La langue na (endonyme : /nɑ˩-ʐwɤ˧/, 'na'+'langue') est parlée à la frontière des provinces chinoises du Yunnan et du Sichuan, aux abords du lac Lugu (lo˧ʂv̩˩-hi˩nɑ˧mi˧).

Elle appartient au groupe naish de la famille sino-tibétaine, qui comprend également le naxi et le lazé. Elle est également appelée mos(u)o.

En 2010, il lui a été accordé une entrée à part, sous le nom translittéré de "Narua", dans l'inventaire des langues du Summer Institute of Linguistics (code: nru). Jusque-là, le na était considéré comme un dialecte de la langue naxi.

La grande majorité des documents offerts ici à la consultation et au téléchargement ont été recueillis dans la plaine de Yongning (nom en na : /ɬi˧di˩-di˩mi˩/), et proviennent du parler décrit dans une monographie parue en 2017 (disponible en ligne). Des "carnets de terrain" (blog) au sujet du na sont consultables ici.

 

 

Ressources

aLe mariage de la soeur (Version 1)
Chine, province du Yunnan, Latami Dashi-Lame, 2006, Alexis Michaud

aLe mariage de la soeur (Version 2)
Chine, province du Yunnan, Latami Dashi-Lame, 2007, Alexis Michaud

aLe mariage de la soeur (Version 3)
Chine, province du Yunnan, Latami Dashi-Lame, 2008, Alexis Michaud

Ce mythe raconte l'origine du rite pratiqué lors du décès d'une femme qui s'est mariée et a quitté la maison où elle est née. Ce rite, nommé «sɯ˧kʰɯ˩», remonterait à un siècle environ d'après la conteuse : il aurait été établi à un moment où l'institution du mariage commençait à gagner la plaine de Yongning, en contradiction avec la coutume plus ancienne selon laquelle les enfants passent leur vie entière dans la maisonnée de leur mère et de ses frères et sœurs (tantes et oncles maternelles), avec leurs frères et sœurs et leurs cousins du côté maternel, le rôle social du père/amant étant discret voire quasi-inexistant. D'après la conteuse, l'institution de ce rite reflèterait l'acceptation de l'existence de cas de mariage, tout en les représentant comme douloureux : le mariage distend les liens entre la femme et sa famille d'origine. Trois versions sont présentées ici, enregistrées sur trois ans. La première et la troisième comportent transcription et gloses. Le meilleur enregistrement au plan technique/acoustique est celui de la troisième version.

 

aLa naissance du lac (version 1)
Chine, province du Yunnan, Latami Dashi-Lame, 2006, Alexis Michaud

aLa naissance du lac (version 2)
Chine, province du Yunnan, Latami Dashi-Lame, 2007, Alexis Michaud

aLa naissance du lac (version 3)
Chine, province du Yunnan, Latami Dashi-Lame, 2008, Alexis Michaud

Le lac de /ɭo˧ʂv̩˩/, appelé « lac Lugu » en chinois, est généralement désigné en na comme « le Lac », /hi˩nɑ˧mi˧/. Il tient une place centrale dans la géographie du territoire na, et est l'un des principaux lieux symboliques de la culture na/mosuo. Cette légende raconte comment il serait né d'un déluge causé par l'avidité des hommes. Elle explique aussi l'origine des bateaux traditionnellement employés sur le lac. Trois versions de ce récit ont été enregistrées, en 2006, 2007 et 2008. La locutrice considère la troisième comme la plus satisfaisante ; c'est donc cette version qui a été choisie pour le travail de transcription.

 

Transcription des tons

Les tons dans la forme phonologique de surface sont indiqués dans la transcription au niveau de la phrase. Le symbole ǀ est employé pour indiquer la division en groupes tonals, à l'intérieur desquels s'appliquent les règles de « grammaire tonale ». Les tons lexicaux (sous-jacents) sont indiqués dans les gloses mot à mot. La mise en regard de ces deux niveaux permet d'étudier les nombreux processus tonals de cette langue.

La complexité du système rend nécessaire l'emploi de deux symboles non standard en plus des « lettres tonales » de l'Alphabet Phonétique International :

  • le symbol # représente la fin du mot lexical. Ainsi, #H est un ton haut qui ne peut se réaliser qu'après la dernière syllabe du mot auquel il est lexicalement attaché. Ce ton ne se manifeste donc pas lorsque le mot est dit à l'isolée; le ton est dit flottant.
  • le dollar $ est employé, dans l'expression H$, pour représenter une catégorie tonale distincte aussi bien de H# (un ton haut final) que de #H (un ton haut flottant). Le ton H$ a tendance à s'associer à la dernière syllabe du groupe phonologique. En première approximation, on pourrait dire que H$ est un ton haut qui se trouve réalisé juste avant la fin du groupe phonologique, donc sur sa dernière syllabe; mais en réalité, le comportement de ce ton est soumis à des règles morphosyntaxiques (autrement dit, pas simplement phonologiques) décrites en détail dans une monographie publiée en 2017


Le tableau suivant récapitule toutes les catégories tonales et leur transcription.

ton à l'isolée ton lorsque le mot est suivi de la copule analyse phonémique : ton sous-jacent (=ton lexical) transcription dans les textes (forme sous-jacente), avec des exemples réels le ton sous-jacent est-il différent du ton à l'isolée? o=oui
LM L+M LM bu˩˧
M M+L M lɑ˧
M L+LM L kʰv˩ o
M M+H #H ʐwæ#˥ o
MH M+H MH# hwɤ˧˥
M.M M.M+L M ɬi˧mi˧
M.M M.M+H #H ɲi˧mi#˥ o
M.MH M.M+H MH# hwɤ˧li˧˥
M.H M.M+H H$ hwɤ˧mi˥$ o
L.LM L.L+M L kʰv˩mi˩ o
M.L M.L+L L# ʁu˧dzi˩
L.MH L.M+H L+MH# ʝi˩ʈʂæ˧˥
L.M L.M+H L+#H nɑ˩hĩ˥ o
L.M L.M+L LM bu˩mi˧
L.M L.M+L LH bu˩ɬɑ˥ o
M.H M.H+L H# ʁæ˧ʈv˥


Des corrections mineures ont été apportées au système entre une première description publiée en 2008 (Michaud 2008) et le livre de 2017 :

  • pour les disyllabes, il existe une catégorie tonale LML, distincte de LM. Un exemple était rapporté dans l'article de 2008 mais il y était considéré comme une exception. D'autres exemples ont été observés depuis.
  • lorsqu'un groupe tonal ne comporte que des tons bas, un ton post-lexical est ajouté à la fin de la séquence tonale. Du fait de l'absence d'oppositions entre un schéma LM et un schéma LH dans ce contexte, il est malaisé de déterminer si le ton ajouté est un ton M(oyen) ou un ton H(aut). Ce ton post-lexical était décrit comme M dans l'article de 2008 ; depuis, un argument phonologique a été trouvé qui suggère qu'il s'agit d'un ton H, et c'est ainsi qu'il est noté dans la transcription des textes présentés ici. 
Afin d'éviter un décalage trop important entre la transcription et la prononciation réelle, la transcription adoptée ici n'est pas strictement phonémique. En particulier :
  • les voyelles transcrites comme [o] et [u] sont allophones d'un même phonème ; par souci de précision phonétique, [o] est employé après les dentales et les uvulaires, et [u] après les autres consonnes (bilabiales, alvéolo-palatales, rétroflexes, uvulaires et glottales)
  • la nasale palatale [ɲ] peut être analysée comme allophone de /ŋ/
  • les syllabes sans consonne initiale en reçoivent une au plan phonétique: /i/ est réalisé [ʝi], /u/ [wu], /ɯ/ [ɣɯ], etc. (La situation est similaire en naxi.) Ces syllabes sont transcrites ici avec leur initiale phonétique : [ʝi], [ɣɯ], etc.

En revanche, les voyelles apicales [ʅ] et [ɿ] sont notées selon l'analyse phonémique : comme /ɯ/. Au sujet de l'analyse phonémique, voir, à nouveau, l'ouvrage paru en 2017.

Les gloses grammaticales suivent pour l'essentiel l'analyse proposée par Liberty Lidz (Lidz 2010); il va de soi que le transcripteur est seul responsible des différences introduites sur certains points. Les abréviations standard sont utilisées pour les concepts qui figurent dans la liste d'abréviations des Leipzig Glossing Rules (Comrie, Haspelmath, and Bickel), tandis que le terme entier est employé pour toutes les autres gloses. Les gloses techniques sont précédées d'un symbole spécial ° qui les différencie de simples traductions.

Les conventions suivantes sont utilisées pour les passages à supprimer ou ajouter (suivant l'usage de Martine Mazaudon pour le tamang) :

[ ] les crochets carrés indiquent un ajout à faire au texte (indiqué par le locuteur lors de la transcription)
< > les chevrons indiquent un faux départ, lapsus ou emploi de termes qui paraissent inappropriés ; là aussi, il s'agit d'informations fournies par le locuteur lors du travail de transcription.

Commentaires/notes :

L'annotation comprend de nombreuses notes, ajoutées dans le document XML avec le balisage suivant :
<NOTE xml:lang="fr" message="Ceci est un commentaire."/>

Ces notes rapportent des modifications apportées à la transcription au fil des vérifications, ainsi que des commentaires au sujet de la réalisation phonétique de certains mots en contexte.


Références

Comrie, Bernard, Martin Haspelmath, & Balthasar Bickel. Leipzig Glossing Rules. http://www.eva.mpg.de/lingua/resources/glossing-rules.php.
Jacques, Guillaume, & Alexis Michaud. 2011. "Approaching the historical phonology of three highly eroded Sino-Tibetan languages: Naxi, Na and Laze." Diachronica 28 (4).
Lidz, Liberty. 2010. A descriptive grammar of Yongning Na (Mosuo). Austin: University of Texas, Department of linguistics. https://repositories.lib.utexas.edu/bitstream/handle/2152/ETD-UT-2010-12-2643/LIDZ-DISSERTATION.pdf.
Lidz, Liberty. 2016. "Yongning Na (Mosuo)". In Graham Thurgood & Randy J. LaPolla (eds.), The Sino-Tibetan languages, 840–855. 2nd edition. (Routledge Language Family Series). London: Routledge.
Michaud, Alexis. 2008. "Phonemic and tonal analysis of Yongning Na." Cahiers de linguistique - Asie Orientale 37 (2): 159-196.
Michaud, Alexis. 2017. Tone in Yongning Na: lexical tones and morphotonology. (Studies in Diversity Linguistics 13). Berlin: Language Science Press. http://langsci-press.org/catalog/book/109.
Michaud, Alexis, and Latami Dashi. 2012. A description of endangered phonemic oppositions in Mosuo (Yongning Na). In Issues of Language Endangerment, ed. by Xu Shixuan, Tjeerd de Graaf and Cecilia Brassett. Book series: 16th World Congress of IUAES. Beijing: 知识产权出版社 (Intellectual property publishing house), pp. 55-71.
  Accès à l'enregistrement
  Accès à la vidéo
  Accès au texte annoté synchronisé avec l'enregistrement audio
  Accès au texte annoté synchronisé avec la vidéo
  Accès au fichier PDF accompagné de l'enregistrement audio
  Accès au fichier EGG

8m37s
Sister: The sister's wedding (version 1)

7m20s
Sister: The sister's wedding (version 2)

11m47s
Sister: The sister's wedding (version 3)

5m12s
How the Lake was created (version 1)

6m06s
How the Lake was created (version 2)

4m37s
How the Lake was created (version 3)

11m26s
How the Lake was created (version 4)

2m40s
Numeral-plus-classifier phrases. Tone: H1. Classifier: chunks. Range: 1 to 30

6m42s
Numeral-plus-classifier phrases. Tone: H1. Classifier: chunks. Range: 1 to 100

5m01s
Numeral-plus-classifier phrases. Tone: H1. Classifier: chunks. Range: 30 to 100

2m32s
Numeral-plus-classifier phrases. Tone: H1. Classifier: handspans. Range: 1 to 100

1m46s
Numeral-plus-classifier phrases. Tone: H2. Classifier: days. Range: 1 to 30

6m46s
Numeral-plus-classifier phrases. Tone: H2. Classifier: days. Range: 1 to 100

1m54s
Numeral-plus-classifier phrases. Tone: H2. Classifier: days. Range: 30 to 100

2m10s
Numeral-plus-classifier phrases. Tone: L1. Classifier: monetary units. Range: 1 to 30

6m20s
Numeral-plus-classifier phrases. Tone: L1. Classifier: monetary units. Range: 1 to 100

2m43s
Numeral-plus-classifier phrases. Tone: L1. Classifier: monetary units. Range: 30 to 100

0m34s
Numeral-plus-classifier phrases. Tone: L1. Classifier: road sections. Range: 1 to 10

3m09s
Numeral-plus-classifier phrases. Tone: L1. Classifier: sets of two. Range: 1 to 100

7m03s
Numeral-plus-classifier phrases. Tone: L2. Classifier: armspans. Range: 1 to 100 (2nd recording)

2m34s
Numeral-plus-classifier phrases. Tone: L2. Classifier: armspans. Range: 1 to 100 (1st recording)

2m33s
Numeral-plus-classifier phrases. Tone: L2. Classifier: birds. Range: 1 to 30

2m56s
Numeral-plus-classifier phrases. Tone: L2. Classifier: birds. Range: 30 to 100

4m41s
Numeral-plus-classifier phrases. Tone: L2. Classifier: meals. Range: 1 to 100

0m17s
Numeral-plus-classifier phrases. Tone: L2. Classifier: ounces. Range: 1 to 10

1m52s
Numeral-plus-classifier phrases. Tone: L2. Classifier: ropes. Range: 1 to 30

9m01s
Numeral-plus-classifier phrases. Tone: L2. Classifier: ropes. Range: 1 to 100

2m20s
Numeral-plus-classifier phrases. Tone: L2. Classifier: ropes. Range: 30 to 100

2m49s
Numeral-plus-classifier phrases. Tone: L2. Classifier: times. Range: 1 to 100

0m27s
Numeral-plus-classifier phrases. Tone: L2. Classifier: trees. Range: 1 to 10

5m44s
Numeral-plus-classifier phrases. Tone: L3. Classifier: bundles of hay. Range: 1 to 100 (2nd recording)

1m36s
Numeral-plus-classifier phrases. Tone: L3. Classifier: bundles of hay. Range: 1 to 100 (1st recording)

2m14s
Numeral-plus-classifier phrases. Tone: M1. Classifier: handfuls. Range: 1 to 100

2m13s
Numeral-plus-classifier phrases. Tone: M1. Classifier: heaps. Range: 1 to 100

2m23s
Numeral-plus-classifier phrases. Tone: M1. Classifier: knives. Range: 1 to 30

8m52s
Numeral-plus-classifier phrases. Tone: M1. Classifier: knives. Range: 1 to 100

2m25s
Numeral-plus-classifier phrases. Tone: M1. Classifier: knives. Range: 30 to 100

2m31s
Numeral-plus-classifier phrases. Tone: M2. Classifier: months. Range: 1 to 30

3m22s
Numeral-plus-classifier phrases. Tone: M2. Classifier: pairs. Range: 1 to 100

7m16s
Numeral-plus-classifier phrases. Tone: M2. Classifier: round objects. Range: 1 to 100

2m35s
Numeral-plus-classifier phrases. Tone: MH1. Classifier: members of pairs. Range: 1 to 30

2m10s
Numeral-plus-classifier phrases. Tone: MH1. Classifier: pounds. Range: 1 to 100

1m40s
Numeral-plus-classifier phrases. Tone: MH1. Classifier: years. Range: 1 to 30

6m24s
Numeral-plus-classifier phrases. Tone: MH1. Classifier: years. Range: 1 to 100

7m29s
Numeral-plus-classifier phrases. Tone: MH1. Classifier: years. Range: 30 to 100

2m40s
Numeral-plus-classifier phrases. Tone: MH2. Classifier: people. Range: 1 to 30

4m41s
Numeral-plus-classifier phrases. Tone: MH2. Classifier: people. Range: 1 to 100

2m08s
Numeral-plus-classifier phrases. Various verifications

8m11s
Agriculture: Agricultural activities over the course of the year (version 1)

5m51s
Dog: How dog and man exchanged their lifespan

6m11s
Tiger: How the tiger attacked a woman and her daughter (version 1)

12m28s
Reward: the reward of an honest man, or: The heavens are watching

22m41s
Housebuilding: the process of building a house (version 1)

14m25s
Tone: compound nouns. Body parts of animals, 1 to 4, F4, 2006

6m6s
Tone: compound nouns. Body parts of animals 5, verifications, F4, 2008

10m48s
Tone: compound nouns. Body parts of animals 6, Verifications, F4, 2008

33m46s
Tone: compound nouns. Body parts of animals 7, Extensive Set, F4, 2008, with EGG

31m48s
Tone: compound nouns. Body parts of animals 8 to 10, Complements, F4, 2008, with EGG

2m26s
Tone: compound nouns. Body parts of animals 11, A Few Verifications, F4, 2008

20m51s
Tone: compound nouns. Body parts of animals 12, F4, 2008, with EGG

6m53s
Tone: compound nouns. Body parts of animals 13, Sheep, F4, 2009

32m58s
Tone: compound nouns. Body parts of animals 14, with particle, F4, 2006

1m38s
Tone: compound nouns. Body parts of animals 15, cat, a few tokens, F4, 2006

19m47s
F4, Palatalized Apicalized, 2012

15m39s
F4, Tone Object Verb, 2007

19m40s
F4, Tone Object Verb, 2009

17m57s
F4, Tone Subject Verb, 2012

51s
Dape

2m08s
Dog: How dog and man exchanged their lifespan (speaker M28; Labai dialect)

8m18s
Flood / Lake: How the Lake was created (speaker M28; Labai dialect)

6m48s
Sister: The sister's wedding (speaker M28; Labai dialect)

2m42s
Trickster (speaker M28; Labai dialect)

0h46m08s
Exploratory vocabulary collection session (speaker M28; Labai dialect)

29m50s
Tone: compound nouns: names of peoples+names of objects. F4, 2006

0h1m31s
Reduplicated verbs of all tone categories, preceded by an object, 2012

0h1m48s
Verbs of all tone categories, in the following frame: accomplished+verb+perfective, 2012

0h1m16s
Verbs of tone categories M, H, La and Lb, in the following frame: durative+verb+progressive, 2007

0h3m10s
Verbs of all tone categories, preceded by the prohibitive, 2007

0h0m50s
Verbs of all tone categories, preceded by the prohibitive, 2008

0h1m33s
Reduplicated verbs (tones: M, H, L and MH), preceded by an object, 2007

0h1m11s
Disyllabic nouns in carrier sentence. Speaker F4, 2007

0h25m55s
Caravans

0h6m53s
Elders: Elders and ancestors (version 3), or how the Latami family settled in the plain of Yongning

0h4m09s
Renaming: how one used to change a child's name to give it a happier start in life

0h17m58s
Buried alive (version 2)

0h17m58s
Buried alive (version 3)

0h7m48s
Healing: How diseases used to be treated through rituals

0h7m48s
Seeds: How mankind obtained seeds and learnt to grow crops (version 2)

38m00s
Agriculture: Agricultural activities over the course of the year (version 2)

12m01s
Tiger: How the tiger attacked a woman and her daughter (version 2)

06m07s
Seeds: How mankind obtained seeds and learnt to grow crops (version 1)

29m57s
Housebuilding: the process of building a house (version 2)

09m01s
Elders and ancestors (version 1)

14m16s
Elders and ancestors (version 2)

7m29s
Elders and ancestors (version 4)

7m59s
Elders and ancestors (version 5)

10m15s
Dog: How dog and man exchanged their lifespan (version 2)

15m44s
Buried alive (version 1)

0h10m07s
Food shortage: how parents set out to sell children, and then changed their mind

0h8m34s
Spatial orientation: combinations between verbs and prefixes/adverbials indicating spatial orientation. Speaker F4.

0h7m32s
Coordinative compounds. Speaker F4.

0h4m25s
Nouns followed by indications of spatial orientation: beside..., to the left of… Speaker F4.

0h1m06s
Nouns followed by 'even'. Speaker F4.

0h1m24s
Tone Object Verb 2012

0h0m41s
Tone Only And

0h22m30s
Funeral: How funeral rites used to be conducted

0h14m32s
Mountains: about the mountains around Yongning

0h01m49s
Possession - Pronouns: possessive constructions with pronouns, without an intervening particle

0h04m38s
A funeral custom

0h09m02s
Adopting pets: dogs and cats

0h04m20s
Ashes: How the ashes are collected after cremation

0h024m13s
Beggars

0h05m12s
Belief in ghosts: a conversational account of vampires, and of how the living miss their dead relatives

0h24m14s
Benevolence

0h08m06s
Boundaries: an account of boundaries within the Na geography

0h05m33s
Chicken divination: Fortune-telling by examining chicken bones

0h35m15s
Children: Customs and rites surrounding the birth of a child

0h03m59s
Choosing a Daba: on preferences in choosing a priest of the local religion to perform rituals

0h18m31s
Coming of age: the ritual performed at age 13 (version 1)

0h09m57s
Coming of age: the ritual performed at age 13 (version 2)

0h01m52s
Conversations of yore: an account of some conversations in the family

0h12m39s
Cooking

0h07m52s
Cooking habits: A humorous saying about the Na, Pumi and Han (Chinese)

0h04m20s
Daba: the priest of the local religion (version 1)

0h17m52s
Daba: the priest of the local religion (version 2)

0h02m18s
Dancing Demon

0h07m46s
Demise of preserved pig: A story of changing customs

0h04m15s
Demon: a brief presentation of beliefs concerning female demons

0h00m36s
Demon, version 2: a very short addition to the "Demon" recording, explaining that demons like sparsely populated areas

0h18m11s
Domestic animals, part 1: Horses and cows

0h20m23s
Domestic animals, part 2: Chicken and cats

0h06m42s
Domestic animals, part 3: Dogs

0h23m38s
Domestic animals, part 4: Water buffalos and other large cattle

0h08m44s
Dumb children: how people used to conduct rites for children who did not yet speak at age two

0h10m11s
Feasts

0h08m53s
Fishing

0h06m08s
Folk etymology: Yongning as 'the restful place'

0h09m29s
Founding New Home: How families handle situations where the family members are so numerous that the house cannot accommodate them all anymore

0h04m56s
Ghosts: an expanded version of the description of ghosts in the recording "Ghosts and Spirits"

0h17m11s
Ghosts and spirits: Types of ghosts and spirits in Na culture

0h07m04s
How I learnt: an account of how the narrator learnt about the Na's traditions

0h01m35s
Introduction: A message to listeners of the recordings placed online for public access

0h14m40s
Life story: the narrator's life story

0h06m53s
Lonesome elders

0h07m11s
Market

0h09m18s
Mongolian visit: the time when a team of artists from Mongolia visited the Na area

0h14m39s
Mushrooms: which ones are collected for cooking and for medicine

0h06m23s
Na society

0h03m07s
Names: how names are given to children

0h03m57s
Naxi discussions: about conversations with a Naxi friend living in Yongning, close to the narrator's home

0h04m47s
Priests

0h07m01s
Singing: a conversational account of how and when the Na used to sing

0h02m22s
Spirits: about two spirits in a sanctuary close to the Yongning monastery

0h07m36s
Streamers: a description of the Buddhist streamers hung on houses

0h05m59s
Swinging: a leisure activity of the old times

0h03m38s
Sword: the symbolic value of swords and their use to ward off evil

0h04m55s
Taboos: an account of prohibitions in daily life

0h16m10s
Taking charge of rituals: how the narrator takes charge of rituals at the request of others

0h06m43s
Terrestrial branches: properties associated with one's year of birth

0h05m46s
Tooth: how a fake relic became a real one

0h05m41s
Trader and his son: how a trader taught his son how to handle the ups and downs of commerce

0h10m01s
Trading

0h03m21s
Vampire: an expanded version of the description of vampires in the "Ghosts and Spirits" recording

0h7m46s
Food shortage: how parents set out to sell children, and then changed their mind. Version 2.

0h6m08s
Tooth: how a fake relic became a real one. Version 2.

0h3m30s
Coordinative compounds. Speaker F4. Version 2.

3m43s
Ahabala, song 1: A song in the traditional Na/Mosuo style 'Ahabala'

1m06s
Ahabala, song 2: A song in the traditional Na/Mosuo style 'Ahabala'

2m27s
Hinami: A passage sung in the traditional Na/Mosuo style 'Hinami': the style of the Lake

0m43s
A propaganda song to the glory of Chairman Mao, adapted to Tibxx. [Substitute 'et' for 'xx'] This song is sung in Chinese.

0m45s
A song in Na and Chinese

0m44s
A propaganda song to the glory of Chairman Mao, adapted and translated into Tibxxan. [Substitute 'et' for 'xx'.] This song is sung in Tibetan.

04m42s
Demonstratives and classifiers: elicited data to study tonal changes in demonstrative+classifier phrases

19m43s
Demonstratives and classifiers: elicited data to study tonal changes in demonstrative+classifier phrases (2nd part). First, various combinations are elicited and repeated. Then, in the final part of ...

09m58s
Nouns, demonstratives and classifiers: elicited data to study tonal changes in noun+demonstrative+classifier phrases (part 3)

06m33s
Chinese translation of the 'Coming of age' narrative: after recording an account of his coming-of-age ceremony, in his native language, the consultant provides a summary in Mandarin Chinese

10m42s
Coming of age: the consultant looks back on how his coming-of-age ceremony was performed

10m35s
An exploratory recording of numeral-plus-classifier phrases: 1 to 10, with 9 different classifiers. Speaker M31, year 2015

25m20s
Lataddi Narua tone: recordings of materials set out in a journal article

00h02m58s
Agent, dative, topic: nouns followed by three suffixes

00h04m37s
Appeal to the gods to settle a quarrel

00h06m02s
Beggars, version 2. This is a conversational account, with Bima Lhaco acting as respondent.

00h06m02s
Responses of Bima Lhaco (consultant F16) during F4's narrative: “Beggars, version 2”

00h07m47s
Beggars, version 3. (With special mention of Tibetan beggars.) This is a conversational account, with Bima Lhaco acting as respondent.

00h07m47s
Responses of Bima Lhaco (consultant F16) during F4's narrative: “Beggars, version 3”

00h15m31s
Birds: about birds in the old times, when there were larger areas for wildlife on the Yongning plain.

00h09m58s
Caravans (version 2)

00h06m54s
Clothes: how the Na used to make clothes in the old times, not buy them ready-to-wear as is currently the case.

00h17m22s
ComingOfAge3. This is a conversational account, with Bima Lhaco acting as respondent.

00h17m22s
Responses of Bima Lhaco (consultant F16) during F4's narrative: “ComingOfAge3”

00h00m49s
Cooking: a fragment about changes in cooking and eating habits over the years (recording was interrupted after less than 1 minute)

00h20m36s
Cooking (version 2): about changes in cooking and eating habits over the years

00h01m29s
Coordinative compounds for time expressions: one or two years/months/days, etc.

00h05m21s
Crops: which crops used to be grown in which parts of Yongning

00h06m06s
Decease: about a person's end of life, funeral, and family's mourning. The discussion hinges on a proverb about death.

00h06m52s
Demon (part 3): a presentation of some beliefs concerning female demons

00h05m20s
Dice: fortune-telling by casting dice

00h07m42s
Doctors: about the arrival of medical doctors in Yongning, gradually replacing earlier healing practices

00h13m38s
Documentaries: about the three documentary films in which the narrator participated as an actress in her youth.

00h03m21s
Dog: How dog and man exchanged their lifespan (version 3)

00h03m21s
Responses of Bima Lhaco (consultant F16) during F4's narrative: “Dog: How dog and man exchanged their lifespan (version 3)”

00h02m11s
Dog: How dog and man exchanged their lifespan (version 4)

00h02m11s
Responses of Bima Lhaco (consultant F16) during F4's narrative: “Dog: How dog and man exchanged their lifespan (version 4)”

00h05m59s
Dog: How dog and man exchanged their lifespan (version 5)

00h05m59s
Responses of Bima Lhaco (consultant F16) during F4's narrative: “Dog: How dog and man exchanged their lifespan (version 5)”

00h10m30s
Earthquake: memories and reflections brought up by the 2012 earthquake

00h19m52s
Elders: about elders and ancestors (version 6)

00h05m58s
Evening: a narrative about evening dances in the old times, and how television was introduced

00h01m48s
Family: about the history of the Latami family (recording cut short by a telephone call)

00h04m29s
Films: a narrative about the first films shown in the plain of Yongning

00h01m18s
Fine talker: about a proverb concerning fine talkers

00h08m23s
Food: a conversation with Bima Lhaco about food

00h08m23s
Responses of Bima Lhaco (consultant F16) during F4's narrative: “Food: a conversation with Bima Lhaco about food”

00h18m40s
Funeral: How funeral rites are conducted (2nd version)

00h20m51s
Funeral: How funeral rites are conducted (3rd version)

00h20m51s
Responses of Bima Lhaco (consultant F16) during F4's narrative: “Funeral: How funeral rites are conducted (3rd version)”

00h11m29s
Grandmother: the speaker tells about her family, and in particular her grandmother

00h11m29s
Responses of Bima Lhaco (consultant F16) during F4's narrative: “Grandmother”

00h08m08s
Hail and storms

00h07m32s
Headdress: about the headdress of Na women

00h04m59s
Historical situation: the narrator reflects on her situation as a consultant providing knowledge about the Na language and Na traditions.

00h02m56s
Historical situation, part 2: this is a sort of sequel to the narrative 'Historical situation'

00h05m21s
Honey: the uses of honey as a medicine and a cosmetic

00h05m02s
Hospitality: how important guests used to be, and how they were honoured

00h05m02s
Responses of Bima Lhaco (consultant F16) during F4's narrative: “Hospitality: how important guests used to be, and how they were honoured”

00h02m35s
Insects: a few words about insects in Yongning

00h10m30s
"Iron and copper: making and repairing iron tools; and working copper

00h08m59s
Jewels: about jewels in the old time.

00h02m11s
Jewels (sequel): this is a short addition to the narrative JEWELS, explaining how Buddhist statues were made, incorporating donations.

00h13m58s
Killing pigs: customs surrounding the killing of pigs

00h08m20s
Lake and Plain: how the Lake was perceived from the Plain

00h08m20s
Responses of Bima Lhaco (consultant F16) during F4's narrative: “Lake and Plain: how the Lake was perceived from the Plain”

00h11m13s
"Lake: How the Lake was created (version 5); the story is followed by a conversation about fish in the Lake

00h011m13s
Responses of Bima Lhaco (consultant F16) during F4's narrative: “Lake: How the Lake was created (version 5)”

00h02m18s
Loss of valuables: A short discussion about people destroying cultural objects during the Cultural Revolution, and people selling their family treasures in times of food shortage

00h10m54s
Marriage customs: how marriages took place in the narrator's youth

00h10m54s
Responses of Bima Lhaco (consultant F16) during F4's narrative: “Marriage customs: how marriages took place in the narrator's youth”

00h11m32s
Modernization: about the old ways and the arrival of industrial tools and techniques in Yongning: tractors, telephones, motorbikes and cars

00h14m36s
Money: how money used to be kept in times when there were no banks

00h09m02s
Mountain rites: about rites done for sacred mountains

00h08m57s
Mountains (version 2): about the mountains that surround the plain of Yongning. This narrative focuses on rites associated with mountains .

00h05m54s
Mourning: how one used to mourn the dead. This is a conversational account, with Bima Lhaco acting as respondent.

00h05m54s
Responses of Bima Lhaco (consultant F16) during F4's narrative: “Mourning: how one used to mourn the dead”

00h04m47s
Mourning, version 2: about family members' conduct after the death of a relative

00h00m51s
Nouns of the various tone categories, in object position, associated to the verb 'to see'

00h14m07s
Na society (version 2)

00h10m34s
Names: how names are given to children (version 2)

00h10m34s
Responses of Bima Lhaco (consultant F16) during F4's narrative: “Names: how names are given to children (version 2)”

00h11m44s
Photographs: some casual comments about the narrator's looks in her youth, and about photographic portraits. This follows the narrative 'Documentaries', which tells of documentary films in which she ...

00h11m03s
Poison: about Gu 蛊 witchcraft. Document 1 of 3

00h04m59s
Poison: about Gu 蛊 witchcraft. Document 2 of 3

00h02m42s
Poison: about Gu 蛊 witchcraft. Document 3 of 3

00h05m22s
Prison: how culprits used to be punished in feudal society

00h03m17s
"Proverb: explaining a proverb: ""Even if we had had a thousand harvests, it would not have lasted a hundred years!""

00h14m59s
Seeds: How mankind obtained seeds and learnt to grow crops (version 3)

00h07m37s
Shopping expeditions: in the 1970s or thereabouts, before there were shops in Yongning, Na people used to go and make purchases in Lataddi (Zuosuo), near the Lake.

00h10m24s
Shops: the gradual introduction of shops in Yongning since the 1980s

00h11m29s
Singing (version 2): a conversational account of how and when the Na used to sing, emphasizing how songs served as a means of expression

00h04m47s
Singing: this short passage was recorded immediately after Singing2

00h08m47s
Sister: The sister's wedding (version 4)

00h08m47s
Responses of Bima Lhaco (consultant F16) during F4's narrative: “Sister: The sister's wedding (version 4)”

00h07m03s
Sister: The sister's wedding (version 5)

00h07m03s
Responses of Bima Lhaco (consultant F16) during F4's narrative: “Sister: The sister's wedding (version 5)”

00h02m19s
Size: about a saying concerning people's body size.

00h05m04s
Taboos (version 2): how one used to deal with drunk people and mad people

00h06m31s
Television: about the introduction of audiovisual media in Yongning: first films, then television. This was narrated after the narrative entitled 'Documentaries'.

00h07m30s
Tone tutorial: verification of tone patterns for a monograph (later published as Michaud 2017), part 1 of 3

00h09m55s
Tone tutorial: verification of tone patterns for a monograph (later published as Michaud 2017), part 2 of 3

00h04m33s
Tone tutorial: verification of tone patterns for a monograph (later published as Michaud 2017), part 3 of 3

00h06m59s
Uncle: about the importance of the mother's brothers in Na society

00h11m30s
Washing: laundry and personal hygiene before soap, washing powder, detergents… became widely available commodities

00h07m37s
Water: How the Na used the water of the rivers in the Yongning plain

00h09m35s
Wine: practices and customs concerning wine

0h02m36s
Rice: the introduction of rice as a crop in the plain of Yongning

0h01m36s
Shoes