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Index ʐ
ʐ
ʐæ˧
ʐæ˧ a
ʐæ˧v˩-tʰv˩
ʐæ˩ b
ʐæ˩mi#˥
ʐæ˩pʰv˧
ʐæ˩sɯ˩
ʐæ˩sɯ˩-kʰwæ˩ɻæ˧
ʐæ˩ʂæ˧
ʐæ˩tsɯ˧˥
ʐæ˩zo#˥
ʐæ˩˥
ʐe˥
ʐe˥
ʐe˥
ʐe˧ʈæ˥-ɬi˩
ʐe˧v#˥
ʐe˧zo#˥
ʐe˩ʐe˧-bæ˩bæ˩
ʐe˩ʐe˧-læ˧tsɯ˥
ʐɤ˧ b
ʐɤ˩ c
ʐɤ˩ a
ʐɤ˩mi˩
ʐɤ˩ni˩
ʐɤ˩qo˩
ʐɤ˩ʐɤ˧˥
ʐɤ˩˧
ʐo˩
ʐo˩ a
ʐo˩ a
ʐo˩dzɯ˩
ʐo˩~ʐo˧˥
ʐɯ˥
ʐɯ˧
ʐɯ˧ɭɯ˧
ʐɯ˧nɑ˩
ʐɯ˩dzi˥
ʐɯ˩gv˩
ʐɯ˩-mo˧˥
ʐɯ˩tse˧
ʐɯ˩tse˧-mæ˧ʂæ˩
ʐɯ˩tsɯ˧
ʐɯ˩tsɯ˧mɤ˩ʈʂʰɤ˩
ʐv˧
ʐv˧bæ˧
ʐv˧bæ˧-bv˧-hɑ#˥
ʐv˧bæ˧-mi˩
ʐv˧bæ˧-pʰv#˥
ʐv˧bæ˧-zo#˥
ʐv˧bæ˧-ʐv˧qʰɑ#˥
ʐv˧bɤ#˥
ʐv˧di˧˥
ʐv˧dzi˩
ʐv˧hĩ#˥
ʐv˧mi#˥
ʐv˧mv˧lɑ˧di˧˥
ʐv˧-ɲi˧-ʁo˧tʰo˥
ʐv˧ɻ˥
ʐv˧-tsʰi˩
ʐv˧v#˥
ʐv˧v˥-ʐv˩mi˩
ʐv˧-zo#˥
ʐv˩ a
ʐv˩ a
ʐv˩ɭɯ˥
ʐv˩-ɬi˩mi˩
ʐv˩mi˩
ʐv˧˥
ʐwæ˥
ʐwæ˧ a
ʐwæ˧bv˧˥
ʐwæ˧-hɑ#˥
ʐwæ˧-kʰv˩
ʐwæ˧-ɭɯ#˥
ʐwæ˧pʰæ˧di˧˥
ʐwæ˧-qʰæ#˥
ʐwæ˧ʁo˩
ʐwæ˧sɯ˩
ʐwæ˧zo#˥
ʐwæ˧-zɯ#˥
ʐwæ˧~ʐwæ˧
ʐwæ˩
ʐwæ˩ a
ʐwæ˩ a
ʐwæ˩mi˩
ʐwæ˩ʈʂɤ˩
ʐwæ˧˥
ʐwɤ˧
ʐwɤ˧mv˧
ʐwɤ˩ b
ʐ ideophone Tone: 0.
ideo_Brrroom! . 轰隆隆!. morphosyntax.
ʐæ˧ adjective Tone: M.
tall_and_big. 高大. adjective.

ʐæ˧-ni˩gv˩
tall and big; great; impressive
高大

hĩ˧ | ʈʂʰɯ˧-v˧, | ʐæ˧-ni˩gv˩!
This person looks impressive / tall and big!
这人很高大!

ʐæ˧ni˩ | mɤ˧-gv˧
not impressive, not great-looking
个子不高

ʐæ˧ | ʐwæ˩˥
very tall and big
很高大
ʐæ˧ a verb Tone: Ma.
to_laugh. 笑. verb.

zo˧hṽ˥ | hĩ˧ ʐæ˧~ʐæ˥-kʰɯ˩
The kids make people laugh
孩子们把大家逗笑了。

hĩ˧ | ʐæ˧~ʐæ˥ kʰɯ˩
to make people laugh, to amuse people
让大家笑一笑

ʐæ˧~ʐæ˩-di˩
jokes, funny talk
笑话,好笑的话

to_make_fun_of. 嘲笑.

le˧-ʐæ˧-ze˧
accomp _ pfv
出言不逊了

le˧-ʐæ˥~ʐæ˩
red
笑一笑(别人)

hĩ˧ ʐæ˩
to make fun of other people
嘲笑人家

le˧-ʐæ˥~ʐæ˩-ze˩
red pfv
嘲笑了
ʐæ˧v˩-tʰv˩ verb Tone: L#-.
to_joke. 开玩笑. verb.

ʐæ˧v˩-tʰv˩ | ʐwæ˩˥
to crack jokes all the time, to make lots of jokes
开很多玩笑、一直开玩笑

ʐæ˧v˩-tʰv˩-hĩ˩ ʐwɤ˩
to crack a joke
开个玩笑
ʐæ˩ b verb Tone: Lb.
to_mix. 搅拌合混. verb.

le˧-ʐæ˧~ʐæ˥
accomp _ red
搅拌
ʐæ˩mi#˥ noun Tone: LM+#H.
classifier: pʰo˧˥ female_panther. 母豹子. animal.

ʐæ˩mi˧-ʐæ˥zo˩
female panther and male panther
母豹子与公豹子
ʐæ˩pʰv˧ noun Tone: LM.
classifier: pʰo˧˥ male_panther. 公豹子. animal.

ʐæ˩pʰv˧-ʐæ˩mi˩
male panther and female panther
公豹子与母豹子
ʐæ˩sɯ˩ noun Tone: L.
classifier: ɭɯ˧˥ piece_of_felt. 披毡. clothing.
ʐæ˩sɯ˩-kʰwæ˩ɻæ˧ noun
classifier: tsʰi˥ felt_mat. 毡子做的垫子. clothing.
ʐæ˩ʂæ˧ adjective Tone: LM.
far. 远. space.

no˧ | ʈʂʰɯ˧ | ə˩-ʐæ˥ʂæ˩? | dʑɤ˩kʰwɤ˧ ə˩-di˩? | - dʑɤ˩˥ | dʑɤ˩kʰwɤ˧ mɤ˧-di˥! | mɤ˧-ʐæ˩ʂæ˩!
Are you distant from him? Is there distance (between you)? - There is not much distance to speak of! We are not distant! (=we are close friends)
你们很熟吗? - 不很熟!
ʐæ˩tsɯ˧˥ noun Tone: LM+MH#.
classifier: kʰɯ˩ trail. 小路. natural environment.

ʐæ˩tsɯ˧-ʐɤ˥mi˩
small trail
径道
ʐæ˩zo#˥ noun Tone: LM+#H.
classifier: ɭɯ˧ little_panther. 小豹子. animal.

ʐæ˩zo˧-ʐæ˥mi˩
baby panther and female panther
小豹子与母豹子
ʐæ˩˥ noun Tone: LH.
classifier: pʰo˧˥ leopard. 豹子. animal.

ʐæ˩ dzɯ˧-ze˩
...ate (a/the) leopard
吃了豹子

ʐæ˩ hwæ˧-ze˩
...bought (a/the) leopard
买了豹子
ʐe˥ classifier Tone: Ha.
clf .quarter_of_preserved_meat . 量词 .熏肉块 . classifier.
ʐe˥ noun Tone: #H.
classifier: kʰɯ˩ arrow. 箭. object.

ʐe˧ɻ̃˧ | ɖɯ˧-kʰɯ˩
an arrow; also, metaphorically: a family, a lineage
一枝箭。也来指一个家庭
ʐe˥ noun Tone: #H.
rainy_season. 雨季. time.
ʐe˧ʈæ˥-ɬi˩ noun Tone: H#-L.
11th_month. 十一月. time.
ʐe˧v#˥ noun Tone: #H.
classifier: pʰo˧˥ castrated_ox. 阉牛. animal.
ʐe˧zo#˥ noun Tone: #H.
arrow. 箭. object.

ʐe˧zo˧ | ɖɯ˧-kʰɯ˩
one arrow
一枝箭
ʐe˩ʐe˧-bæ˩bæ˩ noun Tone: LM-L.
wild_cotton. 野棉花. plant. See: je˩ʐe˧
ʐe˩ʐe˧-læ˧tsɯ˥ noun Tone: LM-H#.
pig_fodder. 喂猪的牧草. plant.
ʐɤ˧ b verb Tone: Mb.
to_raise. 饲养. verb.

bo˩ ʐɤ˧
to raise pigs
养猪

ʐwæ˧zo˧ ʐɤ˧
to raise colts
养小马
ʐɤ˩ c classifier Tone: Lc.
clf .patterns . 量词 .图案 . classifier.
ʐɤ˩ a adjective Tone: La.
clean. 干净. adjective.

ʈʂʰɯ˧ | ʐɤ˩-hĩ˩ ɲi˥
It is clean
这是干净的

mɤ˧-ʐɤ˩
not clean, dirty
不干净
ʐɤ˩mi˩ noun Tone: L.
classifier: kʰɯ˩ road. 路. natural environment.

hĩ˧ | ɖɯ˧-v˧~ɖɯ˧-v˧ | le˧-se˥, | ʐɤ˩mi˩ tsɤ˩˥!
People walk, one after the other, and they create a path! (Context: when people go to fell trees on the mountain, where there was no path before, their passage open a new path, whose traces remain visible and may become a customary path.)
路是人走出来的!
ʐɤ˩ni˩ adjective Tone: L.
near. 近. adjective.
ʐɤ˩qo˩ noun Tone: L.
classifier: ɭɯ˧ veal. 小牛. animal.
male_pianniu. 公犏牛.
ʐɤ˩ʐɤ˧˥ noun Tone: LM+MH#.
classifier: ʐɤ˩ lines/pattern. 花纹. object.

ʐɤ˩ʐɤ˧ tʰi˧-di˥
with lines/patterns / there are lines/patterns
有花纹

bɑ˩lɑ˩˥ | ʈʰɯ˧-ɭɯ˥-bi˩ | ʐɤ˩ʐɤ˧ tʰi˧-di˥
There are lines/patterns on this piece of clothing.
这衣服上面有花纹。
ʐɤ˩˧ noun Tone: LM.
classifier: kʰɯ˩ classifier: objets longs road. 路. natural environment.

ʐɤ˩mi˩-qo˥
on the road, on the way
路上

ʐɤ˩mi˩-qo˥, | hĩ˧ se˧! |
People are walking on the road/path!
路上有人走!

ʐɤ˩ se˩-zo˩˥
traveller, person who travels; specifically: person who does commerce by caravans
旅人,特别指走马帮的商人
ʐo˩ noun Tone: L.
noon/lunch. 中午. time.

ʐo˩ dzɯ˩˥
to have lunch
吃午饭
ʐo˩ a verb Tone: La.
to_swing_back_and_forth. 甩来甩去. verb.

ɖɯ˧-ʐo˩-ɻ˩
to swing back and forth
甩来甩去

ʐo˩~ʐo˧-ze˥
red pfv
red pfv

le˧-ʐo˩~ʐo˩
accomp red
accomp red
ʐo˩ a adjective Tone: La.
light. 轻. adjective.
ʐo˩dzɯ˩ verb Tone: L.
to_eat_lunch. 吃午饭. verb.

ʐo˩ dzɯ˩˥
to have lunch
吃午饭

ʐo˩ dzɯ˩-se˥
afternoon
下午
ʐo˩~ʐo˧˥ verb Tone: MH.
to_swing. 摔. verb.
ʐɯ˥ adjective Tone: H.
heavy. 重. adjective.
ʐɯ˧ noun Tone: M.
wine. 酒. food.

ʐɯ˧ pʰv˧˥
to pour wine
斟酒
ʐɯ˧ɭɯ˧ verb Tone: M.
to_shake(earthquake). 地震. verb.

ʐɯ˧ɭɯ˧-ze˧!
There is an earthquake!
地震了!
ʐɯ˧nɑ˩ noun Tone: L#.
high_quality_wine. 醇酒. food.
ʐɯ˩dzi˥ noun Tone: LH.
classifier: dzi˩ cedar. 杉树. plant.
ʐɯ˩gv˩ noun Tone: L.
classifier: ɭɯ˧ classifier: nɑ˧ boat. 船. object.

ʐɯ˩gv˩ dzi˩˥
to sit in a boat
坐船
ʐɯ˩-mo˧˥ noun Tone: LM+MH#.
cedar_tree_mushroom. “杉树菌”. plant.

tʰo˧mo˩-ʐɯ˩mo˩
Pine-tree mushroom and cedar-tree mushroom
松树菌与杉树菌
See: ʐɯ˩dzi˥
ʐɯ˩tse˧ noun Tone: LM.
classifier: mountain_spirit. 山神. religion.
ʐɯ˩tse˧-mæ˧ʂæ˩ noun Tone: LM-L#.
golden_pheasant. 锦鸡. animal. See: ʐɯ˩tse˧
ʐɯ˩tsɯ˧ noun Tone: LM.
From: Chinese 日子 . 日子::days. 日子( 借词) . time.
ʐɯ˩tsɯ˧mɤ˩ʈʂʰɤ˩ noun Tone: LM-L.
classifier: tsʰi˥ mattress. 褥子. house.
ʐv˧ numeral Tone: M? H#?.
4. 4. number.
ʐv˧bæ˧ noun Tone: M.
classifier: mi˩ snake. 蛇. animal.

ʐv˧bæ˧ ɣɯ˩ pʰv˩
The snake sheds skin / exuviates
蛇蜕皮
ʐv˧bæ˧-bv˧-hɑ#˥ noun Tone: #H.
classifier: qɑ˩ classifier: botte pig_fodder. 喂猪的草. plant.
ʐv˧bæ˧-mi˩ noun Tone: °L.
classifier: mi˩ female_snake. 母蛇. animal.
ʐv˧bæ˧-pʰv#˥ noun Tone: #H.
classifier: mi˩ male_snake. 公蛇. animal.
ʐv˧bæ˧-zo#˥ noun Tone: #H.
classifier: ɭɯ˧ baby_snake. 小蛇. animal.
ʐv˧bæ˧-ʐv˧qʰɑ#˥ noun
jack_in_the_pulpit. 天南星. plant.
ʐv˧bɤ#˥ noun Tone: #H.
classifier: Pumi_of_mountains. 高山普米族. ethnic groups.
ʐv˧di˧˥ noun Tone: MH#.
banks_of_the_Yangtze. 金沙江边. place name.
ʐv˧dzi˩ noun Tone: L#.
classifier: dzi˩ willow. 柳树. plant.
ʐv˧hĩ#˥ noun Tone: #H.
classifier: Pumi. 普米族. ethnic groups.
ʐv˧mi#˥ noun Tone: #H.
classifier: ɭɯ˧ granddaughter. 孙女. society.

njɤ˧ | ʐv˧mi˧ | ɖɯ˧-ɭɯ˧ dʑo˧
I have a granddaughter.
我有一个孙女。
ʐv˧mv˧lɑ˧di˧˥ noun Tone: MH#.
classifier: Pumi_territory. 江边普米族地区. ethnic groups.

ʐv˧mv˧lɑ˧di˧-hĩ˥
people from the Pumi territories
普米族地区的人们
ʐv˧-ɲi˧-ʁo˧tʰo˥ adverb Tone: H#.
in_four_days. 四天以后. time.
ʐv˧ɻ˥ adjective Tone: H#.
square. 正方形. adjective.

ʐv˩-hĩ˩˥
nmlz
方形的

ʐv˧ɻ˥-gv˩
square
方形的
ʐv˧-tsʰi˩ numeral Tone: L#.
40. 40. number.
ʐv˧v#˥ noun Tone: #H.
classifier: ɭɯ˧ classifier: objets ronds grandson. 孙子. society.

njɤ˧ | ʐv˧v˧ ɖɯ˧-ɭɯ˧ dʑo˧.
I have a grandson.
我有一个孙子。
ʐv˧v˥-ʐv˩mi˩ noun Tone: H#-.
grandchildren. 孙子孙女. society.
ʐv˧-zo#˥ noun Tone: #H.
classifier: nɑ˧ small_bow. 小弓. object.
ʐv˩ a verb Tone: La.
to_knead. 揉. verb.

pɤ˩jɤ˧ ʐv˥
to knead dough
揉面

ʐv˧~ʐv˥
red
重叠

ɖɯ˧-kʰwɤ˧ ʐv˥
to knead a piece (of dough)
揉一块(面团)

to_crease. 皱.

bɑ˩lɑ˩ ʐv˥(-ze˩)
to crease clothes; the clothes have been creased; the clothes are creased
衣服皱了

ʐv˧~ʐv˥
red
重叠

le˧-ʐv˧~ʐv˥-ze˩
accomp _ red pfv
accomp _ red pfv
ʐv˩ a adjective Tone: La.
good. 香. adjective.
ʐv˩ɭɯ˥ noun Tone: LH.
classifier: ɭɯ˧ small_beam. 小梁. house.
ʐv˩-ɬi˩mi˩ noun Tone: L.
4th_month. 四月. time.
ʐv˩mi˩ noun Tone: L.
classifier: nɑ˧ bow. 弓. object.
ʐv˧˥ verb Tone: MH.
to_sew. 缝. verb.
ʐwæ˥ noun Tone: #H.
classifier: horse. 马. animal.

dʑɯ˩ʁo˩-ʐwæ˩
wild horse
野马

o-ho-ho! ʐwæ˧-ɳɯ˩ | dzɯ˧-po˧-hɯ˥-ze˩!
Oops! The horse scoffed the lot!
啊呀嚒!马把饲料都吃光了!
ʐwæ˧ a verb Tone: Ma.
to_weigh. 称. verb.

mɤ˧-ʐwæ˧
neg
不称

le˧-ʐwæ˧-ze˧
accomp _ pfv
称了

tso˧~tso˧ ʐwæ˩
to weigh things
称东西

ʁo˧do˧ ʐwæ˧
to weigh walnuts
称核桃
ʐwæ˧bv˧˥ noun Tone: MH#.
classifier: ɭɯ˧ stable. 马圈. house.
ʐwæ˧-hɑ#˥ noun Tone: #H.
horse_feed. 马料. food.
ʐwæ˧-kʰv˩ noun Tone: L#.
year_of_the_Horse. 马年. time.
ʐwæ˧-ɭɯ#˥ noun Tone: #H.
cereals_for_horse_fodder. 马料(粮食). food.
ʐwæ˧pʰæ˧di˧˥ noun Tone: MH#.
classifier: ɭɯ˧ lunge. 拉马链子. object.
ʐwæ˧-qʰæ#˥ noun Tone: #H.
classifier: ʁwɤ˧ horse_manure. 马粪. agriculture.
ʐwæ˧ʁo˩ noun Tone: L#.
classifier: castrated_horse. 骟马. animal.
ʐwæ˧sɯ˩ noun Tone: L#.
classifier: mi˩ stallion. 公马. animal.

ʐwæ˧sɯ˩-ʐwæ˩mi˩
stallion and mare
公马与母马

ʐwæ˧sɯ˩-ʐwæ˩zo˩
stallion and colt
公马与小马
ʐwæ˧zo#˥ noun Tone: #H.
classifier: ɭɯ˧ colt. 马驹子. animal.

ʐwæ˧zo˧-ʐwæ˥mi˩
colt and mare
马驹子与母马
ʐwæ˧-zɯ#˥ noun Tone: #H.
horse_hay. 喂马的草. food.
ʐwæ˧~ʐwæ˧ verb Tone: M.
to_put_in_order. 收拾. verb.

tso˧~tso˧ ʐwæ˧~ʐwæ˧(-ze˩)
to put things in order
收拾东西

le˧-ʐwæ˧~ʐwæ˧ ɖɯ˧-ʝi˧-tɕɯ˥
to put things in order in one place, to arrange things together in one place
把东西收拾在一起

to_gather. 聚集. verb.
ʐwæ˩ adverb Tone: L.
intensive .extremely . 极. morphosyntax.

ʐwæ˩-ze˥!
That's too much! / There's too much!
太多了!
ʐwæ˩ a verb Tone: La.
to_swoon. 昏. verb.

le˧-ʈʰi˩ | le˧-ʐwæ˩-ze˩
to be so tired as to fall into a swoon, to swoon from exhaustion
累得都昏倒了
ʐwæ˩ a adjective Tone: La.
good. 能干. adjective.

ʐwæ˩-hĩ˩˥
nmlz
能干的

ʈʂʰɯ˧ ɖwæ˧˥ | ʐwæ˩˥!
He is very capable!
他很能干!
ʐwæ˩mi˩ noun Tone: L.
classifier: classifier: jɤ˧˥ mare. 母马. animal.

ʂe˩-ʐwæ˩mi˥
bicycle
自行车(“铁马”)

ʐwæ˩mi˩-ʐwæ˩zo˩
mare and colt
母马与马驹子
ʐwæ˩ʈʂɤ˩ adjective Tone: L.
remarkable. 了不起. adjective.

ʈʂʰɯ˧ | ə˧tso˧ ʐwæ˩ʈʂɤ˩-tso˩ dʑo˩?
What's so remarkable about her/him?
他有什么了不起的?

ʈʂʰɯ˧ | ʐwæ˩ʈʂɤ˩˥ | ʐwæ˩˥!
It's really an outstanding person!
他非常了不起!
ʐwæ˧˥ verb Tone: MH.
to_hoe. 薅锄. verb.

ʐwæ˩~ʐwæ˧˥
red
重叠

jɤ˩jo˥ ʐwæ˩
to hoe potatoes, to weed a potato field
洋芋地里锄草

jɤ˩jo˧ ʐwæ˧~ʐwæ˥
to hoe potatoes, to weed a potato field
洋芋地里锄草

qʰɑ˧dze˧ ʐwæ˧˥
to hoe sweetcorn, to weed a sweetcorn field
苞谷地里锄草

qʰɑ˧dze˧ ʐwæ˧~ʐwæ˥
to hoe sweetcorn, to weed a sweetcorn field
苞谷地里锄草
ʐwɤ˧ adjective Tone: M.
hungry(monosyll.). 饿. adjective.

hɑ˧-ʐwɤ˩
to be hungry
饿
ʐwɤ˧mv˧ noun Tone: M.
classifier: kʰwɤ˥ Etym: ʐwɤ˩b. idiom. 惯用语. language.

ʐwɤ˧mv˧ dʑo˧-kv˧˥ !
This is how they say! / There's such a set phrase!
有这么一句老话! / 有这么一个说法!

æ˧ʂæ˧-ʐwɤ˧mv˧ | ɖɯ˧-kʰwɤ˥
a saying, a set phrase of the old times
一句老话、一个传统的说法
ʐwɤ˩ b verb Tone: Lb.
to_speak. 讲话. verb.

ʐwɤ˧~ʐwɤ˩ mɤ˩-hĩ˩
dumb person, person who is not able to speak
哑巴、不会讲话的人

ʐwɤ˧~ʐwɤ˩ mɤ˩-hĩ˩, | ʈʂʰɯ˧-v˧!
(S)he is not able to speak! / (S)he won't speak!
不会讲话,这个人! / 这个人,不会讲话!

le˧-ʐwɤ˩-ze˩
accomp _ pfv
讲了

no˧ | ə˧tso˧ ʐwɤ˩-ɲi˩?
What are you saying? / What do you mean?
你说什么?

ʐwɤ˧~ʐwɤ˩
red
重叠

le˧-ʐwɤ˩
to answer
回答

le˧-wo˧ ʐwɤ˧˥
as above: to answer
同上:回答

ʈʂʰɯ˧ | le˧-ʐwɤ˩-bi˩-dʑo˩...
According to her/him... / From her/his point of view...
依照他的说法……

hĩ˧-qɑ˧ ʐwɤ˧~ʐwɤ˥
to speak to people
对人家讲

le˧-ʐwɤ˧~ʐwɤ˥-ze˩
accomp red pfv
accomp red pfv