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na
Index ə
ə
ə˧bɑ˩-lɑ˩bɑ˩
ə˧bo˥$
ə˧bo˧tɕo˧li˧
ə˧bv˧-ʁwɤ˧
ə˧bv˩
ə˧ɕjɤ˩
ə˧ɕjo˩
ə˧dɑ˥$
ə˧dɑ˧-ə˧mi#˥
ə˧dɑ˧-zo#˥
ə˧dze˧
ə˧-dzɤ˥$
ə˧-dzɤ˧~dzɤ˥
ə˧ɖo˧
ə˧go˧
ə˧go˧-ʁwɤ˧
ə˧gɯ˩
ə˧hɑ˩-bɑ˩lɑ˩
ə˧hĩ˥
ə˧hwɤ˧
ə˧hwɤ˧-zo˧hṽ˧˥
ə˧jɤ˩
ə˧ʝi˥$
ə˧ʝi˧-ʂɯ˥ʝi˩
ə˧ʝi˧-tsʰi˧ʝi#˥
ə˧lɑ˧
ə˧lɑ˧-ʁwɤ#˥
ə˧mɑ˧
ə˧mi˧
ə˧mi˧-ɖɯ˩
ə˧mi˧-mv˩
ə˧mi˧-tɕi˩
ə˧mi˧-ze˩mi˩
ə˧mi˧-zo#˥
ə˧mv˥-tɕi˩
ə˧mv˧-gi˥zɯ˩
ə˧mv˧-go˧mi˥
ə˧mv˩
ə˧ɲi˥$
ə˧ɲi˥-tsæ˩qæ˩
ə˧ɲi˧mɤ˩
ə˧ɲi˧-tsʰi˧ɲi#˥
ə˧pʰv˧
ə˧si˧
ə˧si˧-ə˧pʰv#˥
ə˧so˧
ə˧-sɯ˩kv˩
ə˧ʂɯ˧ɲi˥-ɖɯ˧ɲi˥
ə˧ti˥-dzi˩
ə˧tɕi˩
ə˧tse˥$
ə˧tso˧
ə˧tso˧~ə˧tso˥
ə˧tso˧-mɤ˧-ɲi˩
ə˧v˧-ze˥v˩
ə˧v˧˥
ə˧v˧˥
ə˧ze˧
ə˧zo˩-ʁwɤ˩
ə˧zɯ˩
ə˧ʐv˩
ə˧ʑi˧-ə˧pʰv˧˥
ə˧ʑi˧-ʐv˥mi˩
ə˧ʑi˧˥
ə˩‑
ə˩kʰɯ˩
ə˩ljɤ˩hæ̃˩ʂɯ˥-mo˩
ə˩qo˥
ə interjection
intj . 感叹词. morphosyntax.
ə˧bɑ˩-lɑ˩bɑ˩ noun Tone: L#-.
cactus. 仙人掌. plant.

ə˧bɑ˩-lɑ˩bɑ˩ | ɖɯ˧-dzi˩
a cactus plant
一棵仙人掌
ə˧bo˥$ noun Tone: H$.
classifier: paternal_uncle. 父亲的兄弟. society.

ə˧bo˧-ɖɯ˧˥
paternal uncle, father's elder brother
伯父:父亲的哥哥

ə˧bo˧-tɕi˥ (+ɲi˩)
paternal uncle, father's younger brother
叔叔:父亲的弟弟
ə˧bo˧tɕo˧li˧ noun Tone: M.
classifier: mi˩ cricket. 蟋蟀. animal.
ə˧bv˧-ʁwɤ˧ noun Tone: M.
village_name. 阿布瓦村. place name.
ə˧bv˩ noun Tone: L#.
classifier: ɭɯ˧ oven_to_make_bricks. 烤砖的烤炉. natural environment.
ə˧ɕjɤ˩ noun Tone: L#.
classifier: lover. 情人. society. See: ə˧ɖo˧
ə˧ɕjo˩ noun Tone: L#.
family_name. 一个姓. given name.

ə˧ɕjo˩=ɻ˩
the /ə˧ɕjo˩/ clan
|fv /ə˧ɕjo˩/ 家族 /ə˧ɕjo˩/ 家族
ə˧dɑ˥$ noun Tone: H$.
classifier: father. 父亲. society.
ə˧dɑ˧-ə˧mi#˥ noun Tone: #H.
father_and_mother. 父母. society.

ə˧dɑ˧-ə˧mi˧ ɲi˥-kv˩
the father and mother, as a pair
父母亲
ə˧dɑ˧-zo#˥ noun Tone: #H.
father_and_son. 父子. society.
ə˧dze˧ noun Tone: M.
classifier: purple_gromwell. 紫草. plant.

ə˧dze˧-njɤ˩hṽ˩
same meaning: purple gromwell
紫草

ə˧dze˧-bæ˩bæ˩
gromwell flowers
紫草花
ə˧-dzɤ˥$ adverb Tone: H$.
slowly. 慢. adverb.

ə˧-dzɤ˧ ʝi˧
to work slowly, to do slowly
慢慢做

ə˧dzɤ˧ le˧-hõ˩! |
Goodbye! (Said by the host to their guest. Literally: "Walk slowly!" = "Take your time on the way!")
慢走!

ə˧dzɤ˥ | le˧-hõ˩! |
Goodbye!
慢走!

ə˧dzɤ˧ le˧-dzi˩! |
Goodbye! (Said by the guest to their host. Literally: "Sit quietly!" = "Take it easy!")
慢慢坐!
See:
ə˧-dzɤ˧~dzɤ˥ adverb Tone: H#.
Etym: ə˧-dzɤ˥$, ə˧ze˧. slowly. 慢慢地. adverb.

ʈʂʰɯ˧ | ɖwæ˧˥ | ə˧-dzɤ˧~dzɤ˥ ʝi˩-kv˩!
(S)he works very carefully. (The literal meaning is 'very slowly'; this is not a criticism, however: it means that they know to take their time in order to do a good job.)
他工作很细致。(直译:‘他工作很慢’,但不是批评:意味着那个人懂得慢慢来做,做得更仔细。)

ə˧-dzɤ˧~dzɤ˥ ʝi˩
to do (something) slowly
慢慢地做

ə˧-zɤ˧~zɤ˥ ʝi˩
to do (something) slowly
慢慢地做
See: ə˧-dzɤ˥$
ə˧ɖo˧ noun Tone: M.
classifier: lover. 情人. society. See: ə˧ɕjɤ˩
ə˧go˧ noun Tone: M.
family_name. 一个姓. given name.

ə˧go˧=ɻ˩
the /ə˧go˧/ clan
|fv /ə˧go˧/ 家族 /ə˧go˧/ 家族

ə˧go˧ | dʑɤ˩tsʰi˧
The person called /dʑɤ˩tsʰi#˥/ , of the /ə˧go˧/ clan
|fv /ə˧go˧/ 家族名叫|fv /dʑɤ˩tsʰi#˥/ 那个人 /ə˧go˧/ 家族名叫 /dʑɤ˩tsʰi#˥/ 那个人
ə˧go˧-ʁwɤ˧ noun Tone: M.
village_name. 温泉乡的一个村落. place name.

ə˧go˧-ʁwɤ˧, | ʁwɤ˧lɑ˩-bi˩, | bæ˧ʁwɤ˧, | tʰo˧tsʰe#˥, | pi˧tsʰe˩-di˩, | pɤ˧dʑɤ˩-di˩, | ʁwɤ˧tv˧
Villages that one encounters as one leaves the plain of Yongning (away from the Lake); the first two are perceived as villages with a high proportion of Na members, and the third as a mostly Na village, whereas the next ones are Pumi (Prinmi).
永宁背向泸沽湖方向经过的村落。前两个村落拥有相当大的摩梭人口比例,第三个村落是摩梭村,最后一个是普米村。
ə˧gɯ˩ noun Tone: L#.
classifier: po˧ peppermint. 薄荷. plant.
ə˧hɑ˩-bɑ˩lɑ˩ noun Tone: L#-.
classifier: ɖʐo˩ song. 民歌. language.

ə˧hɑ˩bɑ˩lɑ˩ | ɖɯ˧-ɖʐo˩ gwɤ˩
to sing a song
唱一首摩梭歌
ə˧hĩ˥ adverb Tone: H#.
in_a_moment. 待会儿. time.

ə˧hĩ˥-ɳɯ˩, | li˧-kʰɯ˧-bi˥!
I will show you in a moment!
待会儿,我给你看吧!
ə˧hwɤ˧ adverb Tone: M.
yesterday_evening. 昨晚. time.

ə˧hwɤ˧ | mv˩kʰv˧˥
yesterday evening, during the night
昨晚,夜里
ə˧hwɤ˧-zo˧hṽ˧˥ noun Tone: °MH#.
newborn_baby. 婴儿. society.
ə˧jɤ˩ noun Tone: L#.
classifier: mother_s_elder_sister. 姨母 (比母亲大). society.
ə˧ʝi˥$ adverb Tone: H$.
last_year. 去年. time.
ə˧ʝi˧-ʂɯ˥ʝi˩ adverb Tone: #H-.
long_ago. 很久以前. time.
ə˧ʝi˧-tsʰi˧ʝi#˥ adverb Tone: #H.
these_years. 现在这个时代. time.
ə˧lɑ˧ noun Tone: M.
family_name. 一个姓. given name.

ə˧lɑ˧=ɻ˩
the /ə˧lɑ˧/ clan
|fv /ə˧lɑ˧/ 家族 /ə˧lɑ˧/ 家族
ə˧lɑ˧-ʁwɤ#˥ noun Tone: #H.
village_name. 永宁寺旁边的村落. place name.

dʑɤ˩bv˧kɤ˧-sɑ˥ʁwɤ˩, | hi˩ʁwɤ˩-lo˥, | æ˩mi˧-ʁwɤ#˥, | lɑ˧lo˧-ʁwɤ˥, | lɑ˧ŋwɤ˧, | bɤ˧tsʰo˧gv˥, | ə˧lɑ˧-ʁwɤ#˥, | gæ˧ɻæ˩, | qʰæ˧tɕʰi˧, | tʰo˧ʈɯ#˥
the ten villages traditionally considered as part of Yongning
摩梭传统地理概念中,属于永宁的十个村落
ə˧mɑ˧ noun Tone: M.
classifier: mother. 阿妈. society.
ə˧mi˧ noun Tone: M.
classifier: classifier: jɤ˧˥ mother/aunt. 母亲/姑母. society.

ə˧mi˧=ɻæ˩
_ associative
母亲们 =长辈女性
ə˧mi˧-ɖɯ˩ noun Tone: L#.
classifier: mother_s_elder_sister. 姨母 (比母亲大). society.
ə˧mi˧-mv˩ noun Tone: °L.
mother_and_daughter. 母女. society.
ə˧mi˧-tɕi˩ noun Tone: L#.
classifier: mother_s_younger_sister. 姨母 (比母亲小). society.
ə˧mi˧-ze˩mi˩ noun Tone: °L.
aunt_and_niece. 姨母与侄女或甥女. society.
ə˧mi˧-zo#˥ noun Tone: #H.
mother_and_son. 母子. society.
ə˧mv˥-tɕi˩ adjective Tone: H#.
very_small. 细小. adjective.

ə˧mv˥-tɕi˩-gv˩
very small, diminutive
小、细小

ə˧mv˥-tɕi˩-hĩ˩
very small
细小的

ə˧mv˥tɕi˩ | ɖɯ˧-kʰwɤ˥
a little piece, a little bit
一小块
ə˧mv˧-gi˥zɯ˩ noun Tone: #H-.
brothers. 兄弟. society.
ə˧mv˧-go˧mi˥ noun Tone: °H#.
sisters. 姐妹. society.
ə˧mv˩ noun Tone: L#.
classifier: elder_sibling. 哥哥/姐姐. society.

æ˧mv˩=ɻæ˩
associative : elder siblings
联想复数:哥哥们、姐姐们
ə˧ɲi˥$ adverb Tone: H$.
yesterday. 昨天. time.
ə˧ɲi˥-tsæ˩qæ˩ noun Tone: H#-L.
classifier: ɭɯ˧ little_finger. 小指. body.
ə˧ɲi˧mɤ˩ noun
Buddhist nun. 尼姑. society.

mi˩zɯ˩-ʈæ˩bɤ˥
woman priest
尼姑
ə˧ɲi˧-tsʰi˧ɲi#˥ adverb Tone: #H.
these_days. 近来. time.
ə˧pʰv˧ noun Tone: M.
classifier: grandmother_s_elder_brother. 姥姥的哥哥. society.
ə˧si˧ noun Tone: M.
classifier: 4th_generation_elders. 祖母与其哥哥. society.
ə˧si˧-ə˧pʰv#˥ noun Tone: #H.
ancestors. 祖宗. society.
ə˧so˧ adverb Tone: M.
a_moment_ago. 刚才. time.
ə˧-sɯ˩kv˩ pronoun Tone: °L / LMH.
1pl_incl . 咱们. morphosyntax.

ə˧-sɯ˩kv˩ | ɖɯ˧-tɑ˧˥ | nɑ˩ ɲi˧!
We are Na, all of us!
咱们都是摩梭人!

ə˧-sɯ˩kv˩ lɑ˩ ɲi˩!
We are between ourselves! (Context: a grandmother encourages her one-year-old granddaughter to defecate; there are other people present, which may be intimidating to the child, so her grandmother reassures her: "These are all family members! You can relax, there's nothing to be afraid of!"
只有我们!(=没有人在看!)(情景:一位奶奶鼓励一岁的小孙女拉屎。周围有人,这可能会让小姑娘害羞,所以奶奶安慰她:“都是家人,可以轻松!”)
ə˧ʂɯ˧ɲi˥-ɖɯ˧ɲi˥ adverb Tone: H#-H$.
the_past_few_days. 前几天. time.
ə˧ti˥-dzi˩ noun Tone: H#-.
Weixi. 维西. place name.
ə˧tɕi˩ noun Tone: L#.
classifier: mother_s_younger_sister. 姨母 (比母亲小). society.

ə˧tɕi˩=ɻæ˩
associative : aunts
姨母们
ə˧tse˥$ adverb Tone: H$.
why. 为什么. morphosyntax.

ə˧tse˧-ʝi˥ / ə˧tse˧-ʝi˧
Why? (Two variants; same meaning)
为什么?(有两个变体,意思一致)

no˧ | ə˧tse˧-ʝi˥ | mɤ˧-tsʰɯ˩ ɲi˩? / no˧ | ə˧tse˧-ʝi˧-zo˥ | mɤ˧-tsʰɯ˩ ɲi˩?
Why didn't you come?
你为什么没有来?

no˧ | ə˧tse˧-ʝi˥ | mɤ˧-dzɯ˥? = no˧ | ə˧tse˧-ʝi˥ | mɤ˧-dzɯ˧-ɲi˥?
Why don't you eat?
你为什么不吃?

ʈʂʰɯ˧ | ə˧tse˧-ɲi˥-hɯ˩?
What does that mean?
这是怎么一回事?
ə˧tso˧ pronoun Tone: M.
what. 什么. morphosyntax.

ə˧tso˧ ɲi˩?
What is it?
是什么?

no˧ | ə˧tso˧ ʝi˧ bi˧?
What are you going to do?
你要做什么?

no˧ | ə˧tse˧ bi˧?
contracted form of the previous example: fv:/tso˧/ and the following fv:/ʝi˧/ fuse into a single syllable, fv:[tse˧].
上面例子的缩短格式:|fv /tso˧/ 与|fv /ʝi˧/ 合成一个音节,|fv [tse˧]/tso˧//ʝi˧/ 合成一个音节, [tse˧]
ə˧tso˧~ə˧tso˥ pronoun Tone: H#.
interrog .what~ . 什么什么. morphosyntax.
ə˧tso˧-mɤ˧-ɲi˩ pronoun Tone: L#.
all_sorts_of. 各种. morphosyntax.
ə˧v˧-ze˥v˩ noun Tone: H#-.
uncle_and_nephew. 叔叔侄子. society.
ə˧v˧˥ adjective Tone: MH#.
beautiful. 美. adjective.

ɖwæ˧˥ | ə˧v˧˥
intensive .very
很好看!

ə˧-mɤ˧-v˧˥
neg : ugly
丑陋
ə˧v˧˥ noun Tone: MH#.
classifier: maternal_uncle. 舅舅/舅父. society.

ə˧v˧-ɖɯ˧˥
mother's elder brother
比母亲大的舅舅

ə˧v˧-tɕi˥
mother's younger brother
比母亲小的舅舅
ə˧ze˧ adverb Tone: H#.
slowly. 慢慢地. adverb.

ə˧ze˧ le˧-hõ˩!
Walk slowly! / Take your time on the road! / Have a quiet and pleasant journey! (Polite salutation to someone who is leaving.)
慢走!

ə˧ze˧ le˧-dzi˩!
Just stay seated! (Polite salutation when leaving someone.)
慢慢坐!
See: ə˧-dzɤ˥$
ə˧zo˩-ʁwɤ˩ noun Tone: L#-.
village_name. 温泉乡的一个村落. place name.
ə˧zɯ˩ pronoun Tone: L# / L.
1du . 咱们两个. morphosyntax.
ə˧ʐv˩ adjective Tone: L#.
used. 陈旧. adjective.

ʂe˧ ʐv˥
old meat, meat that is not fresh
陈肉、不新鲜的肉
ə˧ʑi˧-ə˧pʰv˧˥ noun Tone: MH#.
elders_by_two_generations. 奶奶与她的兄弟. society.
ə˧ʑi˧-ʐv˥mi˩ noun Tone: H#-.
grandmother_and_granddaughter. 奶奶与孙女. society.
ə˧ʑi˧˥ noun Tone: MH#.
classifier: grandmother_on_mother_s_side. 祖母(母亲的母亲). society.

ə˧ʑi˧ ʝi˧ so˥-zo˩-ho˩-ze˩!
I shall have to learn to be a grandmother! / I shall have to learn to behave as a grandmother! (Humorous remark by the main consultant, after a doctor has advised her to avoid low, soft seats such as sofas and to adopt a taller wooden chair. Paraphrase: "I guess I have entered the category of elderly persons!")
我要学习当老太太了!(情景:一位医生建议合作人不要坐在小凳子或者软沙发上了,而要坐更高的木头椅子。她幽默地说:“看来我是老年人了!”)
ə˩‑ pronoun Tone: L.
interrog . 吗. morphosyntax.

dʑɯ˧ | ə˩-dʑo˧?
Is there any water?
有谁吗?

ə˩-ŋi˩˥ ?
Is that right? / Is that correct? / ... isn't it?
对吗? / 对吧?
ə˩kʰɯ˩ noun Tone: L.
classifier: ɭɯ˧ turnip. 芜菁. plant.

ə˩kʰɯ˩-bv˧ | kʰɯ˩ʈɯ˩˥
the root of wild cabbage
芜菁的根
ə˩ljɤ˩hæ̃˩ʂɯ˥-mo˩ noun Tone: L+H#-.
|fi Hygrophorus lucorum Kalc hbr. . 柠檬黄蜡伞. plant.
ə˩qo˥ adverb Tone: LH.
inward. 往里. morphosyntax.