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Index ʁ
ʁɑ˥
ʁɑ˥
ʁɑ˥
ʁɑ˥ʂe˩
ʁɑ˧
ʁɑ˧
ʁɑ˧ b
ʁɑ˧dzi˧
ʁɑ˧pv˧
ʁɑ˧pv˧-ɻ̃#˥
ʁɑ˧pʰv#˥
ʁɑ˧-ʐwɤ˧˥
ʁɑ˩mi˥
ʁɑ˩ʂɯ˧
ʁæ˥
ʁæ˧
ʁæ˧bæ˧
ʁæ˧ɭɯ˥
ʁæ˧mi˧
ʁæ˧ŋv˥
ʁæ˧ɻ˥
ʁæ˧tɑ˩
ʁæ˧ʈv˥
ʁæ˧zo#˥
ʁæ˧ʑi˧
ʁæ˩ a
ʁæ˩ a
ʁæ˩ a
ʁæ˩ a
ʁæ˩bæ˩
ʁæ˩ɖʐv˧
ʁæ˧˥
ʁæ˩˥
ʁo˥
ʁo˥pv˩
ʁo˥-ʐv˩
ʁo˧
ʁo˧
ʁo˧bv˧
ʁo˧dɑ˧
ʁo˧do˧
ʁo˧do˧
ʁo˧dzi˥
ʁo˧dzi˩
ʁo˧dzi˩-di˩
ʁo˧dzi˩-di˩
ʁo˧dzi˩-tʰæ˩ɻæ˩
ʁo˧dʑɯ˧
ʁo˧ɖɯ˧˥
ʁo˧gv#˥
ʁo˧hṽ˧˥
ʁo˧ʝi˧
ʁo˧kɤ˩
ʁo˧lv˧
ʁo˧ɬi˥
ʁo˧mæ˧
ʁo˧mi˥$
ʁo˧mi˧
ʁo˧ni˥
ʁo˧pʰɤ˩-ʁo˩dv˩lv˩
ʁo˧qɑ˥
ʁo˧qʰwɤ˩
ʁo˧so˩
ʁo˧ʂv˧
-ʁo˧to˩
-ʁo˧tʰo˩
ʁo˧tɕʰɤ#˥
ʁo˧tsʰe˧ʁo#˥
ʁo˧ʈv˧ʈv˥
ʁo˧ʈʂe˩
ʁo˧zo#˥
ʁo˧ʑi˧˥
ʁo˩
ʁo˩ b
ʁo˩ b
ʁo˩di˥
ʁo˩ɖɯ˩so˧
ʁo˩hi˩
ʁo˩kʰv˩
ʁo˧˥
ʁv˥
ʁv˧-bv˥
ʁv˧mi˥$
ʁv˧pʰv#˥
ʁv˧zo#˥
ʁv˧˥
ʁwæ˥
ʁwæ˧gi#˥
ʁwæ˧gi˧dzɤ#˥
ʁwæ˧lo˥
ʁwæ˧tsɯ˥
ʁwæ˧ʈʂʰe˩
ʁwɤ˧
ʁwɤ˧
ʁwɤ˧
ʁwɤ˧ a
ʁwɤ˧ a
ʁwɤ˧lɑ˩-bi˩
ʁwɤ˧qʰv˧
ʁwɤ˧qʰv˧dʑɯ#˥
ʁwɤ˧~ʁwɤ˥ a
ʁwɤ˧tv˧
ʁwɤ˧ʐv#˥
ʁwɤ˩ʁo˩
ʁɑ˥ noun Tone: #H.
strength. 力气. abstract.

ʁɑ˧ ʑi˧
to have strength
有力量

no˧ɻ˩ | hĩ˧tɕʰi˧ ʁɑ˧ ʑi˧!
Your family/clan is powerful!
你们家族很强大!

ʁɑ˧ tʰv˧ (+ze˩)
to exert oneself, to make efforts
尽力
ʁɑ˥ verb Tone: H.
to_call_over. 请. verb.
ʁɑ˥ verb Tone: H.
to_win. 赢. verb.

le˧-ʁɑ˥-ze˩
accomp _ pfv
赢了
ʁɑ˥ʂe˩ verb
to_invite. 请来. verb.

ʈæ˧bɤ˧ ʁɑ˧-ʂe˩
to ask a monk to come over
请和尚到家来

ʈʂʰæ˧ɣɯ˧ ki˩-hĩ˩ | le˧-ʁɑ˥-ʂe˩ | le˧-po˧-jo˥ / ʈʂʰæ˧ɣɯ˧ ki˩-hĩ˩ | ɖɯ˧-ʁɑ˥-ʂe˩-ɻ˩ hõ˩
to call the doctor
请医生来

njɤ˧-ɳɯ˧ | no˩ ʁɑ˩-ʂe˥
I invite you to come over
我请你来

mɤ˧-ʁɑ˥-ʂe˩
neg
neg
ʁɑ˧ adjective Tone: M.
good. 好. adjective.

mɤ˧-ʁɑ˧-hĩ˧ ʂe˧
bad meat, meat of poor quality
不好的肉(质量不好)

mɤ˧-ʁɑ˧-hĩ˧ ʂe˧-kʰwɤ˧ ki˩
to give a piece of bad meat
给一块不好的肉

pʰi˩ko˧ | mɤ˧-ʁɑ˧-ze˧!
The apples are not good anymore! (Context: in March, apples from the previous harvest are not good anymore: they are either rotten or sour.)
苹果不好了! / 苹果不新鲜了!(三月份,上一季收获的苹果已经不好吃的了,或者烂了,或者变酸)

hĩ˧ ɖɯ˧-v˧ | ʁɑ˧-mɤ˧-ʑi˧-hĩ˧ ʐwɤ˧˥!
Someone is talking nonsense!
有人在乱说话!
ʁɑ˧ verb Tone: M.
to_apologize. 道歉. adjective.

ʁɑ˧-ze˧!
Please accept my apologies! (To a person of high rank)
抱歉! / 请原谅!(对地位比自己高的人说)
ʁɑ˧ b verb Tone: Mb.
to_stride_over. 跨. verb.

le˧-ʁɑ˧-ze˧
accomp _ pfv
跨过了
ʁɑ˧dzi˧ noun Tone: M.
classifier: dzi˩ poplar. 杨树. plant.
ʁɑ˧pv˧ noun Tone: M.
classifier: ʈv˩ chest. 胸脯. body.
ʁɑ˧pv˧-ɻ̃#˥ noun Tone: #H.
classifier: pʰæ˧˥ clavicle. 锁骨. body.
ʁɑ˧pʰv#˥ noun Tone: #H.
classifier: kʰwɤ˥ salary. 工钱. object.
ʁɑ˧-ʐwɤ˧˥ verb Tone: MH#.
to_browbeat. 欺负. v.

ʈʂʰɯ˧-v˧ | hĩ˧-ki˧ ʁɑ˧-ʐwɤ˧-ʝi˥!
(s)he is picking on someone
他欺负人、他对人发脾气

ʁɑ˧ ʐwɤ˧-ɻ˥
as above
同上

no˧ | ʁɑ˧ ʐwɤ˧-tʰɑ˧-ɻ˥!
Don't browbeat people!
你不要欺负人!
ʁɑ˩mi˥ verb Tone: LH.
to_apologize. 道歉. verb.

ʁɑ˩mi˥-ze˩!
Thank you!
谢谢!
ʁɑ˩ʂɯ˧ adverb Tone: LM.
in_fact. 其实. abstract.
ʁæ˥ noun Tone: #H.
classifier: ɭɯ˧ neck. 脖子. body. See: ʁæ˧ŋv˥
ʁæ˧ adjective Tone: M.
rich. 富. adjective.
ʁæ˧bæ˧ noun Tone: M.
classifier: ɭɯ˧ plate. 盘子. object.
ʁæ˧ɭɯ˥ noun Tone: H#.
: ɭɯ˧ fetters. 枷锁. object.

ʁæ˧ɭɯ˥ | ɖɯ˧-ɭɯ˧ kʰɯ˧˥
to put fetters (on someone's neck)
套上一个枷锁(在一个人的脖子上)

ʁæ˧ɭɯ˥ kʰɯ˩
to put fetters (on someone's neck)
套上枷锁(在一个人的脖子上)
ʁæ˧mi˧ noun Tone: M.
classifier: nɑ˧ sword. 剑. object.
ʁæ˧ŋv˥ noun Tone: H#.
classifier: ɭɯ˧ collar. 衣领. clothing.
ʁæ˧ɻ˥ noun Tone: H#.
classifier: ɭɯ˧ neck. 脖子. body. See: ʁæ˧ʈv˥
ʁæ˧tɑ˩ noun Tone: L#.
classifier: ɭɯ˧ withers. 肩隆. agriculture.

ʝi˧-ʁæ˧tɑ˥
ox's withers
牛肩隆

ʁæ˧tɑ˩ tʰv˩-ɭɯ˩
n + dem + clf
这只肩隆
ʁæ˧ʈv˥ noun Tone: H#.
classifier: ɭɯ˧ neck. 脖子. body. See: ʁæ˧ɻ˥
ʁæ˧zo#˥ noun Tone: #H.
short_sword. 短剑. object.
ʁæ˧ʑi˧ verb Tone: M.
to_mind. 考虑. verb.

hĩ˧ | qʰɑ˧-kv˧ dʑo˧˥ | mɤ˧-ʁæ˧ʑi˧, | njɤ˧-ɳɯ˧ qʰæ˧˥! |
No matter how many people (guests) there are, I (go to participate and) help! (Context: the consultant explains how, following Na traditions, she volunteers her time to help on important occasions, such as funerals, to help other families.)
无论有多少个人,我都会去帮助!(情景:合作人描写她在永宁有大事时怎么去帮其它家庭的忙,不考虑活多么累,只考虑怎么能给予帮助)

no˧ | mɤ˧-ʁæ˧ʑi˧!
Leave me alone! / Leave me in peace! / Mind your own business!
别管我了! / 请让我安静! / 请不要打扰我了!
ʁæ˩ a verb Tone: La.
to_dissolve. 溶化/散开. verb.

le˧-ʁæ˩-ze˩
accomp _ pfv
accomp _ pfv

le˧-ʁæ˧~ʁæ˥ (-ze˩ / -bi˩)
red
重叠

ɖɯ˧-kʰwɤ˧ ʁæ˥
a lump (of earth) melts
一块(土)散开

ʈʂe˧ʈv˥ | le˧-ʁæ˩-ze˩
Clods of earth fall apart (after ploughing, the fields are irrigated; clods of earth melt into the water)
土块散开在了(耕田后灌溉,土块散在水里)
ʁæ˩ a adjective Tone: La.
drunk. 醉. verb.

ʐɯ˧ ʁæ˩(-ze˩)
drunk
醉酒
ʁæ˩ a adjective Tone: La.
auspitious. 合适. adjective.

ʁæ˧ mɤ˧-ʑi˧
not propicious / not favourable
不吉利、不合适

ʁæ˧ mɤ˧-ʑi˧, | ʝi˧ mɤ˧-tʰɑ˩! / ʝi˧-mɤ˧-ɖo˧!
It is not appropriate / the situation is not propitious; it must not / should not be done! (A phrase to caution others against doing something)
不吉利 / 不合适(的事情),不能做!/ 不要做!(警告)

ʁæ˧ mɤ˧-ʑi˧, | ʐwɤ˩ mɤ˩-tʰɑ˥! / ʁæ˧ mɤ˧-ʑi˧, | ʐwɤ˩ mɤ˩-ɖo˩˥!
It's not appropriate; one must not talk about it! / One should not talk nonsense! (A phrase to caution others against being carelessly talkative)
不合适(的话),不能说! / 不合适(的话),不要说!(警告)

ʁæ˧-mɤ˧-ʑi˧, | tɕi˩-mɤ˩-ɖo˩˥!
(You) must not transcribe the bad ones! / You must not transcribe the messy ones! (Context: the investigator was explaining his wish to choose, among the wealth of recorded narratives, those that are the most interesting and successful, to do a transcription and complete translation and annotation. By her answer, the consultant indicates her approval, at the same time as she shows her understanding of the idea: any materials that may be inappropriate in any way should be left out, and not put to writing.)
乱七八糟的,不要记录! / 不好的,不要记录!(情景:选择一个故事来做记音翻译等。合作人提出,要考虑好记录哪些、选择好的资料,不能什么都记录。)

ʈʂʰɯ˧ | lo˧ | ʁæ˧-mɤ˧-ʑi˧ ʝi˧!
He does a bad job of it! / He makes a mess of his work!
他工作做得乱七八糟!
ʁæ˩ a adjective Tone: La.
ugly. 丑. adjective. See: ɖʐv˩a1
ʁæ˩bæ˩ classifier
clf .platefuls . 量词 .盘 . classifier.

ɖɯ˧-ʁæ˩bæ˩, | ɲi˧-ʁæ˩bæ˩, | so˩-ʁæ˩bæ˩˥, | ʐv˧-ʁæ˥bæ˩, | ŋwɤ˧-ʁæ˥bæ˩, | qʰv˧-ʁæ˥bæ˩, | ʂɯ˧-ʁæ˩bæ˩, | hõ˧-ʁæ˥bæ˩, | gv˧-ʁæ˥bæ˩, | tsʰe˩-ʁæ˩bæ˩˥
association with numerals from 1 to 10
与数词结合,一至十
ʁæ˩ɖʐv˧ verb
ugly. 丑. adjective.
ʁæ˧˥ adjective Tone: MH.
disgusting. 恶心. adjective.
ʁæ˩˥ noun Tone: LH.
sap. 树液. plant.

tʰo˩ʁæ˩˥
same meaning
同上
ʁo˥ noun Tone: #H.
classifier: ɭɯ˧ head. 头. body.
beginning. 开头. body.

ɬi˧-ʁo#˥
the beginning of the month, the first days of the month
月初

kʰv˧-ʁo˥$
the beginning of the year
年初

*ɲi˧-ʁo˩
*the beginning of the day
*天初
ʁo˥pv˩ verb
to_come_across. 遇见. verb.

tʰi˧-ʁo˥pv˩
dur
dur

to_come_across. 阻截/攻击. verb.
ʁo˥-ʐv˩ verb
bless/protect. 保佑. verb.

mɤ˧-ʁo˥ʐv˩
neg
neg

gɤ˧lɑ˧ | ɖɯ˧-ʁo˥ʐv˩-ɻ˩!
May the gods bless (you/us)!
菩萨保佑!
ʁo˧ verb Tone: M intrans.
to_lay_eggs. 下蛋. verb.

æ˩ ʁo˥
to lay eggs
下蛋

æ˩mi˧ tʰi˧-ʁo˧-dʑo˧!
The hen is laying eggs!
母鸡在下蛋!

æ˩mi˧ | æ˩ ʁo˧-ze˩!
The hen has laid eggs!
母鸡下蛋了!
ʁo˧ verb Tone: M intrans.
to_be_able_to. 能. verb.

njɤ˧ | tɕi˩-mɤ˩-ʁo˩˥!
I can't write! / I am not able to write! (Said by someone who has not learnt to write)
我写不出来! / 我不会写!

njɤ˧ | tɕi˩-ʁo˩˥!
I can write! / I am able to write! / I know how to write!
我会写! / 我写得出来!
ʁo˧bv˧ noun Tone: M.
classifier: kʰwɤ˥ sprout. 萌芽. plant.
ʁo˧dɑ˧ adverb Tone: M.
in_front_of. 前面. space.

ʂɯ˧-kʰv˧-ʁo˧dɑ˧
seven years ago
七年前

ʁo˧dɑ˧ ɖɯ˧-so˩ ɲi˩
the past few days
前几天
ʁo˧do˧ noun Tone: M.
classifier: ɭɯ˧ walnut. 核桃. plant.

ʁo˧do˧ qʰwæ˧˥
to crack walnuts
开核桃

ʁo˧do˧ ʐwæ˧
to weigh walnuts
称核桃
ʁo˧do˧ noun Tone: M.
classifier: kʰwɤ˥ interests. 利息. object.
ʁo˧dzi˥ verb Tone: H#.
to_run_into. 碰撞. verb.

le˧-ʁo˧dzi˥
accomp
accomp

hĩ˧ | tʰi˧-ʁo˧dzi˥ tsʰɯ˩(-ze˩)
People have ran into one another
人们(互相)碰撞
ʁo˧dzi˩ noun Tone: L#.
classifier: Tibetan. 藏族. ethnic groups.
ʁo˧dzi˩-di˩ noun
north. 北方. space.
ʁo˧dzi˩-di˩ noun Tone: L#-.
Tibet. 西藏. place name.
ʁo˧dzi˩-tʰæ˩ɻæ˩ noun Tone: L#-.
classifier: pʰæ˧˥ flag. 旗子. object.
ʁo˧dʑɯ˧ noun Tone: M.
classifier: nɑ˧ classifier: pɤ˩ halter. 马笼头. object.

ʐwæ˧-ʁo˧dʑɯ˥ (ʈʂʰɯ˧ | ʐwæ˧-ʁo˧dʑɯ˥ ɲi˩)
horse's halter
马笼头
ʁo˧ɖɯ˧˥ noun Tone: MH#.
tadpole. 蝌蚪. animal.
ʁo˧gv#˥ noun Tone: #H.
classifier: ɭɯ˧ pillow. 枕头. house.
ʁo˧hṽ˧˥ noun Tone: MH#.
classifier: kʰɯ˩ hair_of_head. 头发. body.
ʁo˧ʝi˧ adverb Tone: M.
the_year_after_next. 后年. time.

ʁo˧ʝi˧ ɖɯ˧-kʰv˧˥
the year after next
后年
ʁo˧kɤ˩ noun Tone: L#.
classifier: kɤ˧˥ woven_headdress. 用来将长辫缠成盘头的黑色丝头饰. object.
ʁo˧lv˧ verb Tone: M.
to_lose_one_s_way. 迷路. verb.

le˧-ʁo˧lv˧
accomp
accomp
ʁo˧ɬi˥ noun Tone: H#.
classifier: ɭɯ˧ large_needle. 大粗针. object.

ʁo˧ɬi˥, | bo˩ʈʂʰæ˧ ʐv˩-di˩ ɲi˩.
The large needle is used to sew pipa meat.
大针,是用来缝琵琶肉的。
ʁo˧mæ˧ verb
to_take_care_of. 照顾好. verb.

ʁo˧mæ˧-ze˩
pfv
管好了

hĩ˧ ʁo˧mæ˧
to take care of people
照顾人

no˧ | njɤ˧ ʁo˧mæ˧˥!
You take good care of me! (A satisfied comment by an elderly person to someone who takes care of them)
你很关心我啊!(老人满意地说)

ʈʂʰɯ˧ | ɖwæ˧˥ | hĩ˧ ʁo˧mæ˧-kv˩!
She is great at taking care of people! (A comment about the lady of the house)
她很会管家!(对女主人的表扬)
ʁo˧mi˥$ noun Tone: H$.
classifier: ɭɯ˧ large_needle. 大针. object.
ʁo˧mi˧ noun Tone: M.
classifier: king/chief. 国王/头领. society.

ʁo˧mi˧ ʝi˧-hĩ˧ hĩ˧
person who has a role as king/high official/chief
当国王、土司、大臣、头领……的人

kʰv˧mæ˧-ʁo˧mi˧
head of (a band of) robbers
土匪的头领
ʁo˧ni˥ noun Tone: H#.
classifier: bo˩ woven_headdress. 用来将长辫缠成盘头的黑色丝头饰. object.
ʁo˧pʰɤ˩-ʁo˩dv˩lv˩ noun Tone: L#.
Eugeron_breviscapus. 短葶飞蓬. plant.
ʁo˧qɑ˥ noun Tone: H#.
classifier: ɭɯ˧ lid. 盖子. object.
ʁo˧qʰwɤ˩ noun Tone: L#.
classifier: ɭɯ˧ head. 头. body.

ʁo˧qʰwɤ˩ dzi˩
to sit in a place of honour
坐在贵宾的位置上

õ˧-ʁo˥qʰwɤ˩
one's own head
自己的头

õ˧-ʁo˥qʰwɤ˩ lɑ˩
to hit one's own head (context: a child hits its own head rhythmically with a stick)
打自己的头(情景:一个小孩用小棍子敲打自己的头)

upper_part. 上面部分.
ʁo˧so˩ adverb Tone: L#.
the_day_after_tomorrow. 后天. time.

ʁo˧so˩ | -ɖɯ˧ɲi˥
the day after tomorrow
后天
ʁo˧ʂv˧ verb Tone: M.
to_guide. 带头. verb.

ʐɤ˩mi˩ ʁo˩ʂv˩˥
to show the way
带路

ɖɯ˧-ʑi˩-ɳɯ˩ | ʁo˧ʂv˧
a family shows the way/ sets an example (which other families follow): for instance, one family begins to harvest rice, and others follow their example
有一家带头:例如收庄稼时,一个家先开始收割,于是其它家庭也跟着开始收割。

ʁo˧ʂv˧-ze˧
pfv
带了路

njɤ˧=ɻ˩-ɳɯ˩ | ʁo˧ʂv˧!
We are showing the way! / We are setting an example for others! (Context: for agricultural activities, one household started first, and the others followed suit.)
是我们带头的!(其他家庭是跟着我们来的!)(情景:农业活动,如:收庄稼,是一个家庭先开始的,然后其他家庭也跟着来。)
-ʁo˧to˩ postposition Tone: L#.
on/during/compared_to/to(wards). 上. space.

qo˩qɑ˩-ʁo˩to˥
at the top of the mountain pass, at the mountain pass
垭口上

ʁo˧qʰwɤ˩-ʁo˩to˩
on the head, on top of the head
头上

ʑi˧qʰwɤ˧-ʁo˧to˩
on the house; e.g. there is a bird's nest on the top of the house
房子上面:例如:有鸟窝在房顶上

during. ……的时候. space.

hɑ˧dzɯ˧-ʁo˧to˩, | ʈʂʰɯ˧-ɳɯ˧ | mɤ˧-fv˧-ʝi˧.
During the meal, he felt displeased/he got angry.
吃饭的时候,他不高兴了/生气了。

to(wards). 向. space.
compared_to. 跟……相比. space.
-ʁo˧tʰo˩ postposition Tone: L#.
behind/since. 后面/自从. space.

ʑi˧-tʰo˩
behind the house (=the place where there is a vegetable garden)
家后院(=菜园的地方)

ʑi˧-ʁo˥tʰo˩
as above: behind the house
同上:家后院

ʑi˧qʰwɤ˧-ʁo˧tʰo˩
as above: behind the house
同上:家后院
ʁo˧tɕʰɤ#˥ adjective Tone: #H.
sharp. 尖. adjective.

ʁo˧tɕʰɤ˧~tɕʰɤ˧-gv˧
sharp
ʁo˧tsʰe˧ʁo#˥ noun Tone: #H.
top. 顶上. space.

ʁwɤ˧-bv˧ | ʁo˧tsʰe˧ʁo˧
the top of the mountain, the mountain top
山的顶,山顶

ʁo˧qʰwɤ˩-ʁo˩tsʰe˩
the top of the head
头顶
ʁo˧ʈv˧ʈv˥ noun Tone: H#.
classifier: Yi. 彝族. ethnic groups.
ʁo˧ʈʂe˩ noun Tone: L#.
classifier: pʰæ˧˥ ringworm. 癣. body.

ʁu˧ʈʂɯ˩ ɖwæ˧˥ tʰi˧ di˩!
(She/he) has a big patch of tinea!
他长了很多癣!
ʁo˧zo#˥ noun Tone: #H.
classifier: ɭɯ˧ small_needle. 小针. object.
ʁo˧ʑi˧˥ adverb Tone: MH#.
as_from. 从……开始. morphosyntax.

ɖɯ˧ɬi˧mi˧-ʁo˧ʑi˧˥
from the first month
一月份开始

tsʰi˧ɲi˧-ʁo˧ʑi˧˥
as from today
今天开始

tsʰi˧ʝi˧ ɖɯ˧-kʰv˧˥-ʁo˧ʑi˧˥
from this year on, as from this year
今年开始

gv˩ɬi˩mi˩-ʁo˩ʑi˩˥
as from the 9th month, starting from the 9th month
九月份开始

ʐe˧ʈæ˥ɬi˩-ʁo˩ʑi˩
as from the 11th month, starting from the 11th month
十一月份开始
ʁo˩ verb Tone: L.
to_sink. 掉入. verb.

mv˩tɕo˥ ʁo˩
to sink
掉入
ʁo˩ b classifier Tone: Lb.
clf .sorts . 量词 .种 . classifier.

ɖɯ˧-ʁo˩
one type (of clothing, food...)
一种(衣服、食物……)

ʈʂʰɯ˧-ʁo˥
this type (of clothing, food...)
这种(衣服、食物……)
ʁo˩ b verb Tone: Lb.
to_form. 出、出现(茧子……). verb.

sɯ˧ʈv˥ ʁo˩-ze˩! |
A callus has formed!
磨出了茧子!

ʁo˩-mɤ˩-ho˥
_ neg desiderative
不会出(茧子)
ʁo˩di˥ noun Tone: LH.
classifier: mad_person. 疯子. society.
ʁo˩ɖɯ˩so˧ adverb
in_three_days. 大后天. time.
ʁo˩hi˩ noun Tone: L.
classifier: ɭɯ˧ molars/premolars. 臼齿+后臼齿. body.
ʁo˩kʰv˩ noun Tone: L.
sandalwood. 香木. plant.

ʁo˩kʰv˩-si˩
same meaning
同上
ʁo˧˥ noun Tone: MH.
classifier: ɭɯ˧ needle. 针. object. See:
ʁv˥ verb Tone: H.
to_swallow. 咽. verb.

le˧-ʁv˥
accomp
accomp
ʁv˧-bv˥ noun
classifier: po˧ field_penny_cress. 菥蓂. plant.
ʁv˧mi˥$ noun Tone: H$.
classifier: mi˩ female_crane. 母鹤. animal.
ʁv˧pʰv#˥ noun Tone: #H.
classifier: mi˩ male_crane. 公鹤. animal.

ʁv˧pʰv˧-ʁv˧mi#˥
male crane and female crane
公鹤与母鹤
ʁv˧zo#˥ noun Tone: #H.
classifier: ɭɯ˧ baby_crane. 小鹤. animal.
ʁv˧˥ noun Tone: MH.
classifier: mi˩ crane. 黑颈鹤. animal.

ʁv˧nɑ˥mi˩
same meaning: crane
同上:黑颈鹤

ʁv˧ dzɯ˥-ze˩
...ate the crane
吃了黑颈鹤

ʁv˧ hwæ˥-ze˩
...bought (a/the) crane
买了黑颈鹤
ʁwæ˥ noun Tone: #H.
left. 左. space.
ʁwæ˧gi#˥ noun Tone: #H.
left_side. 左边. space.
ʁwæ˧gi˧dzɤ#˥ noun Tone: #H.
left. 左边. space.
ʁwæ˧lo˥ noun Tone: H#.
left_side. 左边. space.
ʁwæ˧tsɯ˥ noun Tone: H#.
From: Chinese 袜子 . socks. 袜子. clothing.
ʁwæ˧ʈʂʰe˩ verb Tone: L#.
From: Chinese 完成 . 完成::to_accomplish. 完成( 借词) . verb.

le˧-ʁwæ˧ʈʂʰe˩-ze˩!
It's complete! / It's finished!
完成了!
ʁwɤ˧ noun Tone: M.
classifier: ɭɯ˧ classifier: objets ronds mountain. 山. natural environment.

ʁo˧-ʂwæ˧
high mountain
高山
ʁwɤ˧ noun Tone: M.
classifier: ʁwɤ˧ village/hamlet. 村寨/村落. society.

ʁwɤ˧-qo˧
in the village
村子里

ɖɯ˧-ʁwɤ˧ mɤ˧-ɲi˩: | ʈʂʰɯ˧-ʁwɤ˧... | ʈʂʰɯ˧-ʁwɤ˧…
These do not belong to the same village: here, it is the village named...; over there, it is the village named...
它们不属于一个村落:这边,是……村,而那边,是……村。
ʁwɤ˧ noun Tone: M.
money. 钱. society.

ɖʐe˧-ʁwɤ˧
money
ʁwɤ˧ a classifier Tone: Ma.
clf .heaps . 量词 .堆 . classifier.
ʁwɤ˧ a verb Tone: Ma.
to_heap. 堆. verb.

ɖɯ˧-ʁwɤ˧ tʰi˧-ʁwɤ˧
to make a heap, to heap together
堆在一起

ɖɯ˧-ʁwɤ˧ tʰi˧-tɕɯ˥
to arrange into a heap
收拾成一堆

tso˧~tso˧ | gɤ˩-ʁwɤ˥ lv˩
to pile up objects
东西堆起来

ɖɯ˧-ʁwɤ˥-lv˩
to make into a heap (e.g. nuts, fruit... scattered around)
收拾成一堆(如:有果子散在地上,把它们堆在一起)

tso˧~tso˧ ʁwɤ˩
to pile up things
东西堆在一起
ʁwɤ˧lɑ˩-bi˩ noun Tone: L#-.
Walabie. 瓦拉别村. place name.

ə˧go˧-ʁwɤ˧, | ʁwɤ˧lɑ˩-bi˩, | bæ˧ʁwɤ˧, | tʰo˧tsʰe#˥, | pi˧tsʰe˩-di˩, | pɤ˧dʑɤ˩-di˩, | ʁwɤ˧tv˧
Villages that one encounters as one leaves the plain of Yongning (away from the Lake); the first two are perceived as villages with a high proportion of Na members, and the third as a mostly Na village, whereas the next ones are Pumi (Prinmi).
永宁背向泸沽湖方向经过的村落。前两个村落拥有相当大的摩梭人口比例,第三个村落是摩梭村,最后一个是普米村。
ʁwɤ˧qʰv˧ noun Tone: M.
classifier: ɭɯ˧ cave. 山洞. natural environment. See: ʁwɤ˧qʰv˧dʑɯ#˥
ʁwɤ˧qʰv˧dʑɯ#˥ noun Tone: #H.
classifier: ɭɯ˧ cavern. 山洞. natural environment. See: ʁwɤ˧qʰv˧
ʁwɤ˧~ʁwɤ˥ a verb Tone: La.
to_discuss. 商量. verb.

ɖɯ˧-ʁwɤ˧~ʁwɤ˥-ɻ˩
delimitative _ red inceptive
商量商量
ʁwɤ˧tv˧ noun Tone: M.
village_name. 温泉乡的一个村落. place name.

ʁwɤ˧tv˧-ʁwɤ˧
same meaning
同上

ə˧go˧-ʁwɤ˧, | ʁwɤ˧lɑ˩-bi˩, | bæ˧ʁwɤ˧, | tʰo˧tsʰe#˥, | pi˧tsʰe˩-di˩, | pɤ˧dʑɤ˩-di˩, | ʁwɤ˧tv˧
Villages that one encounters as one leaves the plain of Yongning (away from the Lake); the first two are perceived as villages with a high proportion of Na members, and the third as a mostly Na village, whereas the next ones are Pumi (Prinmi).
永宁背向泸沽湖方向经过的村落。前两个村落拥有相当大的摩梭人口比例,第三个村落是摩梭村,最后一个是普米村。

ʁwɤ˧tv˧: | bɤ˧!
/ʁwɤ˧tv˧/ is a Pumi village!
fv:/ʁwɤ˧tv˧/是一个普米族村落!
ʁwɤ˧ʐv#˥ noun Tone: #H.
Qiansuo. 前所. place name.

ʁwɤ˧ʐv˧-lo˩mæ˩
same meaning
同上

ʁwɤ˧ʐv˧, | jɤ˧qʰɑ˧ dʑɤ˥; | hwɤ˧li˧-hɑ˧ mɤ˧-dʑo˧˥!
Adage: "In Qiansuo, bitter buckwheat grows beautifully; there's nothing for cats to eat!" Explanation: cats do not eat bitter buckwheat.
俗语:“前所,苦荞(庄稼)很好。猫,没得吃!”(说明:猫不吃苦荞。)
ʁwɤ˩ʁo˩ noun Tone: L.
classifier: ʁwɤ˧ hillside. 山坡. natural environment.

ʁwɤ˩ʁo˩ dʑɤ˥bv˩ ə˩bi˩?
You want to come and have fun on the mountain? Would you like to go and take a stroll on the mountain?
去山上玩,好吗?