʑɯ˧qʰɑ˧ noun Tone: M.
classifier: qɑ˩ gentian. 秦艽. plant.

dʑɯ˧qʰɑ˧-bæ˩bæ˩
gentian flowers
秦艽花
dʑɯ˧qʰv˧ noun Tone: M.
classifier: ɭɯ˧ well. 井. natural environment.

ɑ˩ʁo˥ | dʑɯ˧qʰv˧ tʰi˧-di˩.
There is a well at home / in the farm.
家里有水井。
dʑɯ˧qʰv˩ noun Tone: L#.
classifier: ɭɯ˧ wild_plant_sp. 植物名. plant.

dʑɯ˧qʰv˩-lv˩lv˩
the grains of this plant
这种植物的种子
dʑɯ˧ʁo˩ noun Tone: L#.
peach. 桃子. plant.
dʑɯ˧ʈʂʰwæ#˥ noun Tone: #H.
husked_millet. 已碾的小米. plant. See:
dʑɯ˩ noun Tone: L.
classifier: kʰɯ˩ water. 水. natural environment.

dʑɯ˧ ʈʰɯ˧
to drink water
喝水

ʈʂʰɯ˧ dʑɯ˧ ʈʰɯ˧-dʑo˧!
(S)he is drinking water
他在喝水

dʑɯ˧ | ɖɯ˧-ʈʰɤ˧ ʈʰɯ˧˥
to drink a little water (literally 'a drop of water')
喝一点水(直译:‘一滴水’)

dʑɯ˩ kʰɯ˩˥
to put water
放水

dʑɯ˩ mæ˩˥
to irrigate, to water
浇灌、灌溉

dʑɯ˩ qæ˩, hɑ˩ qæ˩˥ |
a description of the traveller's changes in environment: 'to change water, to change food'. This requires using strategies to avoid ailments: in particular, it was customary to boil in water a little earth of the place where one had arrived, and to drink this preparation.
‘换水换土’:这个短语描述旅人到他人乡的情况,带来水土不服的危险。为了预防这类不良反应,摩梭旅人习惯水煮一点当地的土,喝下去,为了适应当地的水土。

dʑɯ˧ | mv˩tɕo˧ dɑ˧˥
the water flows downwards
水往下流

waterway. 河流.
dʑɯ˩ a verb Tone: La.
to_twist_together. 搓. verb.

le˧-dʑɯ˩-ze˩
accomp _ pfv
搓了

bæ˩ dʑɯ˩˥
to twist (strings into) a rope
搓绳子

qʰv˩ɖʐæ˩ dʑɯ˥
to twist a string, a small rope
搓一根小绳子

ɖɯ˧-kʰwɤ˧ dʑɯ˥
to twist a little
搓一下
dʑɯ˩-æ̃˩tsɯ˧ noun Tone: L-LM.
classifier: ɭɯ˧ sandpiper. 鹬. animal.
dʑɯ˩dze˩ noun Tone: L.
classifier: nɑ˧ ladle_for_food. 舀汤的勺子. object.
dʑɯ˩gɤ˩di˩ noun Tone: L.
classifier: nɑ˧ shoulder_pole. 扁担. object.
dʑɯ˩gv˥ adjective Tone: LH.
stooping. 驼背. adjective.
dʑɯ˩gv˩ noun Tone: L.
classifier: ɭɯ˧ water_trough. 水槽. object.

pv˩-dʑɯ˩gv˩˥
dʑɯ˩hṽ˧˥ noun Tone: LM+MH#.
dough. 浆糊. food.
dʑɯ˩-hwæ˩tsɯ˥ noun Tone: L+H#.
shrew. 尖鼠. animal.
dʑɯ˩kʰi˩ noun Tone: L.
water_s_edge. 水边. natural environment.
dʑɯ˩kʰv˩ noun Tone: L.
moss. 青苔. plant.
dʑɯ˩nɑ˩hæ̃˩tʰɑ˩ noun Tone: L.
classifier: pɤ˩ water_mill. 水磨. object.
dʑɯ˩nɑ˩mi˩ noun Tone: L.
mountain_area. 深山老林. natural environment. See:
dʑɯ˩nɑ˩mi˩-ʁo˩ noun Tone: L.
mountain_area. 深山老林. natural environment. See:
dʑɯ˩pɤ˩-kv˧hĩ˩ noun Tone: L-L#.
spring. 水泉. natural environment.

dʑɯ˩pɤ˩-kv˧hĩ˩ | tʰi˧-di˩
there is a spring
有水泉
See:
dʑɯ˩pɤ˩qʰv˩ noun Tone: L.
spring. 水泉. natural environment. See:
dʑɯ˩pɤ˩tv˩qʰv˥ noun Tone: L+H#.
spring. 水泉. natural environment. See:
dʑɯ˩pʰæ˩ noun Tone: L.
classifier: pʰæ˧˥ ice. 冰. natural environment.
dʑɯ˩qʰæ˩ noun Tone: L.
cold_water. 凉水. food.
dʑɯ˩qʰwɤ˩-lv˩ noun Tone: L.
classifier: kɤ˧˥ marsh. 沼泽. natural environment.
dʑɯ˩ʁo˩ noun Tone: L.
mountain_area. 深山老林. natural environment. See:
dʑɯ˩ʁo˩-æ̃˧ noun Tone: L-M.
classifier: mi˩ quail. 鹌鹑. animal.
dʑɯ˩ʁo˩-bo˧ noun Tone: L-M.
classifier: mi˩ wild_boar. 野猪. animal. Syn: bo˩tv#˥
dʑɯ˩ʁo˩-dze˧ noun Tone: L-M.
wild_pepper. 野花椒. plant.
dʑɯ˩ʁo˩-hwɤ˩li˧ noun Tone: L-LM.
classifier: mi˩ wild_cat. 野猫. animal.
dʑɯ˩ʁo˩-ɬi˩bi˧ noun Tone: L-LM.
classifier: ɭɯ˧ Chinese_yam. 山药. plant.
dʑɯ˩ʁo˩-zɯ˩ noun Tone: L.
classifier: qɑ˩ classifier: po˧ classifier: botte; unité wild_herbs. 野草. plant.

ʈʂʰɯ˧ | dʑɯ˩ʁo˩-zɯ˩ ɲi˥.
dem _ cop
指示代词 _ 系词
dʑɯ˩si˩ noun Tone: L.
oriental_white_oak. 青冈树. plant. Syn: dzi˧dzi˧
dʑɯ˩so˩ noun Tone: L.
classifier: pʰæ˧˥ wave. 波浪. natural environment.

dʑɯ˩so˩ pʰv˩˥
there is a wave, a wave breaks
有波浪
dʑɯ˩ʂo˥ noun Tone: L+H#.
name_of_ritual. 仪式名. religion.

dʑɯ˩ʂo˥-tsɑ˩bɤ˩
flour used for ceremonies; it must not contain oatmeal. After the ceremony, it is thrown away (not eaten).
做仪式时所使用的面粉。这种面粉里不要含有燕麦。仪式结束后,面粉被扔掉。
dʑɯ˩tɤ˩ɻ˥ adjective Tone: L+H#.
moist. 湿. adjective.

dʑɯ˩tɤ˩ɻ˥ gv˩-ze˩
It got wet.
湿了!
dʑɯ˩tɕʰɯ˩lɑ˩qʰɑ˥ noun Tone: L+H#.
plum. 梅子. plant.
dʑɯ˩tɕʰɯ˩lɑ˩qʰæ˥ noun Tone: L+H#.
buckthorn. 沙棘. plant.
dʑɯ˩tsʰi˩ noun Tone: L.
hot_water. 热水. food.
dʑɯ˩tsʰi˩ʈʰɯ˩di˩ noun Tone: L.
classifier: ɭɯ˧ container_for_hot_water. 口杯. object.
dʑɯ˩ʈv˧ adjective Tone: LM.
to_be_a_hunchback. 驼背. adjective.

dʑɯ˩ʈv˧-ze˩
pfv
驼背了
dʑɯ˩zo˩ noun Tone: L.
classifier: kʰɯ˩ brook. 溪流. natural environment.
dʑɯ˩ʐv˩ verb Tone: L.
to_swim. 游泳. verb.
dʑɯ˧˥ adjective Tone: MH.
many/much. 多. adjective.

hĩ˧ dʑɯ˩
There are many people.
人多。