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Index ɖ
ɖæ˥
ɖæ˧~ɖæ˩
ɖæ˩ a
ɖæ˩ a
ɖæ˩dʑɯ˥
ɖæ˩-lɑ˧so˧
ɖæ˩mi˧
ɖæ˩mi˧-go˧bɤ˩
ɖæ˩pʰv˥
ɖæ˩ʂɯ#˥
ɖæ˩˧
ɖɤ˥
ɖɤ˧mi˧
ɖɤ˩ a
ɖo˧
ɖɯ˧-
ɖɯ˧ b
ɖɯ˧-ɬi˧mi˧
ɖɯ˧-njɤ˧
ɖɯ˧-ɲi˧-ɖɯ˥-hɑ̃˩
ɖɯ˧-so˩
ɖɯ˧ʈæ˩
ɖɯ˩ a
ɖɯ˩ɖʐɯ˧
ɖɯ˩ɖʐɯ˧-tsʰɯ˩ɻ˩
ɖɯ˩hĩ˩
ɖɯ˩lo#˥
ɖɯ˩mɑ#˥
ɖɯ˩mɑ˧-ɬɑ˩tsʰo˩
ɖɯ˩mɑ˧-pv˩ʈʰɯ˩
ɖɯ˩mi#˥
ɖɯ˩zo#˥
ɖɯ˧˥
ɖv˧qæ˧
ɖv˩
ɖwæ˥
ɖwæ˥
ɖwæ˥ a
ɖwæ˧-pɤ˧ɭɯ˥
ɖwæ˩ a
ɖwæ˧˥
ɖwæ˧˥
ɖʐæ˧ b
ɖʐæ˧qʰæ˥$
ɖʐæ˩ a
ɖʐe˧
ɖʐe˧gɯ˧
ɖʐe˧ʁwɤ˧
ɖʐɤ˧qʰwɤ˧
ɖʐɤ˧qʰwɤ˧ʈʂe#˥
ɖʐɤ˩
ɖʐɤ˩ɖwæ˩
ɖʐɤ˩kɤ˥$
ɖʐɤ˧˥
ɖʐɤ˧˥
ɖʐo˥
ɖʐo˥
ɖʐo˥ a
ɖʐo˩ b
ɖʐɯ˥
ɖʐɯ˥ a
ɖʐɯ˥kʰɤ˩
ɖʐɯ˧~ɖʐɯ˥
ɖʐɯ˧qo˩
ɖʐɯ˧ʂɯ˥
ɖʐɯ˧ʈʂɯ˥
ɖʐɯ˩~ɖʐɯ˧˥
ɖʐɯ˩kʰɤ˥
ɖʐɯ˩tso#˥
ɖʐv˥
ɖʐv˥
ɖʐv˥
ɖʐv˧
ɖʐv˧
ɖʐv˧
ɖʐv˧
ɖʐv˧ b
ɖʐv˧-nɑ˥mi˩
ɖʐv˧qʰɑ˧
ɖʐv˧tsi˥
ɖʐv˧ʐv˧-ɖʐv˧mi#˥
ɖʐv˩ a
ɖʐv˩ a
ɖʐv˩ti#˥
ɖʐwæ˥
ɖʐwæ˧lɑ˧-ʁo˧ɖɯ˧˥
ɖʐwæ˧mi˧
ɖʐwæ˧pʰv#˥
ɖʐwæ˧zo#˥
ɖʐwæ˩ a
ɖʐwæ˩hi˩
ɖʐwæ˧˥
ɖʐwæ˩˧
ɖæ˥ adjective Tone: H.
short. 短. adjective.
ɖæ˧~ɖæ˩ adjective Tone: L#.
horizontal. 横着. adjective.

ɖæ˧~ɖæ˩ | tʰi˧-tɕɯ˥
to lay flat
横着放
ɖæ˩ a classifier Tone: La.
clf .section . 量词 .路/布 . classifier.

ʐɤ˩mi˩˥ | ɖɯ˧-ɖæ˩
a section of road, a stretch of road
一段路

ɲi˧, ɲi˩-ɖæ˩! |
Two stretches a day! (Set phrase: in one day, one can cover a distance of two 'stretches'. If one can get somewhere before lunch, the distance counts as one stretch/section; if one can only arrive there in the afternoon, it counts as two stretches/sections.)
一天两段路!(说明:早上出发,如果午饭前能到目的地,距离算是一段,如果下午晚上才到,算两段。)

ʈʂʰɯ˧-ɖæ˥
dem _ (tone: H# / H$)
指示代词 _
ɖæ˩ a verb Tone: La.
to_cross. 渡. verb.

dʑɯ˩ ɖæ˩˥ / dʑɯ˩ ɖæ˩-ze˥
to cross a river
渡河

dʑɯ˧ | ɖɯ˧-kʰɯ˩ ɖæ˩
as above
同上
ɖæ˩dʑɯ˥ noun Tone: LH.
classifier: ʁwɤ˧, etc dirt. 污垢. natural environment.
ɖæ˩-lɑ˧so˧ noun Tone: L-.
From: Tibetan 'braslhagsol. name_of_ceremony. 一种祈福仪式. religion.
ɖæ˩mi˧ noun Tone: LM.
From: Tibetan dgramed. Yongning_monastery. 永宁大寺. place name.

ɖæ˩mi˧-ʈæ˩bɤ˩
a priest from the monastery
永宁大寺的和尚
ɖæ˩mi˧-go˧bɤ˩ noun Tone: LM-L#.
From: Tibetan dgrameddgonpa. Yonging_temple. 永宁大寺. place name.
ɖæ˩pʰv˥ noun Tone: LH.
classifier: ti˧˥ dust. 灰尘. natural environment.
ɖæ˩ʂɯ#˥ noun Tone: LM+#H.
village_name. 扎实村. place name.

ɖæ˩ʂɯ˧-ʁwɤ#˥
same meaning
同上:扎实村

ɖæ˩ʂɯ#˥, | ʈʂo˧ʂɯ#˥, | bɤ˩tɕʰɯ˩˥, | dɑ˧pʰo˥, | bɤ˧dzi˩, | dze˧bo˧
the six villages of the plain of Yongning, in traditional order: by order of increasing distance from the Lake
永宁坝的六个村落,按传统排序:从距离泸沽湖最近的村落说起。
ɖæ˩˧ noun Tone: LM.
natural environment.
classifier: ti˧˥ classifier: couche dust. 尘土.

ɖæ˩˥ | ɖɯ˧-ti˧ tʰi˧-di˥
there is a layer of dust
有一层灰

ɖæ˩ bæ˧
to sweep the dust
扫灰

dirt/filth. 污垢.
ɖɤ˥ verb Tone: H.
to_crawl. 爬行/匍匐. verb.

ɖɤ˧~ɖɤ˧ (-ze˩)
red
重叠:爬一爬

ʈʂʰɯ˧ | ɖɤ˧~ɖɤ˧-ʁo˧-ze˩!
She can crawl! / She knows how to crawl! (About a baby that crawls around.)
她会爬了!
ɖɤ˧mi˧ noun Tone: M.
classifier: pʰo˧˥ fox. 狐狸. animal.

ɖɤ˧mi˧-zo#˥
little fox, baby fox
小狐狸

ɖɤ˧mi˧-pʰv#˥
male fox
公狐狸

ɖɤ˧mi˧, | mi˩ ɲi˥!
This fox is a female!
这只狐狸是母的!
ɖɤ˩ a adjective Tone: La.
hot. 热(天气). adjective.

ɲi˧mi˧ | ɖɤ˩-ze˥!
The sun is burning hot, scalding
太阳很大、很强烈

ɖɤ˩-hĩ˩˥
rel
热的
ɖo˧ verb Tone: M intrans.
to_allow/to_order. 让. verb.

po˧ mɤ˧-ɖo˧!
(You) are not allowed to take it! / You must not take it! (eg telling a child that (s)he is not allowed to take a knife)
不许拿!

ʈʂʰɯ˧, | po˧ ɖo˧!
That one, you can have it / you can take it / you can play with it! (Context: as above: telling a child what (s)he can and cannot toy with.)
那个,是可以拿的! / 那个,是可以玩的!(情景同上:告诉一个小孩子什么东西可以拿,什么不可以拿。)

gɤ˩ do˧ mɤ˧-ɖo˧!
(You) are not allowed to climb (on the table,...)
不许爬上(桌子……)

lɑ˧-kʰv˧˥, | ʑi˧qʰwɤ˧ tsʰi˧-mɤ˧-ɖo˧! | ʑi˩-kʰv˩˥, | ʑi˧qʰwɤ˧ tsʰi˧-mɤ˧-ɖo˧! |
(During) the year of the Tiger, one should not build a house! (During) the year of the Monkey, one should not build a house! (These years are considered too "hard", /wu˧/ , by astrology.)
虎年,不要建房!猴年,不要建房!(这样的年,被认为是太‘硬’的。)

ʝi˧ mɤ˧-ɖo˧!
(One) must not do (that)!
不要做!
ɖɯ˧- preposition Tone: M.
delimitative . 进行时态 . morphosyntax.
ɖɯ˧ b verb Tone: Mb.
to_obtain. 得到. verb.

le˧-ʂe˧ le˧-ɖɯ˧-ze˧!
(I) have looked for something and found it! / I have found (something by looking around for it)!
找到了!

ɖɯ˧-tʰɑ˧˥!
It is possible to obtain it! / It can be obtained!
可以得到的!

ɖɯ˧-tʰɑ˧-ze˥!
We have managed to obtain it! / We found it possible to obtain it!
(我们)成功地得到了!

tso˧~tso˧ ɖɯ˧ (+ze˧)
to obtain something
得到东西
ɖɯ˧-ɬi˧mi˧ noun Tone: M.
1st_month. 正月. time.
ɖɯ˧-njɤ˧ adverb Tone: M.
ceaselessly. 一直. time.

ɖɯ˧-njɤ˧ | so˩˥
to study ceaselessly
一直不停地学习

ɖɯ˧-njɤ˧ | lo˧ ʝi˧
to work ceaselessly
一直不停地工作

ɖɯ˧-njɤ˧-zo˥
often
经常、常

ɖɯ˧-njɤ˧ hwæ˩; ɖɯ˧-njɤ˧ tɕʰi˧; ɖɯ˧-njɤ˧ dzɯ˧; ɖɯ˧-njɤ˧ dze˧˥; ɖɯ˧-njɤ˧ ʐwɤ˧˥; ɖɯ˧-njɤ˧ lɑ˧˥
combinations with verbs in the six tones: to buy, to sell, to eat, to cut, to speak, to strike
跟六个调类的动词结合:买,卖,吃,切,说,打

ɖɯ˧-njɤ˧ | hwæ˧; ɖɯ˧-njɤ˧ | tɕʰi˧; ɖɯ˧-njɤ˧ | dzɯ˧; ɖɯ˧-njɤ˧ | dze˩˥; ɖɯ˧-njɤ˧ | ʐwɤ˩˥; ɖɯ˧-njɤ˧ | lɑ˧˥
combinations with verbs in the six tones: to buy, to sell, to eat, to cut, to speak, to strike (separating into two tone groups)
跟六个调类的动词结合:买,卖,吃,切,说,打
ɖɯ˧-ɲi˧-ɖɯ˥-hɑ̃˩ noun Tone: #H-.
one_day_and_one_night. 一天一夜. time.
ɖɯ˧-so˩ noun Tone: La.
a_few. 些. morphosyntax.

hĩ˧ | ɖɯ˧-so˩-kv˩
a few people
几个人
ɖɯ˧ʈæ˩ noun Tone: L#.
funeral_ritual. 葬礼仪式. society.
ɖɯ˩ a adjective Tone: La.
big. 大. adjective.

mɤ˧-ɖɯ˩
neg
neg

ɖɯ˩-hĩ˩˥
rel
rel

le˧-ɖɯ˩(-ze˩)
accomp + pfv
accomp + pfv

ə˧pɤ˥ɖɯ˩-gv˩
very big
好大、大得很
ɖɯ˩ɖʐɯ˧ noun Tone: LM.
From: Tibetan . masculine_given_name. 男性名字:独知. given name.
ɖɯ˩ɖʐɯ˧-tsʰɯ˩ɻ˩ noun Tone: LM-L.
masculine_given_name. 男性名字. given name.
ɖɯ˩hĩ˩ noun Tone: L.
classifier: important_people. 大人. society.
ɖɯ˩lo#˥ noun Tone: LM+#H.
language.
classifier: kʰwɤ˥ tradition. 传统.

ɖɯ˩lo˧ ɖɯ˧-kʰwɤ˥ | tʰi˧-so˥-ɻ˩
to teach a custom
教授一个传统、一个习俗

good_manners. 礼貌.

ʈʂʰɯ˧ | ɖɯ˩lo˧ dʑɤ˥!
(S)he knows the customs / (s)he has good manners
他懂礼貌、他会做人

the_order_of_things. 道理.
ɖɯ˩mɑ#˥ noun Tone: LM+#H.
feminine_given_name. 女性名字. given name.
ɖɯ˩mɑ˧-ɬɑ˩tsʰo˩ noun Tone: LM-L.
feminine_given_name. 女性名字. given name.
ɖɯ˩mɑ˧-pv˩ʈʰɯ˩ noun Tone: LM-L.
feminine_given_name. 女性名字. given name.
ɖɯ˩mi#˥ noun Tone: LM+#H.
classifier: mi˩ female_mule. 母骡子. animal.

ɖɯ˩mi˧-ɖɯ˥zo˩
Female mule and male mule
母骡子与公骡子
ɖɯ˩zo#˥ noun Tone: LM+#H.
classifier: ɭɯ˧ male_mule. 公骡子. animal.

ɖɯ˩zo˧-ɖɯ˥mi˩
male mule and female mule
公骡子与母骡子
ɖɯ˧˥ numeral Tone: MH.
1. 1. number.
ɖv˧qæ˧ noun Tone: M.
classifier: dze˩ classifier: paire wing. 翅膀. animal.

kɤ˩nɑ˧mi˧-ɖv˧qæ˥
eagle wings
老鹰翅膀
ɖv˩ noun Tone: L.
classifier: dze˩ classifier: paire wing. 翅膀. animal.
ɖwæ˥ noun Tone: #H.
classifier: ɭɯ˧ classifier: objets ronds pond. 池塘. natural environment.

ɖwæ˩ɬo˩mi˧
large pond
大池塘

pool. 水坑.
ɖwæ˥ adjective Tone: H.
turbid. 浑浊. adjective.

dʑɯ˧ ɖwæ#˥
turbid water
浑浊的水

dʑɯ˧ | ɖwæ˧-ze˩!
The water has become turbid.
水浑浊了。
ɖwæ˥ a classifier Tone: Ha.
clf .steps_of_stairs . 量词 .梯级 . classifier.

ɖɯ˧-ɖwæ˧ ɲi˥
It's a step (of stairs). (Elicited to investigate the word's tonal behaviour)
是一节/一节阶梯。(引出这句是为了了解这个词在不同语境的声调变化。)

ʈʂʰɯ˧-ɖwæ#˥
this step
这节阶梯
ɖwæ˧-pɤ˧ɭɯ˥ noun Tone: H#.
classifier: ɭɯ˧ classifier: objets ronds puddle. 水潭. natural environment.

ɖwæ˧ tʰi˧-pɤ˥ɭɯ˩
there is water in the pool; a puddle has formed
有水潭
ɖwæ˩ a verb Tone: La.
to_be_afraid. 害怕. verb.

njɤ˧ | ɖwæ˩˥!
I am afraid!
我害怕!

njɤ˧ | ʈʂʰɯ˧-v˧ | ɖwæ˩˥ | ʐwæ˩˥!
I am really afraid of this person!
我很害怕那个人!
ɖwæ˧˥ verb Tone: MH.
to_whip. 鞭打. verb.

mæ˧qv˩-po˩-ɳɯ˩ | ɖwæ˧˥
to whip with the tail (e.g. a tiger whips the ground with its tail)
用尾巴来抽打(如:老虎用尾巴来抽打地面)
ɖwæ˧˥ adverb Tone: MH.
intensive .very . 很. morphosyntax.

ʈʂʰɯ˧ | ɖwæ˧˥ | æ˧mv˩ fv˩!
She likes her elder sister very much!
她很喜欢她姐姐!
ɖʐæ˧ b verb Tone: Mb.
to_ride. 骑. verb.

le˧-ɖʐæ˧-ze˧
accomp _ pfv
accomp _ pfv

ʐwæ˧ ɖʐæ˧
to ride a horse
骑马

ɖʐæ˧-tʰɑ˧˥!
It's possible to ride (it)! / It's OK to ride (it)!
可以骑的!
ɖʐæ˧qʰæ˥$ noun Tone: H$.
mud. 泥巴. natural environment.

ɖʐæ˧qʰæ˧ ʐæ˥(-ze˩)
There is mud; mud has formed.
有泥巴了。

ɖʐæ˧qʰæ˧ ʐæ˧~ʐæ˥
There is mud; mud has formed.
有泥巴了
ɖʐæ˩ a verb Tone: La.
to_melt. 融化. verb.

mɤ˧ | le˧-ɖʐæ˩-ze˩
The grease has melted.
油融化了。

dʑi˩pʰæ˩˥ | le˧-ɖʐæ˩-ze˩
The ice has melted.
冰融化了。
ɖʐe˧ noun Tone: M.
money. 钱. object.
ɖʐe˧gɯ˧ noun Tone: M.
Yongsheng. 永胜. place name.

ɖʐe˧gɯ˧-to˩mi˩
a high mountain located in Yongsheng
永胜的一座高山

ɖʐe˧gɯ˧-hæ˧
Yongsheng Chinese (Han) (note: Yongsheng is mainly populated by Han Chinese)
永胜汉族

ɖʐe˧gɯ˧-dʑo˧, | hæ˧-ʂo˧~ʂo˩!
In Yongsheng, there are lots of Chinese (Han) people!
永胜,汉族群多!
ɖʐe˧ʁwɤ˧ noun Tone: M.
money. 钱. society.
ɖʐɤ˧qʰwɤ˧ noun Tone: M.
classifier: ʂɯ˩ classifier: fois cold. 感冒. body.

ɖʐɤ˧qʰwɤ˧ go˩
to have a cold; to have a flu
感冒

ɖʐɤ˧qʰwɤ˧ mɤ˧-go˩
...has no cold / does not have a cold
没感冒
ɖʐɤ˧qʰwɤ˧ʈʂe#˥ noun Tone: #H.
classifier: ɭɯ˧ awl. 锥. object.
ɖʐɤ˩ noun Tone: L.
classifier: pɤ˩ ladder. 梯子. house.

ɖʐɤ˩ do˧
to climb a ladder
爬上一个梯子

ɖʐɤ˧ | gɤ˩-do˧
to climb up a ladder
爬上一个梯子

stairs. 楼梯.

lv˧mi˧-ɖʐɤ˩ (+ɲi˩)
stone stairs
石头楼梯
ɖʐɤ˩ɖwæ˩ noun Tone: L.
classifier: ɖwæ˥ step. 台阶. house.
ɖʐɤ˩kɤ˥$ noun Tone: LM+H$.
family_name. 一个姓. given name.

ɖʐɤ˩kɤ˧=ɻ˥$
the /ɖʐɤ˩kɤ˥$/ clan
|fv /ɖʐɤ˩kɤ˥$/ 家族 /ɖʐɤ˩kɤ˥$/ 家族
ɖʐɤ˧˥ verb Tone: MH.
to_pluck. 摘/扯. verb.

le˧-ɖʐɤ˧-po˥-jo˩!
Pluck some (fruit) and pass them over (to us)!
(你)去给摘(一些)过来吧!

v˩tsʰɤ˧ ɖʐɤ˥
to pick vegetables
摘蔬菜

le˧-ɖʐɤ˧˥, | mv˩-tɕo˧ kwɤ˩
to pluck and throw away (weeds)
扯(荒草),扔掉

to_snap/to_smash. 拆/捣碎. verb.

le˧-ɖʐɤ˩~ɖʐɤ˩
red
重叠:拆拆

ʑi˧qʰwɤ˧ ɖʐɤ˧˥
to destroy a house
拆房子

le˧-ɖʐɤ˧˥ | ɲi˧-gi˧ gv˧
to tear into two pieces
拆成两半
ɖʐɤ˧˥ verb Tone: MH.
to_prop_open. 撑开. verb.

le˧-ɖʐɤ˩~ɖʐɤ˩
red
重叠
ɖʐo˥ noun Tone: #H.
classifier: ɖʐo˥ major_roof_beam. 大梁. house.
ɖʐo˥ adjective Tone: H.
cold. 冷(天气). adjective.
ɖʐo˥ a classifier Tone: Ha.
clf .beams . 量词 .梁 . classifier.
ɖʐo˩ b verb Tone: Lb.
to_crush. 弄碎. verb.

ʈʂo˧ɭɯ˧ ɖʐo˧˥
to crush with a grindstone
用手磨弄碎

ɖɯ˧-kʰwɤ˧ ɖʐo˧˥
to crush a piece (of something)
弄碎一块

ɖɯ˧-mɤ˩ ɖʐo˩
to crush a little (of something)
弄碎一点(东西)
ɖʐɯ˥ noun Tone: #H.
classifier: ɖʐɯ˩ market. 集市. society.
ɖʐɯ˥ a classifier Tone: Ha.
clf .markets . 量词 .市场/城 . classifier.

ɖʐɯ˧ | ɖɯ˧-ɖʐɯ˥
a marketplace, a town
一个市场
ɖʐɯ˥kʰɤ˩ noun
moment. (一)会儿. time.

ɖɯ˧-ɖʐɯ˥kʰɤ˩
a moment
一会儿
ɖʐɯ˧~ɖʐɯ˥ noun
(一)会儿. time.

ɖɯ˧-ɖʐɯ˧~ɖʐɯ˥
a moment
一会儿

ɖɯ˧-ɖʐɯ˧~ɖʐɯ˥ ʝi˩
to work for a moment
工作一会儿
ɖʐɯ˧qo˩ adverb Tone: L#.
in_town. 在市里. society.

ɖʐɯ˧qo˩ kʰi˩
to go into town
上街
ɖʐɯ˧ʂɯ˥ noun Tone: H#.
classifier: dzi˧ chopsticks. 筷子. object.
ɖʐɯ˧ʈʂɯ˥ noun Tone: H#.
classifier: nɑ˧ sieve. 筛子. object.
ɖʐɯ˩~ɖʐɯ˧˥ verb Tone: MH.
to_shake. 摇(头). verb.

ʁo˧ ɖʐɯ˥~ɖʐɯ˩
to shake one's head
摇头

ʁo˧ | le˧-ɖʐɯ˩~ɖʐɯ˩-ze˩
shook (her/his) head
摇了头
ɖʐɯ˩kʰɤ˥ noun Tone: LH.
classifier: ɖʐɯ˩ Etym: ɖʐɯ˩a. society. 社会. natural environment.
ɖʐɯ˩tso#˥ noun Tone: LM+#H.
classifier: kʰwɤ˥ rules_of_society. 社会规矩. natural environment.

ɖʐɯ˩tso˥ | hĩ˧-qo˩-ɳɯ˩ | le˧-tsʰɯ˩-ɲi˩-tsɯ˩-mæ˩!
The rules of society, the moral teachings (including proverbs, tales...) come from people / are human creations / are the fruit of human experience!
社会规矩,是通过人类的经验形成的! / 社会规矩,是人(按一代代的经验)创造的!
ɖʐv˥ verb Tone: H.
to_increase. 涨. adjective.

hĩ˧ ɖʐv˧
people become numerous
人变多

mo˧ ɖʐv˥
mushrooms multiply, become numerous
菌子长得多
ɖʐv˥ adjective Tone: H.
damp. 湿. adjective.

le˧-ɖʐv˥-ze˩
accomp _ pfv
accomp _ pfv

ɖʐv˧~ɖʐv˧
red
red

ʈʂe˧ ɖʐv˧-ze˩!
The earth is damp!
土湿了。
ɖʐv˥ noun Tone: #H.
classifier: kʰɯ˩ artery. 动脉. body. See: ɖʐv˧tsi˥
ɖʐv˧ verb Tone: M intrans.
to_burn. 燃烧. verb.

mv˧ ɖʐv˧-ze˩!
It has caught fire!
着火了!

mv˧ le˧-ɖʐv˧-ze˧!
The fire has caught!
开始着火了!

tʰi˧-ɖʐv˧-dʑo˧!
The fire is burning!
火在燃烧!
ɖʐv˧ noun Tone: M.
classifier: friend. 朋友. society.

njɤ˧ | ɖʐv˧ ɲi˩.
[(S)he] is my friend.
是我朋友。

õ˧ ɖʐv˥, õ˩ li˩! |
'One is easily influenced by one's friends!' (Literally: 'One's friends, one observes'.) The proverb refers to influence from friends, good or bad: good friends exert good influences; bad friends exert bad influences.
“大家都容易受朋友的影响!”(直译:“自己的朋友,自己看(=自己爱学他们的习惯)”)
ɖʐv˧ noun Tone: M.
classifier: ɖʐv˧ unfortunate_event. (不幸的)大事. abstract.

ɖʐv˧ kʰɯ˧˥
to cause an accident; to commit a fault; something serious happens
犯错误,出大事

ɖʐv˧ kʰɯ˧-ze˥
As above, with the pfv morpheme
同上,加上 pfv语素

ɖʐv˧ ɖɯ˧-ɖʐv˧ | kʰɯ˧-ze˥!
An accident has happened! / There's been an accident!
出大事了!
ɖʐv˧ noun Tone: M.
dew. 露水. natural environment. See: ɖʐv˧qʰɑ˧
ɖʐv˧ b classifier Tone: Mb.
clf .accidents . 量词 .事故 . classifier.
ɖʐv˧-nɑ˥mi˩ noun Tone: #H-.
classifier: mi˩ heron. 鹳. animal.
ɖʐv˧qʰɑ˧ noun Tone: M.
dew. 露水. natural environment. See: ɖʐv˧4
ɖʐv˧tsi˥ noun Tone: H#.
classifier: kʰɯ˩ artery. 动脉. body.
stalk. 茎. See:
ɖʐv˧ʐv˧-ɖʐv˧mi#˥ noun Tone: #H.
companion. 伙伴. society.
ɖʐv˩ a adjective Tone: La.
ugly. 丑. adjective.

ɖʐv˩-hĩ˩˥
rel / nmlz
丑的

ʈʂʰɯ˧-v˧ | ɖwæ˧˥ | ɖʐv˩˥!
This one is really ugly!
这个好丑!
ɖʐv˩ a verb Tone: La.
to_decide. 决定. verb.

njɤ˧-ɳɯ˧ | ɖʐv˧ ʝi˧-bi˧!
I'm going to decide!
我来决定吧!
ɖʐv˩ti#˥ noun Tone: LM+#H.
spear. 矛. object.
ɖʐwæ˥ noun Tone: #H.
classifier: nɑ˧ hoe. 锄头. agriculture.
ɖʐwæ˧lɑ˧-ʁo˧ɖɯ˧˥ noun Tone: MH#.
classifier: mi˩ sparrow. 雀. animal.
ɖʐwæ˧mi˧ noun Tone: M.
classifier: mi˩ sparrow. 麻雀. animal.
ɖʐwæ˧pʰv#˥ noun Tone: #H.
classifier: mi˩ male_sparrow. 公麻雀. animal.

ɖʐwæ˧pʰv˧ tʰv˧-mi˧˥ / ɖʐwæ˧pʰv˧ tʰv˧-mi˥#
n + dem + clf
这只公麻雀
ɖʐwæ˧zo#˥ noun Tone: #H.
classifier: v˧, mi˩ baby_sparrow. 小麻雀. society.
ɖʐwæ˩ a verb Tone: La.
to_quarrel. 吵架. verb.

ɖʐwæ˧~ɖʐwæ˥
red
重叠
ɖʐwæ˩hi˩ noun Tone: L.
classifier: ɭɯ˧ canine_teeth. 獠牙. body.
fang. 动物的牙.
ɖʐwæ˧˥ verb Tone: MH.
to_fall_down. 掉下. verb.

mv˩tɕo˧ ɖʐwæ˧˥ / mv˩tɕo˧ ɖʐwæ˧-ze˥
to fall down
掉下去(+了)
ɖʐwæ˩˧ noun Tone: LM.
classifier: mi˩ sparrow. 麻雀. animal.