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Index ɖʐ
ɖʐæ˧ b
ɖʐæ˧qʰæ˥$
ɖʐæ˩ a
ɖʐe˧
ɖʐe˧gɯ˧
ɖʐe˧ʁwɤ˧
ɖʐɤ˧qʰwɤ˧
ɖʐɤ˧qʰwɤ˧ʈʂe#˥
ɖʐɤ˩
ɖʐɤ˩ɖwæ˩
ɖʐɤ˩kɤ˥$
ɖʐɤ˧˥
ɖʐɤ˧˥
ɖʐo˥
ɖʐo˥
ɖʐo˥ a
ɖʐo˩ b
ɖʐɯ˥
ɖʐɯ˥ a
ɖʐɯ˥kʰɤ˩
ɖʐɯ˧~ɖʐɯ˥
ɖʐɯ˧qo˩
ɖʐɯ˧ʂɯ˥
ɖʐɯ˧ʈʂɯ˥
ɖʐɯ˩~ɖʐɯ˧˥
ɖʐɯ˩kʰɤ˥
ɖʐɯ˩tso#˥
ɖʐv˥
ɖʐv˥
ɖʐv˥
ɖʐv˧
ɖʐv˧
ɖʐv˧
ɖʐv˧
ɖʐv˧ b
ɖʐv˧-nɑ˥mi˩
ɖʐv˧qʰɑ˧
ɖʐv˧tsi˥
ɖʐv˧ʐv˧-ɖʐv˧mi#˥
ɖʐv˩ a
ɖʐv˩ a
ɖʐv˩ti#˥
ɖʐwæ˥
ɖʐwæ˧lɑ˧-ʁo˧ɖɯ˧˥
ɖʐwæ˧mi˧
ɖʐwæ˧pʰv#˥
ɖʐwæ˧zo#˥
ɖʐwæ˩ a
ɖʐwæ˩hi˩
ɖʐwæ˧˥
ɖʐwæ˩˧
ɖʐæ˧ b verb Tone: Mb.
to_ride. 骑. verb.

le˧-ɖʐæ˧-ze˧
accomp _ pfv
accomp _ pfv

ʐwæ˧ ɖʐæ˧
to ride a horse
骑马

ɖʐæ˧-tʰɑ˧˥!
It's possible to ride (it)! / It's OK to ride (it)!
可以骑的!
ɖʐæ˧qʰæ˥$ noun Tone: H$.
mud. 泥巴. natural environment.

ɖʐæ˧qʰæ˧ ʐæ˥(-ze˩)
There is mud; mud has formed.
有泥巴了。

ɖʐæ˧qʰæ˧ ʐæ˧~ʐæ˥
There is mud; mud has formed.
有泥巴了
ɖʐæ˩ a verb Tone: La.
to_melt. 融化. verb.

mɤ˧ | le˧-ɖʐæ˩-ze˩
The grease has melted.
油融化了。

dʑi˩pʰæ˩˥ | le˧-ɖʐæ˩-ze˩
The ice has melted.
冰融化了。
ɖʐe˧ noun Tone: M.
money. 钱. object.
ɖʐe˧gɯ˧ noun Tone: M.
Yongsheng. 永胜. place name.

ɖʐe˧gɯ˧-to˩mi˩
a high mountain located in Yongsheng
永胜的一座高山

ɖʐe˧gɯ˧-hæ˧
Yongsheng Chinese (Han) (note: Yongsheng is mainly populated by Han Chinese)
永胜汉族

ɖʐe˧gɯ˧-dʑo˧, | hæ˧-ʂo˧~ʂo˩!
In Yongsheng, there are lots of Chinese (Han) people!
永胜,汉族群多!
ɖʐe˧ʁwɤ˧ noun Tone: M.
money. 钱. society.
ɖʐɤ˧qʰwɤ˧ noun Tone: M.
classifier: ʂɯ˩ classifier: fois cold. 感冒. body.

ɖʐɤ˧qʰwɤ˧ go˩
to have a cold; to have a flu
感冒

ɖʐɤ˧qʰwɤ˧ mɤ˧-go˩
...has no cold / does not have a cold
没感冒
ɖʐɤ˧qʰwɤ˧ʈʂe#˥ noun Tone: #H.
classifier: ɭɯ˧ awl. 锥. object.
ɖʐɤ˩ noun Tone: L.
classifier: pɤ˩ ladder. 梯子. house.

ɖʐɤ˩ do˧
to climb a ladder
爬上一个梯子

ɖʐɤ˧ | gɤ˩-do˧
to climb up a ladder
爬上一个梯子

stairs. 楼梯.

lv˧mi˧-ɖʐɤ˩ (+ɲi˩)
stone stairs
石头楼梯
ɖʐɤ˩ɖwæ˩ noun Tone: L.
classifier: ɖwæ˥ step. 台阶. house.
ɖʐɤ˩kɤ˥$ noun Tone: LM+H$.
family_name. 一个姓. given name.

ɖʐɤ˩kɤ˧=ɻ˥$
the /ɖʐɤ˩kɤ˥$/ clan
|fv /ɖʐɤ˩kɤ˥$/ 家族 /ɖʐɤ˩kɤ˥$/ 家族
ɖʐɤ˧˥ verb Tone: MH.
to_pluck. 摘/扯. verb.

le˧-ɖʐɤ˧-po˥-jo˩!
Pluck some (fruit) and pass them over (to us)!
(你)去给摘(一些)过来吧!

v˩tsʰɤ˧ ɖʐɤ˥
to pick vegetables
摘蔬菜

le˧-ɖʐɤ˧˥, | mv˩-tɕo˧ kwɤ˩
to pluck and throw away (weeds)
扯(荒草),扔掉

to_snap/to_smash. 拆/捣碎. verb.

le˧-ɖʐɤ˩~ɖʐɤ˩
red
重叠:拆拆

ʑi˧qʰwɤ˧ ɖʐɤ˧˥
to destroy a house
拆房子

le˧-ɖʐɤ˧˥ | ɲi˧-gi˧ gv˧
to tear into two pieces
拆成两半
ɖʐɤ˧˥ verb Tone: MH.
to_prop_open. 撑开. verb.

le˧-ɖʐɤ˩~ɖʐɤ˩
red
重叠
ɖʐo˥ noun Tone: #H.
classifier: ɖʐo˥ major_roof_beam. 大梁. house.
ɖʐo˥ adjective Tone: H.
cold. 冷(天气). adjective.
ɖʐo˥ a classifier Tone: Ha.
clf .beams . 量词 .梁 . classifier.
ɖʐo˩ b verb Tone: Lb.
to_crush. 弄碎. verb.

ʈʂo˧ɭɯ˧ ɖʐo˧˥
to crush with a grindstone
用手磨弄碎

ɖɯ˧-kʰwɤ˧ ɖʐo˧˥
to crush a piece (of something)
弄碎一块

ɖɯ˧-mɤ˩ ɖʐo˩
to crush a little (of something)
弄碎一点(东西)
ɖʐɯ˥ noun Tone: #H.
classifier: ɖʐɯ˩ market. 集市. society.
ɖʐɯ˥ a classifier Tone: Ha.
clf .markets . 量词 .市场/城 . classifier.

ɖʐɯ˧ | ɖɯ˧-ɖʐɯ˥
a marketplace, a town
一个市场
ɖʐɯ˥kʰɤ˩ noun
moment. (一)会儿. time.

ɖɯ˧-ɖʐɯ˥kʰɤ˩
a moment
一会儿
ɖʐɯ˧~ɖʐɯ˥ noun
(一)会儿. time.

ɖɯ˧-ɖʐɯ˧~ɖʐɯ˥
a moment
一会儿

ɖɯ˧-ɖʐɯ˧~ɖʐɯ˥ ʝi˩
to work for a moment
工作一会儿
ɖʐɯ˧qo˩ adverb Tone: L#.
in_town. 在市里. society.

ɖʐɯ˧qo˩ kʰi˩
to go into town
上街
ɖʐɯ˧ʂɯ˥ noun Tone: H#.
classifier: dzi˧ chopsticks. 筷子. object.
ɖʐɯ˧ʈʂɯ˥ noun Tone: H#.
classifier: nɑ˧ sieve. 筛子. object.
ɖʐɯ˩~ɖʐɯ˧˥ verb Tone: MH.
to_shake. 摇(头). verb.

ʁo˧ ɖʐɯ˥~ɖʐɯ˩
to shake one's head
摇头

ʁo˧ | le˧-ɖʐɯ˩~ɖʐɯ˩-ze˩
shook (her/his) head
摇了头
ɖʐɯ˩kʰɤ˥ noun Tone: LH.
classifier: ɖʐɯ˩ Etym: ɖʐɯ˩a. society. 社会. natural environment.
ɖʐɯ˩tso#˥ noun Tone: LM+#H.
classifier: kʰwɤ˥ rules_of_society. 社会规矩. natural environment.

ɖʐɯ˩tso˥ | hĩ˧-qo˩-ɳɯ˩ | le˧-tsʰɯ˩-ɲi˩-tsɯ˩-mæ˩!
The rules of society, the moral teachings (including proverbs, tales...) come from people / are human creations / are the fruit of human experience!
社会规矩,是通过人类的经验形成的! / 社会规矩,是人(按一代代的经验)创造的!
ɖʐv˥ verb Tone: H.
to_increase. 涨. adjective.

hĩ˧ ɖʐv˧
people become numerous
人变多

mo˧ ɖʐv˥
mushrooms multiply, become numerous
菌子长得多
ɖʐv˥ adjective Tone: H.
damp. 湿. adjective.

le˧-ɖʐv˥-ze˩
accomp _ pfv
accomp _ pfv

ɖʐv˧~ɖʐv˧
red
red

ʈʂe˧ ɖʐv˧-ze˩!
The earth is damp!
土湿了。
ɖʐv˥ noun Tone: #H.
classifier: kʰɯ˩ artery. 动脉. body. See: ɖʐv˧tsi˥
ɖʐv˧ verb Tone: M intrans.
to_burn. 燃烧. verb.

mv˧ ɖʐv˧-ze˩!
It has caught fire!
着火了!

mv˧ le˧-ɖʐv˧-ze˧!
The fire has caught!
开始着火了!

tʰi˧-ɖʐv˧-dʑo˧!
The fire is burning!
火在燃烧!
ɖʐv˧ noun Tone: M.
classifier: friend. 朋友. society.

njɤ˧ | ɖʐv˧ ɲi˩.
[(S)he] is my friend.
是我朋友。

õ˧ ɖʐv˥, õ˩ li˩! |
'One is easily influenced by one's friends!' (Literally: 'One's friends, one observes'.) The proverb refers to influence from friends, good or bad: good friends exert good influences; bad friends exert bad influences.
“大家都容易受朋友的影响!”(直译:“自己的朋友,自己看(=自己爱学他们的习惯)”)
ɖʐv˧ noun Tone: M.
classifier: ɖʐv˧ unfortunate_event. (不幸的)大事. abstract.

ɖʐv˧ kʰɯ˧˥
to cause an accident; to commit a fault; something serious happens
犯错误,出大事

ɖʐv˧ kʰɯ˧-ze˥
As above, with the pfv morpheme
同上,加上 pfv语素

ɖʐv˧ ɖɯ˧-ɖʐv˧ | kʰɯ˧-ze˥!
An accident has happened! / There's been an accident!
出大事了!
ɖʐv˧ noun Tone: M.
dew. 露水. natural environment. See: ɖʐv˧qʰɑ˧
ɖʐv˧ b classifier Tone: Mb.
clf .accidents . 量词 .事故 . classifier.
ɖʐv˧-nɑ˥mi˩ noun Tone: #H-.
classifier: mi˩ heron. 鹳. animal.
ɖʐv˧qʰɑ˧ noun Tone: M.
dew. 露水. natural environment. See: ɖʐv˧4
ɖʐv˧tsi˥ noun Tone: H#.
classifier: kʰɯ˩ artery. 动脉. body.
stalk. 茎. See:
ɖʐv˧ʐv˧-ɖʐv˧mi#˥ noun Tone: #H.
companion. 伙伴. society.
ɖʐv˩ a adjective Tone: La.
ugly. 丑. adjective.

ɖʐv˩-hĩ˩˥
rel / nmlz
丑的

ʈʂʰɯ˧-v˧ | ɖwæ˧˥ | ɖʐv˩˥!
This one is really ugly!
这个好丑!
ɖʐv˩ a verb Tone: La.
to_decide. 决定. verb.

njɤ˧-ɳɯ˧ | ɖʐv˧ ʝi˧-bi˧!
I'm going to decide!
我来决定吧!
ɖʐv˩ti#˥ noun Tone: LM+#H.
spear. 矛. object.
ɖʐwæ˥ noun Tone: #H.
classifier: nɑ˧ hoe. 锄头. agriculture.
ɖʐwæ˧lɑ˧-ʁo˧ɖɯ˧˥ noun Tone: MH#.
classifier: mi˩ sparrow. 雀. animal.
ɖʐwæ˧mi˧ noun Tone: M.
classifier: mi˩ sparrow. 麻雀. animal.
ɖʐwæ˧pʰv#˥ noun Tone: #H.
classifier: mi˩ male_sparrow. 公麻雀. animal.

ɖʐwæ˧pʰv˧ tʰv˧-mi˧˥ / ɖʐwæ˧pʰv˧ tʰv˧-mi˥#
n + dem + clf
这只公麻雀
ɖʐwæ˧zo#˥ noun Tone: #H.
classifier: v˧, mi˩ baby_sparrow. 小麻雀. society.
ɖʐwæ˩ a verb Tone: La.
to_quarrel. 吵架. verb.

ɖʐwæ˧~ɖʐwæ˥
red
重叠
ɖʐwæ˩hi˩ noun Tone: L.
classifier: ɭɯ˧ canine_teeth. 獠牙. body.
fang. 动物的牙.
ɖʐwæ˧˥ verb Tone: MH.
to_fall_down. 掉下. verb.

mv˩tɕo˧ ɖʐwæ˧˥ / mv˩tɕo˧ ɖʐwæ˧-ze˥
to fall down
掉下去(+了)
ɖʐwæ˩˧ noun Tone: LM.
classifier: mi˩ sparrow. 麻雀. animal.